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Psychology Chapter 7: Altered states of consciousness


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Title: Psychology Chapter 7: Altered states of consciousness

Psychology Chapter 7Altered states of
Sleep and Dreams
Sleep is vital to mental health
1. If a person is deprived of sleep, they will
develop psychological (and physical) symptoms
2. Sleep is a state of altered consciousness,
characterized by certain patterns of brain
activity and inactivity (genetics research)
  • 3. Consciousness is a state of awareness.
  • Can range from alertness to non-alertness
  • The study of sleep has been aided by the
    development of the electroencephalograph (EEG)
  • 4. Why do we sleep?
  • No one knows, possible reasons
  • Characterized by unresponsiveness to the
    environment and limited physical mobility
  • Maybe to restore our batteries
  • Brain is recovering from exhaustion and stress
  • Primitive hibernation
  • We sleep to conserve energy
  • An adaptive practice
  • Kept humans out of harms way at night when we
    would have been most vulnerable
  • To clear out minds
  • Gets rid of useless information
  • We sleep to dream

Sleep and Dreams cont.
5. Stages of Sleep
Stage Bodily Activity  Depth Of Sleep Thought Process Miscellaneous
0    Awake Slows down, decreased muscle tension Borderline wakefulness  Relaxation, mind wanders, awareness dulls Heart rate, pulse, temperature and blood pressure slightly diminished.
1 Eyes roll slowly on falling asleep, eyes quiescent in later stage 1 periods. Body movements slowed.  Light sleep, easily awakened, might deny being asleep if awakened. Drifting thoughts and floating sensation. Temperature, heart rate, pulse decline further. Regular breathing. May have hypnogogic hallucinations on falling asleep.
2 Eyes quiet. Few body movements.           Snoring is common.  Light to moderate sleep. Relatively easy to awaken. Eyes will not see if open. Some thought fragments, memory processes diminished, may  describe vague dream if awakened Decreased heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, temperature and metabolic rate, regular breathing with increased airway resistance.
3 Occasional movement, eyes quiescent. Deep Sleep, takes louder sounds to be awakened. Rarely able to remember thoughts. A few vaguely formed dreams.  Possible memory consolidation.  Metabolic rate, pulse, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature decrease further. Increased secretion of growth hormones. 
4 Occasional movement, eyes quiet. Deepest sleep, very difficult to awaken. Virtually oblivious, very poor recall of thoughts if awoken possibly involved in memory consolidation.  Continued decline in heart rate, temperature and metabolic rates. Increased secretion of growth hormone. (possibly to restore bodily tissues)
REM Large muscles paralyzed. Fingers toes and facial muscles twitch. Erections, snoring uncommon. Variable. If sound is incorporated into dream, then harder to awake. 80 percent dreaming, good vivid dream recall, especially later in the evening.  Possibly involved in unconscious conflict resolution. Heart rate 5 percent greater than above stages. Pulse, temperature and metabolic rates increase.  Irregular breathing one-half extra breath per minute. 
Sleep and Dreams cont.
Stages of Sleep Chart Visual
Sleep and Dreams cont.
  • a. Stage 1
  • Pulse slows and muscles relax
  • Breathing becomes uneven and brain waves grow
  • Just drifting time
  • Lasts 10 minutes or so
  • b. Stage 2
  • Eyes roll from side to side
  • Lasts 30 minutes
  • c. Stage 3
  • Short periods of large delta waves

Sleep and Dreams cont.
  • d. Stage 4
  • Deepest sleep of all
  • Difficult of wake during this stage
  • Disoriented if woken up
  • Talking out loud, sleep walking and bet wetting
    can occur here, leaving no memory
  • Important to physical and psychological well-being
  • vi. While muscles are more relaxed than before,
    eye begin to move rapidly REM sleep
  • REM sleep time during which pulse and breathing
    become irregular, adrenal and sexual hormone
    levels rise, face and fingers twitch, large
    muscles in legs and arms are paralyzed
  • Brain waves resemble those of someone who is
    fully awake
  • Active Sleep
  • Dreaming takes place
  • Falling out of bed, hitting the ground, alarm
    clock inclusion examples

e. People spend 75 of their sleep
in stages 1 through 4
Sleep and Dreams cont.
  • f. How much sleep do we need?
  • Humans spend 1/3 of their life sleeping
  • Newborns 16 hours, half in REM
  • 16 year olds 10 to 11 hours
  • College 8 hours
  • 70 or older 5 hours
  • Adults 25 in REM

Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Insomnia is a prolonged and usually abnormal
    inability to obtain adequate sleep
  • Causes anxiety, depression, alcohol and drug
  • 2. Sleep Apnea
  • Sleep apnea causes frequent interruptions of
    breathing during sleep
  • Snoring that leads to a stop of breathing, leads
    to a complete blockage of the breathing passage,
    choking the person. Ends when low levels of
    oxygen or high levels of carbon dioxide trigger
    the breathing reflex to start again
  • Occurs in 1 in 100 people, usually older

Sleep and Dreams Cont.
  • 3. Narcolepsy
  • Narcolepsy is characterized by a permanent and
    overwhelming feeling of sleepiness and fatigue
  • Unusual sleep and dream patterns
  • Hallucinations
  • Feeling temporarily paralyzed
  • Sleep attacks, falling to sleep anywhere, at any
  • 4. Nightmares and Night Terrors
  • Nightmares frightening dreams, during the dream
    phase of REM sleep
  • May frighten the sleeper, waking up with a vivid
    memory of a movielike dream
  • Night Terrors occur during Stage IV sleep
    (within an hour of sleep)
  • Can last 5 to 20 minutes, involving screaming,
    sweating, confusion and rapid heart rate
  • Sudden awakening or a persistent fear at night
  • If woken up by the terror, the subject will not
    be awake and could continue with the terror
  • Most will not remember the night terror at all

Sleep and Dreams cont.
  • 5. Sleepwalking and Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)
  • A disorder in which a person is partly, but not
    completely, awake during the night
  • People may walk or perform other tasks and have
    no memory of it
  • Sleepwalking mostly associated with children
  • It is NOT dangerous to wake sleepwalkers
  • Sleep talking can occur in REM or non-REM sleep
  • Long sentences or just a couple of words
  • You can engage a sleep talker in conversations
  • 6. Sleep Motor Starts
  • A sudden, often violent, jerk of the entire body
    that occurs upon falling asleep
  • 7. Teeth Grinding (Bruxism)
  • Grinding teeth during sleep is a very common
    occurrence and little evidence suggests that
    teeth grinding is associated with any significant
    medical or psychological problems.

Sleep and Dreams cont.
  • 1. Any mental activity that takes place during
    sleep is dreaming
  • Everyone dreams
  • First dreams are usually vague thoughts left over
    from the days activities
  • As night goes on, dreams become longer, more
    vivid and dramatic
  • Especially dreams taking place in REM sleep
  • Last dream is usually the longest and the one
    people remember
  • If you miss REM sleep, subsequent sleep will
    contain increased REM sleep
  • Suggests that REM sleep is necessary
  • 2. Content of Dreams
  • We often incorporate our everyday activities into
    our dreams
  • Most occur in commonplace settings home, car,
  • Most involve either strenuous activities or
    passive events
  • Most involve unpleasant emotions
  • Dreams are in real time, not in a split second

Sleep and Dreams cont.
  • 3. Dream Interpretation
  • Freud believed that no matter how simple or
    mundane a dream, they contain clues to thoughts
    the dreamer is afraid to acknowledge in their
    waking hours
  • b) Some say that dreams serve no function
  • That its a by-product of stimulating brain cells
    during sleep
  • Another says that dreaming allows people the
    chance to review and address some of the problems
    they faced during the day
  • Another says dreams are the brains way of
    removing certain unneeded memories
  • c) Daydreams
  • Requires a low level of awareness and involves
    fantasizing but directed thinking while we are
  • Serves purposes such as reminding us of or
    preparing us for events in our future
  • May improve our creativity by generating thought
  • Or to help us control our emotions

Section 1 Review
Hypnosis, Biofeedback and Meditation
  • 1. Hypnosis is a form of altered consciousness in
    which people become highly suggestible to changes
    in behavior and thought
  • People can be made conscious of things that they
    are normally unaware of and unaware of things
    they normally notice
  • May recall forgotten memories in detail
  • Feel no pain from a pin prick
  • 2. Does not put people to sleep
  • The trance makes people more receptive and
    responsive to internal and external stimuli
  • Able to focus attention on minute details and
    ignore all other inputs
  • They are conscious and aware
  • Can be convinced to do things that they normally
    wouldnt do (Note your books text here!!)
  • BUT the hypnotist cannot make you do or say
    something that you normally wouldnt do or say
    unless you want to
  • The mind rejects undesired suggestions
  • Your will, morality and ethics will not allow it
    to happen
  • e) Anyone can resist hypnosis by refusing to
    open their minds, you must be willing to be

