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Chapter 1 Early Civilizations Mesopotamia


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Title: Chapter 1 Early Civilizations Mesopotamia

Chapter 1Early CivilizationsMesopotamia The
City States of Mesopotamia
Figure 1-3 p10
III. Civilization in MesopotamiaSumerian Cities
  • Sumerian Cities
  • Surrounded by walls.
  • Mud brick structures
  • Accumulation of surplus wealth
  • Ziggurat the temple

Excavation of Warka showing the ruins of Uruk
  • King believed to be of divine origin
  • Theocracy priests and priestesses had an
    important role in governance,
  • gods ruled cities
  • actual ruling power rested with the king

Royal Standard of Ur, 2700 B.C.E.
  • Rise of surplus of wealth led to a more
    Militarized society
  • ruled by a king

  • Agriculture
  • Commerce and industry (woolen textiles, pottery,
    metal work)
  • Imported copper, tin and timber
  • Utilized the wheel that had been invented by
    nomads in 3000BCE

  • Four Tiered Hierarchy
  • Elites
  • Dependent commoners
  • elites clients who worked for the palace and
    temple estates
  • Free commoners
  • farmers 90 OF POP, merchants, scribes,
  • Slaves
  • belonged to palace officials, mostly female
    slaves to weave cloth and grind grain and to rich
    landowners who used them for agricultural and
    domestic work

Social Change with Urbanization
  • VIllage
  • Pastoral
  • Patrifocal
  • Concentration of wealth
  • Stratification of wealth
  • Sexual morality regulated
  • Paternity inheritance
  • After 3500BCE city influences
  • Increasingly organized around raiding military
  • For some women participated equally
  • Greece Persia
  • Sauromatian Saka
  • Rode, hunted, went into battle
  • Married after first kill

III. Empires in Mesopotamia
  • Sargons Empire (2340BCE 2100BCE)
  • By 2300 women sex trade
  • 2340BCE Sargon, leader of the Semitic people
  • He used former rulers as governors
  • Power was a standing army of 5,400 men
  • He expanded the empire to include all of
    Mesopotamia and lands westward to the

Women During Sargon
  • Could inherit property
  • Exercised political power
  • Sumerian Queens had seals, occupied important
    positions of influence
  • Played an important role in temple rituals
  • Enheduanna, Priestess of the Temple of Ur
    Sargons daughter
  • Emergence of Womens Work Domesticity
  • Slaves commoners produced food, textiles
  • Scribes, Bakers, Prohpehts, Temple workers

Women Religion
  • Shamans
  • Cult Leaders
  • Goddesses
  • Minoan mother goddess
  • 2800 BCE
  • Greek Island, Crete

III. Empires in Mesopotamia
  • Hammurabis Empire (1792- 1750 B.C.E.)
  • Employed an army of foot soldiers (axes, spears,
    copper or bronze daggers)
  • Divided and subdued opponents
  • Gained control of Sumer and Akkad creating a new
  • Called himself sun of Babylon, the king who has
    made the four quarters of the world subservient
  • new capital at Babylon

Social Changes
  • Institutional Patriarchy
  • Tribute Extraction
  • Social Stratification disproportionate power
  • beginning of Eurasian Slave trade
  • Society became a political institution that
    enslaved numerous members of its population to
    provide order and stability for itself
  • Law codes promoted universal standards of
  • Irrigation extensive military defense

Decline of Womens status
  • Generally
  • Devaluation of social freedoms
  • Denial of claims to the results of their labor
  • Reshaping of spiritual expression
  • Murder of a woman marked down from Capital
    offense (2000 BCE) to a fine under Hammurabi code
  • Work became gender based, women paid less if it
    was the same
  • Right to inherit ended after 2000BCE
  • Womens political religious positions of power
    and roles ended by 1000BCE

III. Empires in Mesopotamia
  • The Code of Hammurabi Society in Mesopotamia
  • What does the code reveal about culture and
  • PP 18-19 of text
  • Do the codes evidence a system of strict
    justice or represent a code that is written in
    the principle of an eye for an eye or system of
    equal punishment?
  • What type of justice system is it?

  • Stele of Hammurabi
  • Depicts Kings Divinity
  • Records the code
  • Judges encouraged men to sell women children to
    satisfy debts

Changes For women
  • Right to inherit property eroded after 2000BCE
  • By 1000 BCE political power passed to men
  • Decline of womens spiritual power
  • Myths emerged that recounted legendary battles
    between earth goddesses and sky thunder gods
  • By 1000 BCE no longer permitted to take on cultic
    roles such as priestesses

III. Culture of Mesopotamia
  • The Importance of Religion
  • Understanding of physical environment
  • Polytheistic
  • An God of Sky (Earth Goddess had originally
    been more prominent)
  • Enlil- God of wind
  • Enki God of earth, rivers, wells and canals and
    inventions of crafts
  • Ninhursaga goddess of soil, mountains,
  • Mother goddess, mother of all children
  • Gave birth to kings
  • divination

III. Writing Sciences
  • Cuneiform wedge-shaped
  • Oldest texts 3000 B.C.E.
  • Writing as a form of communication and knowledge
    transference is only 5,000 years old
  • Math, Geometry, Astronomy, 12 month Calendar

