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Unit III Understanding Science


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Title: Unit III Understanding Science

Unit III Understanding Science
Teaching Objectives
Teaching Objectives
  • Students will be able to
  • Understand the main idea and structure of the
  • Appreciate the differences between narrative
    writing and expository writing
  • Master the key language points and grammatical
    structures in the text
  • Conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking
    and writing activities related.

Teaching Set-up
  • Text A
  • Pre-reading
  • Warm-up activities
  • Background information
  • Text prediction
  • While-reading
  • Text organization
  • Writing strategies
  • Language points
  • Related exercises

  • Post reading
  • Useful expressions
  • Questions for discussion
  • Text B
  • Background information
  • Language points
  • Assignments

Warm-up activities
  • Brainstorming
  • Clone

Brainstorm some of the scientific and
technological inventions.

Computer Laptop
Scientific and technological inventions
Genetic engineering
Mobile phone
Nuclear power
In what way have science and technology changed
the world we live in?
  • ?

Do all these inventions always change our life
for the better? Give examples to explain your
How do you keep informed of the changes in
science and technology? What else can be done to
educate the public about science?
In what way does science change our life for the
changes for the worse?
changes for the better?
Expose children to violence
Quick and easy access to information, education,
entertainment, etc.
Deprive families of quality time
Deprive people of the will to communicate with
each other
changes for the worse?
changes for the better?
Endangered animals
Clone human beings ?
Produce stronger ones
Clone their cows and sheep who can produce more
Hitler or other war criminals or evil people?
Clone replacement organs for transplant patients
  • In February 1997 a group of geneticists(????) led
    by Ian Wilmut at the Roslin Institute in
    Edinburgh, Scotland, announced that they had
    cloned a sheep from the mammary gland
    tissue(????) of a six-year-old ewe(??), the first
    time scientists have been able to clone an adult

  • Dolly, the first-ever mammal to be successfully
    cloned from an adult cell, with her first lamb,
    named Bonnie, is seen at the Roslin Institute in
    Edinburgh, Scotland in this image on April 23,
    1998. Dolly, who was naturally mated at the end
    of last year with a Welsh Mountain ram(??), gave
    birth to Bonnie on April 13, proving that despite
    her unusual origins, she is able to breed
    normally and produce healthy offspring.

People must understand that science is inherently
neither a potential for good nor for evil. It is
a potential to be harnessed by man to do his
------- Glenn T. Seaborq
What role should scientists play in science and
technology development?
Background information
  • ?Stephen Hawking
  • ?Albert Einstein
  • ?Frankenstein

?Stephen Hawking
  • ?1. Brief Introduction to Stephen Hawking
  • ?2. Chronology of Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking
?1. Brief Introduction to Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking (1942 ) British theoretical
physicist and mathematician
(No Transcript)
BR_Background _ 2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking -1
?2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking
--1942 Born in
Oxford, England.
--1958 Entered and
became especially
interested in thermodynamics(???), relativity
theory, and quantum mechanics
(????). --1962 Received a bachelors degree in
physics and then enrolled as a
research student in general relativity
at the
Oxford University
University of Cambridge
(No Transcript)
BR_Background _ 2.Chronology of Stephen
2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking
Oxford University
(No Transcript)
BR_Background _ 2.Chronology of Stephen
2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking
University of Cambridge
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BR_Background _ 2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking-2
2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking
--1966 Earned his Ph.D. degree at the University
of Cambridge. Stayed at the
University of Cambridge to do
post-doctoral research. Diagnosed as
having Amyotrophic Lateral
Sclerosis (ALS) (??????????).
I am quite often asked How do you feel about
having ALS? The answer is, not a lot. I try to
lead as normal a life as possible, and not think
about my condition, or regret the things it
prevents me from doing, which are not that many.
(No Transcript)
BR_Background _ 2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking -3
2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking
-- 1977 Became a professor of physics. -- 1979
Appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics
at Cambridge, a post once held by
Isaac Newton.
This is a picture of Stephen, Isaac New-ton and
Albert Einstein.
(No Transcript)
BR_Background _ 2.Chronology of Stephen Hawking
-3. Main Achievements
3. Main Achievements
(A point in space-time at which the space-time
curvature(??)becomes infinite.)
black hole
(A region of space-time from which nothing, not
even light, can escape. Nothing can escape
because gravity is so strong.)
A Brief History of Time
(One of his books to make his work accessible to
the public.)
?Albert Einstein
  • ?The Monologue of Albert Einstein (18791955)
  • I was born in Ulm, Germany in 1879.
  • As you may know, 1905 was a big year for me.
    Thats when I turned the world upside down, at
    least for scientists, with several new ideas. I
    proposed that space and time had to be looked at
    in a whole new way -- that Newtons view of space
    and time was inaccurate. These ideas became known
    as the special theory of relativity and
    introduced the equation Emc2.
  • Ten years later I presented the general
    theory of relativity. The general theory showed
    that gravity is not a force, as Newton had
    thought. It is instead a curvature(??) of the
    space-time continuum.