Hypnosis, Biofeedback and Meditation cont.
  • 3. Theories of Hypnosis
  • A simple result of suggestibility
  • Reveals that people have potential abilities that
    they do not use
  • 4. Uses of Hypnosis
  • Posthypnotic suggestion when a hypnotist
    suggests things for their participants to
    remember or forget when the trance is over
  • Memory can be aided or enhanced through this type
    to hypnosis
  • Helping people change unwanted behavior such as
    overeating and smoking
  • To reduce pain
  • Reduces the patients anxiety and encourages
  • Combination of hypnosis and therapy can help
    people work through their problems

Hypnosis, Biofeedback and Meditation cont.
  • 1. Biofeedback technique in which one learns
    to control their internal physiological
    processes with the help of feedback
  • A light goes off when your heart rate goes above
    80, you learn to keep your heart rate below 80 to
    keep the light off
  • Can be used to teach people to control a variety
    of physiological responses such as
  • Brain waves
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Skin temperature
  • Sweat gland activity
  • Uses machines to give feedback on subtle, moment
    to moment changes in the body

Hypnosis, Biofeedback and Meditation cont.
  • 1. Meditation focusing ones attention on an
    image or thought with the goal of clearing the
    mind and producing relaxation, or inner peace
  • Transcendental meditation mental repetition of
    a mantra or phrase
  • Sitting with eyes closed and meditating for 15 to
    20 minutes twice a day
  • Mindfulness meditation from the Buddhist
    tradition, focusing on the present moment
  • Moving ones focus throughout the body while
    paying attention to areas that cause pain
  • Breath meditation concentrating on ones
    respiration, inhaling and exhaling
  • 2. Most people would benefit from this type of
  • Lowers blood pressure, heart rate, and
    respiration rate

Section 2 Review
Drugs and Consciousness
  • Psychoactive drugs drugs that interact with the
    central nervous system to alter a persons mood,
    perception and behavior
  • Examples caffeine, depressants (alcohol),
    marijuana and LSD

How drugs work
  • Carried by the blood and taken to tissues
    throughout the body
  • Taken into the body from the outside
  • Attach themselves to the ends of nerve cells
    (neurons) and send out their own chemical message
  • Alcohol molecules tell nerve cells not to fire
  • More and more cause a person to become slower and
    leads to unconsciousness
  • LSD causes circuits in the brain to start firing
    together instead of separately causes

Drugs and Consciousness cont.
  • Marijuana
  • In some cultures, is legally and morally more
    acceptable than alcohol
  • Illegal for sale, possession and use is illegal
    in most states, but not legal by national law
    (becomes a constitutional issue over state vs.
    federal law)
  • A subculture drug before late 1970s and 80s
  • Active ingredient is THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)
  • Made by drying the plant
  • Hashish is the gummy powder made from the resin
    from the top of the female plant
  • Usually smoked, but can be cooked with food and
  • Effects vary from person to person
  • Depend on the setting its taken in, the mood the
    person is in and the users past experience
  • Psychological Pleasant and Unpleasant Effects
  • Sensory experiences are greatly augmented
  • Music sounds fuller
  • Colors look brighter
  • Smells are stronger
  • Food is more intense in flavor
  • Users feel elated
  • Ordinary events take on extraordinary

Drugs and Consciousness cont.
  • vi. Physical Effects
  • Can cause lung disorders
  • More damaging than cigarette use
  • Holding in the smoke can hinder lung function
  • Disrupts memory formation, making it difficult to
    carry out mental and physical tasks
  • Can lead to long term dependence
  • Lower IQ scores

Drugs and Consciousness cont.
  1. Hallucinations perceptions that have no direct
    external cause (hearing, seeing, smelling,
    tasting, or feeling things that dont exist)
  1. Caused by hypnosis, meditation, certain drugs,
    drug withdraw, psychological breakdown and
    sensory deprivation
  • b) Can occur under normal conditions
  • During dreaming
  • When deprived of sleep
  • High emotions
  • Concentration
  • Fatigue
  • Daydreams
  • c) Very much alike from one person to the next
  • May be due to the way the drug affects the brain
  • The part that responds to incoming stimuli is
    disorganized and the central nervous system is

d) More likely to involve color
Drugs and Consciousness cont.
1. Hallucinogens drugs whose main effect is to
produce hallucinations
  • Found in plants grown throughout the world
  • Used since the earliest recorded human history
  • Create lost of contact with reality
  • Create a false body image, loss of self, create
    dreamlike fantasies and hallucinations

d) Example LSD
  • Most studied and most potent (LSD-25)
  • One of the most powerful drugs known to man
  • Synthetic
  • Synthesized by Dr. Albert Hofmann in Switzerland
    in 1938
  • Searching for medicinal properties of a fungus,
    contained lysergic acid
  • Synthesized 24 prior lysergic acids before hand
  • Noticed the hallucinogenic properties 5 years
    later while studying it
  • Made himself a guinea pig

