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Race in Colonial Latin America

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Title: Latin American Culture & Society Author: lc Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 2/7/2005 3:44:18 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Race in Colonial Latin America


1
Race in Colonial Latin America
2
Question to Consider
  • How was race constructed during the Colonial
    period?

3
The Peopling of Latin America
  • Heterogeneous
  • Indian
  • European
  • African
  • Asian

4
Racial Mixing
  • High Degree of Racial Mixing
  • Castas
  • 25 by 18th Century
  • Blurring of Racial Groups
  • Physical Characteristics
  • One Drop Rule
  • Passing

5
Basic Castas
  • Mestizo (Indian European)
  • Mulatto (African European)
  • Zambo (Indian African)

6
Mexico in 1793
  • 8,000 Europeans
  • 700,00 Criollos
  • 6,000 Blacks
  • 360,000 Mulatos
  • 2,300,000 Indians
  • 1,000,000 Acculturated
  • 100,000 Asians

7
Restrictions
  • Not allowed to live in Indian neighborhoods
  • Denied posts
  • Sumptuary Legislation
  • (cloths jewelry)

8
Breakdown of Racial Barriers
  • Less residential segregation
  • Intermarriage
  • Occupation/Education more important than race
  • Certificate of Whiteness

9
Conclusions
  • Racial Ambiguity
  • High Degree of Mobility
  • Money Education
  • Example of rich Mestizos and Mulatos
  • Loss of Control (Spanish Authorities)

10
18th Century Casta Paintings
  • NPR Inventing Race Through Art
    http//www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?story
    Id3043790

11
Questions to Consider
  • What do the images reveal about attitudes toward
    racial mixing and the different castas?
  • How would you compare the attitudes expressed in
    the primary documents versus those depicted in
    the casta paintings?

12
Spaniard and an Indian Produces a Mestizo
13
Spaniard and a Mestizo Produces Castiza
14
Spaniard and a Castiza Produces a Spaniard
15
Mestizo and an Indian Produces a Coyote
16
An African and a Spaniard Produces a Mulatto
17
A Mulatto and a Spaniard Produces a Marisco
18
A Spaniard and a Marisca Produces a Albino
19
A Spaniard and an Albina Produces a Black-
Return-Backwards
20
A Black and an Indian Produces a Wolf
21
A Black and an Indian Produces a Zambaiga
22
A Zambaiga and an Indian Produces an Albarazado
23
An Indian and an Albaradazdo Produces a Chamizo
24
A Chamizo and an Indian Produces a Cambuja
25
An Albarrado and an Indian Produces a Cachimboreta
26
An Indian and a Cambuja Produces a
Wolf-Return-Backwards
27
A Wolf-Return-Backwards and an Indian Produces a
Hold-Yourself-in-Mid-Air
28
18th Century Casta Paintings
  • Reaffirmed the Importance of Racial Heritage
  • Subcategories of Castas
  • Details of Everyday Life
  • People at Various Social Levels
  • Material Culture

29
Conclusions
  • Spaniards preside over society
  • Spaniards possessors of culture
  • Ambiguity/Inconsistency in racial markers
  • More racial mixing, status declines
  • Spanish blood redeemable, black not
  • Underscore colonys wealth

30
Post-Independence
  • Lessening of Racial Barriers
  • Indigenous Peoples Increasingly Celebrated
  • Europeanized
  • Romanticized
  • Casta Designations Banned
  • Equality Before the Law
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