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Chapter 5: Moving Toward Revolution


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Title: Chapter 5: Moving Toward Revolution

Chapter 5 Moving Toward Revolution
Section 1 Widening Conflicts
  • Before 1690, colonists had fights and wars with
    the Indians
  • After 1690, colonists got more involved battles
    that were a result of conflicts in Europe
  • Late 1600s, France replaces Spain as the rival
    to Great Britain in world affairs
  • Fought a series of wars that lasted 75 years
  • Eventually spilled over into North America

Continue Widening Conflicts
  • French and British clashed along the western
    frontier in North America
  • By the early 1700s, France and Britain fought
    over the entire western frontier the Ohio and
    Mississippi River valleys
  • Colonies fought over the political and economic
    wealth of the colonies losing them would be

British and French Powers
  • French controlled the land in Europe, the British
    the seas but in North America is was about even
  • British advantages 1.5 million colonists versus
    75,000 French British colonist militia versus
    the French fur trading companies British were
    self-supporting where the French had to rely on
    imports (food and goods)

Continue British and French Powers
  • French advantages had one colonial government
    not 13 separate assemblies French colonies were
    clustered together rather than being spread out
    (lead to rapid defense of settlements) largest
    settlements were well fortified

Indian Involvement
  • Each group tried to get Indians to fight for
    their side
  • French allied with the Algonquins and Hurons
  • British allied with Iroquois (from time to time
    due to the hatred of the Algonquin) and the

Clashes in the Ohio Valley
  • See map on page 135
  • British claims from the eastern coast, the
    Hudson Bay area to the Appalachian Mountains
  • French claims west of British claims to west of
    the Mississippi River
  • Both claimed the Ohio River valley
  • French were protective of the lands west of the
    Appalachian Mountains

Continue Clashes in the Ohio Valley
  • 1750s, the French send troops from Canada to
    occupy the Ohio Valley
  • Put up signs along the river telling travelers to
    stay out
  • Built forts along the Appalachian Mountains
  • (Both forget they were fighting over Native
    American lands, not their own!)
  • 1754, Colonel George Washington leads the
    Virginia militia to drive the French out of the
    Ohio Valley

Continue Clashes in the Ohio Valley
  • With 150 men, Washington approach Fort Duquesne
    (outside what is now Pittsburgh)
  • Realizes he cant win a fight with his small
    group, he waits until the French venture outside
    the walls
  • He attacks a French scouting party killing 12 and
    capturing 20 he then retreats to Fort Necessity
    (an outpost)

Continue Clashes in the Ohio Valley
  • French find out about the attack and surround
    Fort Necessity forcing Washington to surrender
  • Sends him back to Virginia with a message that
    the French intend to control the land west of the
    Appalachian Mountains
  • Set up clash of the French and British in North

The Albany Plan
  • After the defeat, 11 colonial delegates met in
    Albany, NY (NJ and VA dont send delegates) to
    ask the Iroquois to be allies and its where Ben
    Franklin came up with the Albany Plan a loose
    confederation of the 13 British colonies to
    cooperate in the fight against France
  • All colonial assemblies had to approve, as well
    as the British Parliament
  • Both ultimately rejected the plan

Continue The Albany Plan
  • Without the Albany Plan, the colonists lack unity
  • The were destroyed because of this in the first
    few battles
  • By 1754, the British and French became engaged in
    what is know as the French and Indian War
    (America) or the Seven Years War (Europe)
  • The War That Made America PBS
  • http//

Section 2 The French and Indian War
  • Both the British and the French wanted to keep
    the Ohio Valley
  • British sent General Edward Braddock to the
    colonies with 1400 troops and expected another
    1000 colonial militia to join him

Early British Defeats
  • General Braddock and his men were ambushed by the
    French and Indians as they crossed the Monogahela
  • Partly because of the tight formation of the
    European style of fighting and the guerilla
    tactics of the French and Indians, after a 3 hour
    battle, 70 of his troops were dead or wounded
    and General Braddock himself was dead