?Do You Know?
  • ?Einstein could not find a job in physics upon
    graduating from college, and became a technical
    assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. He worked
    on theoretical physics in his spare time.
  • ?Einstein did not receive a Nobel Prize for his
    theory of relativity
  • ?Einstein immediately left Germany for the United
    States following Hitlers rise to power.

?Do You Know?
  • ?Einstein spent much of his later career
    searching for a unified field theory, but was
  • ?Einstein declined the presidency of the state of
    Israel when it was offered to him in 1952 by
    state leaders.
  • ?The element einsteinium(?), discovered in 1952,
    was named in honor of Albert Einstein.

  • This is a horror film about a doctor who builds a
    monster out of dead body parts and brings it to
    life using electricity, based on the novel by
    Mary Shelley.

Text prediction
  • With the activities weve done, can you predict
    what the text is mainly about?

  • I. Text organization
  • An essay is usually divided into 3 parts, and how
    many parts are there in this text?
  • Structure of the text
  • ?Teacher may explain that this text would be the
    first piece of expository writing Ss encounter in
    Book One.
  • ?Teacher explains that in expository writing, the
    structure of a paragraph is usually similar to
    that of the text, i.e., the topic sentences are
    presented in the first or second sentences of a
    paragraph, followed by supporting details.

Part Division of the Text
Parts Lines Main Ideas
1 1-32 The public needs education in science so as to make informed decisions on their own fate.
2 33-62 The ways to educate the public are detailed.
3 63-69 Human civilization will survive if the public understands science well.
Chart Completion
  • Fill in the chart by comparing the first 10 lines
    of both All the Cabbie Had
  • Was a Letter and Public Attitudes toward Science
    to see the style differences
  • between narration and exposition.

Texts Paragraph length Sentence length Simple or compound sentences? Any passive voice? Any dialogue? Any 3rd-person narrator?
Unit 2 shorter shorter simple no yes no
Unit 3 longer longer longer yes no yes
Text Analysis
  • This text is the first piece of expository
    writing in our textbook series, therefore it is
    important to note the style difference between
    narration and exposition. By the former
    comparison between unit two and unit three, we
    can see clearly the differences between narration
    and expository.
  • ?expository writings usually employ longer
    paragraphs in which there are longer and more
    involved sentences
  • ?expository writings are more closely packed than
    the narration
  • ?third-person narration is often adopted in
    exposition for the purpose of objectivity
  • ?sentences in the passive voice appear regularly
    in exposition

Question for part I
  • 1.What is the attitude of some people towards the
    changes brought about by science and technology?
  • Some people would like to stop these changes and
    go back to what they see as a purer and simpler
  • 2.What was life like before science and
    technology began to change our way of life?
  • For the vast majority of the population, life was
    nasty, brutish, and short.
  • 3.What would happen if all government money for
    research were cut off?
  • ? The force of competition would still bring
    about advances in technology if all government
    money for research were cut off.
  • 4.Is it possible to prevent science and
    technology from further development? Why or why
  • No. The only way to prevent further developments
    would be a global state that suppressed anything
    new, and human initiative and inventiveness are
    such that even this would not succeed.

Part Two Skimming
  • Skim part 2 to find out a mini-exposition.
  • Topic sentence How to educate the public in
  • Supporting point 1_______________________________
  • Supporting point 2_______________________________
  • Supporting point 1_______________________________

Part 3True or False
  • 1.Our civilization is more advanced than other
    alien civilizations according to the joke. ( T
  • 2.We have not been contacted by an alien
    civilization because of the insufficient
    development of the science and technology. ( F
  • We have not been contacted by an alien
    civilization because any alien civilization tends
    to destroy themselves when they reach our stage.
  • 3.The author has had sufficient evidence to prove
    that the joke is wrong. ( F )
  • The author has not had sufficient evidence, but
    he believes that the good sense of the public
    might prove the joke is wrong.

II. Language points
  • Difficult sentences
  • The only way to prevent further developments
    would be a global state that suppressed anything
    new, and human initiative and inventiveness are
    such that even this wouldnt succeed. All it
    would do is slow down the of change.
  • 1. What is the grammatical function of the first
  • Here that brings about an attributive
  • 2. What does the structure such that here
  • The structure is used to give an
    explanation for something.
  • His manner was such that he would
    offend everyone he met.
  • 3. What can we infer from this sentence?
  • No way can suppress anything new, as human
    initiative and inventiveness do exist.

  • At the moment, the public is in two minds about
  • What does in two minds about mean?
  • Unable to decide whether or not you want sth.
    or want to do sth.
  • 2. What can we learn from the sentence?
  • The public finds itself holding two
    contradictory viewpoints about science. On the
    one hand, it expects the improvement in the
    standard of living that has been brought by
    science on the other hand, it also distrusts
    science because it does not understand it.