Drugs and Consciousness cont.
  • v. A dose of a few millionths (thats .000001)
    of a gram produces a noticeable effect
  • 100 to 300 micrograms produces a trip
  • Lasts 6 to 14 hours
  • Distributed on strips of paper (tabs, blotters)
    or on sugar cubes
  • vi. Experiences
  • Intense and rapidly changing perceptions
  • The expectations, mood, beliefs and circumstances
    under which they take acid affect the
  • Can be terrifying
  • Perceptual hallucinations
  • Progressive hallucination that evolve over time
  • Senses intermingle hearing visual stimuli and
    seeing sounds
  • Dissociation with ones self
  • Distortions of time
  • Single stimuli can become the focus for hours
  • Impairs thinking
  • Panic reactions abound
  • Flashbacks
  • Remembering the trip without the overt presence
    of the drug, stimuli from the senses present
    without physical stimuli
  • Possible chromosome damage

Drugs and Consciousness cont.
2. Counter-Culture of the 1960s.
  1. Why were hallucinogens the drug of choice for the

b) Government experimentation and use (MK-Ultra
c) Dr. Timothy Leary
  1. For spiritual growth
  2. Turn on, tune in, drop out
  3. Professor at UC Berkley and Harvard

  • Also known as narcotics
  • Include opium, morphine and heroin
  • Produce analgesia pain reduction, euphoria
    pleasurable state somewhere between wake and
    sleep, and constipation
  • Leads to physical addiction
  • Can lead to death from respiratory failure

e) Harvesting/cultivating opium and coca
Drugs and Consciousness cont.
  • Most widely used and abused mind-altering
  • A disease or an addiction
  • b) Encouraged /tolerated throughout our society
    and traditions
  • Up to debate

c) Effects
  • i. Immediate loosening of inhibition
  • More likely to engage in behaviors and actions
    one normally wouldnt take part in (sexual, other

ii. A depressant that inhibits brain functioning
iii. Acting without social restraint or
  • iv. Depends on the amount drank, frequency of
    drinking and body weight
  • The more consumed in a quicker time period, the
    less function a person has increases
  • Slurred speech
  • Blurred vision
  • Impaired judgment and memory
  • Blackouts

Drugs and Consciousness cont.
  • v. Long Term Effects
  • Permanent brain damage
  • Liver damage
  • Change in personality

Blood AlcoholConcentration Changes in Feelingsand Personality Physical and MentalImpairments
0.01 0.06 RelaxationSense of Well-beingLoss of InhibitionLowered AlertnessJoyous ThoughtJudgmentCoordinationConcentration
0.06 0.10 Blunted FeelingsDisinhibitionExtroversionImpaired Sexual Pleasure Reflexes ImpairedReasoningDepth PerceptionDistance AcuityPeripheral VisionGlare Recovery
0.11 0.20 Over-ExpressionEmotional SwingsAngry or SadBoisterous Reaction TimeGross Motor ControlStaggeringSlurred Speech
0.21 0.29 StuporLose UnderstandingImpaired Sensations Severe Motor ImpairmentLoss of ConsciousnessMemory Blackout
0.30 0.39 Severe DepressionUnconsciousnessDeath Possible Bladder FunctionBreathingHeart Rate
gt 0.40 UnconsciousnessDeath BreathingHeart Rate
Drugs and Consciousness cont.
Drug Abuse and Treatment
  1. Drug abusers are those who regularly use illegal
    drugs or excessively use legal drugs
  • 2. Reasons for drug abuse
  • Avoid boredom
  • To fit in socially
  • To gain self-confidence
  • To forget about problems or cope with pain
  • To relax or feel good
  • 3. Risks
  • Death or injury due to overdose or accident
  • Health damage
  • Legal consequences
  • Destructive behavior
  • Loss of control
  • Addiction

Drugs and Consciousness cont.
Section 3 Review
Chapter 7 Study Guide
Chapter 7 Test
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