Continue Early British Defeats
  • George Washington survived even though 2 horses
    he was riding were shot out from under him and he
    had bullet holes in his uniform
  • He led some survivors back to Virginia
  • No one had a strategy (in Britain or the
    colonies) to defeat the French
  • In 1756, the British finally declared war on the

Britain Builds an Empire
  • In late 1756, William Pitt becomes Britains
    Secretary of State (used his position and genius
    to turn the war around)
  • Believed that North America is where the British
    could defeat the French
  • Shifted war efforts there and became determined
    to expel the French no matter the cost

Continue British Builds an Empire
  • Pitt took a personal interest in the army and
  • He mapped war strategies and promoted promising,
    young officers over the old guard
  • Increased military expenditures (money spent)
    which created a huge national debt
  • Pitt knew that to win in North America, they
    needed to conquer Canada

Continue British Builds an Empire
  • Pitt chooses Lord Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe
    to lead the campaign
  • Started by attacking Louisbourg, a French
    fortress, on Cape Breton Island
  • Although overpowered by the 400 French cannons
    and thick granite walls, they prevailed and
    Louisbourg was taken
  • The British then captured Forts Ticonderoga,
    Crown Point, Niagara and Fort Duquesne (which
    they renamed Fort Pitt)

Continue British Builds an Empire
  • In 1759, Major General James Wolfe led 250
    British ships that carried 8000 troops to try to
    force the surrender of the fort at Quebec
  • Quebec was the best defended of the French forts
    and was defended by the Marquis de Montcalm
  • The fort sat on a 300 foot cliff above the river
    and offered great protections

Continue British Builds an Empire
  • Wolfe found out about a small path that led to a
    field called the Plains of Abraham at the top of
    the cliff that the French didnt notice
  • On Sept. 12, 1759, Wolfe and his troops snuck up
    the path on the 13th, Montcalm woke up and
    looked out to see the British infantry lined up
    in battle formation to fight
  • Montcalm assembled his troops and sent them out
    to fight
  • While the British would win the battle, both
    Wolfe and Montcalm would die from their battle

Continue British Builds an Empire
  • On Sept 8, 1760, Jeffery Amherst would accept the
    Frenchs surrender at Montreal

The Treaty of Paris
  • Though the French surrendered in 1760, there was
    scattered fighting until 1763
  • The Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10,
  • France had to give up a lot of land
  • See the maps on page 140
  • The French and Indian War made the colonists
    really work together for the first time

Continue Treaty of Paris
  • Many colonists saw the western frontier for the
    first time
  • Because of the colonists/militia serving with the
    best trained soldiers, they gained great
  • People like George Washington emerged as a
    colonial leader

Section 3 The Burdens of Empire
  • After the war, Britain took more control over its
  • Closed the frontier to explorers this kept the
    colonists along the Atlantic coast and was a way
    to protect Indians from losing land (and
    colonists from dying and fighting battles with
  • Then, the British started to impose new taxes,
    pass new laws and institute new policies

Continue The Burdens of Empire
  • All of these caused problems with the colonists

Governing an Empire
  • Britain had to pay huge war debts
  • They also had to protect the new lands
  • Britain had to develop a new system of rules that
    benefitted both the empire and Great Britain
  • The new King, George, became king in 1760 at 22
    and had neither a good education or political

Continue Governing an Empire
  • King George didnt listen to his advisors, nor
    did the Parliament understand colonial issues and

Frontier Unrest and Money Quarrels
  • Many colonists were eager to travel over the
    Appalachian Mountains
  • This angered the natives and they fought back
  • To stop the fighting, King George issued the
    Proclamation to close the Western frontier to the
  • Colonists still traveled and tried to settle out