  • Developed for record keeping
  • Scribal education established to produce
    professionally trained elite scribes
  • Temples, palaces, military, government

Table 1-1 p12
Development of Cuneiform3100 700 B.C.E
The sign for star came to mean god or Sky
IV. Egyptian Civilization The Gift of the Nile
Figure 1-4 p17
IV. Egyptian Civilization The Gift of the Nile
  • A. The Impact of Geography
  • The Nile- gentle and predicable
  • Black land fertile soil
  • Red land deserts to the west and east
  • Lower Egypt delta region
  • Upper Egypt upstream and to the south
  • Protected from invasion
  • Prosperous agricultural economy
  • Development of trade

Old, Middle New Kingdoms
  • Periods of Long term stability
  • Strong Monarchical authority
  • Competent Bureaucracy
  • Freedom from invasion
  • Construction of temples and pyramids
  • Intellectual and cultural activity

Intermediate Periods
  • Period between the three Kingdoms
  • Weak political structures
  • Rivalry for leadership
  • Invasions
  • Decline in construction
  • Restructuring of society

First Dynasty of Egypt3100 BCE
  • King Menes
  • United Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Double Crown Created to represent unification
  • Began the longest civilization in history
  • Longest home rule in history
  • Most favorable for women

Old Kingdom
  • 3-6th Dynasties, 2686 2180 BCE
  • Capital at Memphis
  • Kingship the Pharaoh divine origin
  • Kings Family - administrative
  • Ruled according to principle of Maat
  • Conveyed ideas of truth and justice, right order
    and harmony

Development of 4th Dynasty
  • Bureaucracy
  • Office of Vizier Steward of the whole Land
  • Responsible to the King
  • Nomes Nomarchs
  • Egypt divided into provinces
  • 22 Upper Egypt
  • 20- - Lower Egypt
  • Nomarch or governor administrated and was
    responsible to the King and Vizier

Middle Kingdom2055 1650 BCE
  • Nomes restructured with boundaries and
    obligations to state clarified
  • Nomarchs became hereditary officeholders
  • Collected state taxes
  • Recruited labor for royal projects
  • New concern of Pharaohs for the people

  • King Menkaure Queen
  • Invasion my Hyksos of W. Asia ended the Middle
    Kingdom by 1650 BCE
  • Hyksos prevailed with horse-drawn Chariots
  • Ruled for 100 years

IV. D. Culture of Egypt
  • Four Tiered Hierarchy
  • God-King
  • Nobles Priests
  • Merchants Artisans
  • Extensive trade international travel
  • Commoners or farmers
  • Paid taxes
  • Military labor service

IV. D. Culture of Egypt
  • Polytheistic
  • Sun God Atum, Re
  • Air God Amon
  • River and land god and goddess Osiris and Isis,
    born Horus
  • Osiris symbol of resurrection and birth

Culture of Egypt - Construction
  • Complexes or cities of the dead
  • Incorporated Pyramids
  • Larger for kings burial, smaller or family
  • Mastabas
  • Rectangular structures with flat roofs, tombs for
    noble officials
  • Tombs
  • Rooms furnished and stocked so the Ka or
    spiritual body could return to a well preserved
    physical body (mummification)

Culture of Egypt Art and Writing
  • Hieroglyphics priest carvings or sacred
  • Pictographic like Cuneiform
  • Developed to record and transmit knowledge
  • Medical books, literature, record keeping
  • Children taken to educate as scribes for royalty
    and government
  • Opportunity to rise in social status

Pictographic writing of Egypt
IV. E. Egyptian Empire
  • 18th Dynasty
  • Pharoahs used new weapons to throw off Hyksos and
    reunite Egypt
  • New Kingdom 1550 1070 BCE
  • Most powerful state in the Middle East
  • Massive wealth displayed by new temples

Queen Hatshepsut 1503-1480BCE
  • First of four women to become Pharaoh
  • Built the great temple Deir el Bahri near Thebes
  • Sent out military expeditions
  • Encouraged mining
  • Fostered agriculture
  • Sponsored trade expeditions

Women In Egypt
  • Maintained economic agency
  • right to inherit property for thousands of years
  • Monogamous marriage
  • Could initiate and seek divorce
  • Women scribes, bakers, prophets, temple workers
  • Womens political agency
  • Queens
  • Priestesses- controlled territory as virtual
    rulers, collected taxes and spent resources
  • Elite Women could become gods after death,

Kingdom of Nubia
Akhenaten Religious Change
  • 18th C Amenhotep (1364-1347 BCE) introduced the
    worship of Aten, god of the sun disk
    (Monotheistic Religion)
  • Changed his name to Akhenaten Servant of Aten
  • Closed temples of other gods
  • Lessened power of Amon-Re and the priesthood at
  • Replaced the Capital of Thebes with Akhetaten
    Horizon of Aten in modern Tell el-Amarna

Decline of Egyptian Empire
  • 19th Dynasty under Ramses II (1279 1213 BCE)
    restored Egyptian power
  • Regained Canaan
  • 13th Century invasions by sea peoples drove
    borders to original frontiers
  • 20th Dynasty in 1070 for 1000 years
  • Libyans
  • Nubians/Kushites
  • Persians
  • Macedonians
  • Rome
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