Continue Frontier Unrest and Money Quarrels
  • The Revenue Act, aka the Sugar Act, meant to
    raise money by taxing, or putting a duty on,
  • Also taxed silks from China, wine from Europe and
    certain colonial products like whale fins
  • Parliament lowered the tax by half to make the
    colonists more open to paying the tax

Continue Frontier Unrest and Money Quarrels
  • To help British officials help find lawbreakers,
    they were given writs of assistance or search
    warrants to help find them
  • The could board ships, warehouses and even
    private homes
  • Colonial merchants lost money because of the tax
    and enforcement of the Act
  • This was the first cry of no taxation without

Colonists Share the Cost
  • Parliament also passed the two following taxes
  • The Stamp Act required stamps to be placed on
    all documents marriage licenses, wills, decks of
    cards, newspapers, calendars, dice and other
  • Quartering Act ordered colonies to provide
    British troops with food and places to live

Furor over the Stamp Act
  • Colonists were stunned by the Acts and taxes
  • Started to speak of the British tyranny or unjust
    use of power
  • Met as a Congress to write letters to King George
    and Parliament vowing loyalty to Britain but that
    only the colonists had the right to tax colonists

Continue Furor over the Stamp Act
  • People started to protest for Parliament to
    repeal or do away with the Stamp Act
  • Merchants refused to import British goods with
    nonimportation agreements
  • Got people to boycott (refuse to buy) British
    goods under the threat of being tarred and
  • Started making goods here in the colonies instead

Continue Furor over the Stamp Act
  • Started threatening stamp distributors with
    burning figures of them and tearing down their

Parliament Yields to Pressure
  • Some in Parliament defended the colonists while
    others wanted to punish them
  • They were worried about losing business from the
  • They repealed the Stamp Act but passed the
    Declaratory Act, giving Parliament control over
    laws that control the colonists in all cases

Section 4 The Conflict Deepens
  • William Pitt becomes an influential leader again
    and sympathized with the colonists complaints
  • Hoped to forge a compromise
  • Fell ill before he could do anything and left
  • Charles Townshend takes over leadership, head of
    the British treasury

Britain Increases Control
  • Townshend isnt like Pitt
  • He jokes about the colonists complaints
  • Since the colonists didnt like internal taxes,
    hed give them external taxes those put on
  • Townshend Acts
  • Set a duty on paper, lead, glass, paint and tea
  • Quartered troops in New York
  • Challenged the right to colonial self-government

Continue Britain Increases Control
  • Colonist fought with no taxation without
  • Colonies agreed not to import goods, but made
    their own
  • Samual Adams sent around a circular letter to
    other assemblies to ask how to oppose the
    Townshend Acts
  • Townshend died but his successor Lord
    Hillsborough told the Mass. Assembly to withdraw
    the letter they refused

Continue Britain Increases Control
  • Colonists were convinced they were being wronged
    by an unjust government
  • They began to communicate more

Tensions Mount
  • Britain moved 4,000 troops from Nova Scotia and
    Ireland to Boston this angered the colonists
  • March 5, 1770 men and boys threw snowballs and
    ice at the troops and in return they fired
  • 5 colonists died this became known as the Boston
  • Soldiers were put on trial but were defended by
    John Adams who believed in the right to a fair
  • All were freed but 2 who got a small sentence

Continue Tensions Mount
  • Colonial boycott of British goods caused British
    trade to drop by 1/3 (and caused the growth of
    some colonial industry)
  • The Townshend Acts are repealed except on tea (to
    remind the colonists who was boss)

The Colonies Begin to Unite
  • British tax collectors are still a minor nuisance
  • Sam Adams reminds people of the repeal of the
    Stamp Act and the Boston Massacre
  • Gets committees of correspondence up and running
    throughout Massachusetts a network of

The Tea Act
  • May 1773, Parliament passes the Tea Act allowing
    the East India Tea Company to see tea directly to
    the people rather than merchants
  • Still seen as taxation without representation
    even with the lower costs seen as driving out
    colonial merchants
  • When loads of tea came to Boston, the governor
    refused to send it back
  • When he refused, colonists dressed as Indians and
    threw the tea into the Harbor the Boston Tea

Section 5 Challenge and Resistance
  • The King and Parliament were very upset over the
    colonists destruction of private property
  • William Pitt came out of retirement to speak on
    behalf of the colonists but the King and
    Parliament didnt want to hear it

The Coercive Acts
  • March 1774, Parliament passes 4 new laws to
    control the colonies
  • Called the Coercive Acts in Britain but the
    Intolerable Acts in the colonies
  • First, closed the Boston port until the tea was
    paid for
  • Second, limited town meetings to once per year
    (also changed the Mass. Government from elected
    to appointed)
  • Third, those soldiers arrest for the Boston
    Massacre could have their trials moved to Britain
  • Fourth, a new quartering act covering private

Continue The Coercive Acts
  • To get around the Boston harbor closing, the
    other colonies sent supplies and money by wagon
    to survive the absent supply ships

The First Continental Congress
  • The committees of correspondence called for a
    Continental Congress
  • 56 delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia
    on September 5, 1774
  • Georgia sent no one but agreed to support the
  • Attendees
  • Sam and John Adams
  • John Jay
  • Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry and George
  • Most were lawyers or owned huge estates and
    attended college
  • No blacks, Indians or women

Continue The First Continental Congress
  • Sam Adams led the Congress to urge people to arm
    themselves and ready their militia
  • Sent a letter to King George asking for the
    punishment of Boston to stop and restore peace
    between colonies and Britain
  • Colonies agreed to end trade with Britain until
    the Coercive/Intolerable Acts were repealed
  • Promised to meet again on May 10, 1775
  • The King blew off the letter and sent more troops
    to the colonies

Lexington and Concord
  • Tensions mount in the winter to spring of 1774 to
  • Parliament refused to repeal the
    Coercive/Intolerable Acts
  • Patrick Henry declares but as for me give me
    liberty or give me death
  • Militia groups begin training for conflict
  • Minutemen citizen soldiers read to fight at a
    moments notice are organized in many towns and
  • Walk up and down the street in Boston

Continue Lexington and Concord
  • General Thomas Gage (British commander in Boston)
    hears the reports of colonial arming themselves
    and stockpiling military supplies in Concord
  • Has orders to seize the supplies and arrest Sam
    Adams and John Hancock
  • Both are charged with treason, or betrayal of
    ones country
  • Both flee and hide in Lexington

Continue Lexington and Concord
  • 700 British troops try to leave Boston under
    darkness but are spotted by Dr. Joseph Warren who
    runs to a bell tower to signal Paul Revere and
    William Dawes by lantern twice
  • Both mount horses and head to Lexington to alert
    the minutemen
  • Met up with by Dr. Samuel Prescott in Lexington
    who rides with them to alert minutemen in Concord
  • Revere is arrested but Dawes escapes on foot and
    Prescott rides to Concord alone

Continue Lexington and Concord
  • British lose the element of surprise
  • Lamplights in windows and William Diamonds
    drumming call the minutemen to Lexingtons
    village green
  • 70 colonial farmers wait to confront the British
  • As the British show up on the morning of April
    19th, no one plans to fight, given the order to
    fall back by minuteman commander John Parker
  • A shot is fired (probably by a minuteman) and
    then the British open fire killing 8 and wounding

Continue Lexington and Concord
  • By the time the British got to Concord, the
    colonists were ready
  • The colonists met the British on the North Bridge
    and fired the shot heard round the world
  • Used guerilla tactics like hiding behind walls
    and shooting from windows
  • By the time the British were on their way to
    Boston, 247 redcoats and 93 colonists were dead
  • Colonial delegates headed back to Philadelphia
    for the Second Continental Congress
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