Words and phrases
  • Likely
  • Do without
  • Put/turn the clock back
  • Cut off
  • Initiative
  • Slow down
  • Ensure
  • Inform
  • In terms of
  • Put across
  • hence

Likely1)adj. probable
  • The word is often used in the following patterns
    It is likely that/be likely to do sth.
  • Eg. It is likely that my roommate will win the
    first-class scholarship.
  • An earthquake is likely to strike the area in a
    year or two.
  • Im likely to be very busy tomorrow.

2)adv. probably
  • When used as an adv, the word is often preceded
    by most, more than, or very. You dont use
    it as an adv in its own.
  • Eg It is reported that another sandstorm will
    very likely come in the next 24 hours.
  • We will most likely stay home during the Spring

Do without manage to survive, continue, or
succeed although you do not have sth. you
need,want, or usu. have.
  • Eg Theres no bread left, so Im afraid youll
    just have to do without.
  • She simply cant do without at least four weeks
    holiday a year.

put/turn the clock back return to the past or
to a previous way of doing things
  • EgAs is manifested by history, nobody can put
    the clock back and prevent the advancement of
  • Since you cannot turn back the clock, you may as
    well forget the past and look to the future
  • .

cut off 1)stop providing sth.
  • Eg Water and electricity supplies in the city
    have been cut off because of the American air
  • Their phone has been cut off because they
    havent paid the bill.

Cut off 2) to become separate or cause someone to
be or feel alone
  • Eg When his wife died, he cut himself off from
    other people.
  • Many villages have been cut off by the heavy snow.

Initiative1)the ability to make decisions and
take action without waiting for sb. to tell
you what to do
  • If you show that you have initiative, you will
    sooner or later be promoted.
  • The workers are able to solve the problem on
    their own initiative.

2)used in the phrase take the initiative be
the first person to take action to improve a
situation or relationship, esp. when other people
are waiting for sb.else to do sth.
  • He took the initiative in organizing a party
    after his brothers wedding.
  • They have attempted to take the initiative in
    dealing with the problem.

Ensure make sure (followed by a N. or that
  • The client must ensure that accurate records are
  • ? Hard work combined with luck will ensure you a
    place in society.

Informed having or showing knowledge
  • Science is now enabling us to make more informed
    choices about how we use common drugs.
  • I dont know the answer but I can make an
    informed guess.

Inform tell(used in the patterninform sb. of
/about sth., inform sb. that clause, inform sb.)
  • Walters was not properly informed of the reasons
    for her arrest.
  • I informed my boss that I was going to be away
    next week.
  • The terrorists said that anyone caught informing
    on them would be killed.

in terms of as regards expressed as sth.
  • A 200-year-old building is very old in terms of
    American history.
  • ? A computer is powerful in terms of capacity
    and speed.
  • ? In terms of natural resources China is superior
    to Japan.

put across cause to be understood
  • ? A teacher should have the ability to put his
    ideas across quickly and clearly to his
  • ? The government needs to put across the message
    that the economy is starting to recover.

hence1) as a result, therefore (a formal
use,followed by a clause/noun group/a./ad./preposi
tional phrase)
  • His mother was an Italian, hence his nameLuca.
  • It was a steep and difficult route and hence not
    too popular with walkers.
  • The computer has become smaller and cheaper and
    hence more available to a greater number of

2)from this time
  • The project will be completed at the end of the
    decade, two years hence.
  • The annual conference of APEC will be held in
    Shanghai seven months hence.

Post Reading
  • useful expressions
  • 1. ???????? in the
    last hundred years
  • 2. ??
    go back to
  • 3. ???????? a
    privileged minority
  • 4. ????
    the present government
  • 5. ????
    basic science
  • 6. ????
    a global state
  • 7. ????
    a democratic society
  • 8. ??????? make
    informed decisions
  • 9. ????
    the standard of living
  • 10. ????
    cartoon figures

  • 11. ????
    science fictions
  • 12. ??
    acid rain
  • 13. ????
    greenhouse effect
  • 14. ???
    nuclear weapons
  • 15. ????
    genetic engineering
  • 16. ????
    learn by rote
  • 17. ?????
    halve the sales
  • 18. ?????
    molecular biology
  • 19. ????
    alien civilization
  • 20. ?????
    have sufficient faith in

(No Transcript)
AR_ 7. Proverbs and Quotations-1
Proverbs and Quotations
1. Science has no enemy but the ignorant.
2. Science rests on phenomena.
3. Truth has no special time of its own. Its hour
is now always.
-- A. Schweitzer, German surgeon
????????????? ??????????
--???? A. ???
(No Transcript)
AR_ 7. Proverbs and Quotations-2
Proverbs and Quotations
4.Even when the experts all agree, they may well
be mistaken. -- Bertrand
Russell, British logician 5.The Golden Rule
is that there are no golden rules. --
G. B. Shaw, Irish writer
????????????, ???????.
--?????? ?????
--????? ???
AR_4. Interview-1
Suppose you are Professor Zhang, who is in
charge of a project of cloning only the best and
brightest of the human race, and your partner is
the host of Tell It like It Is (????), a popular
TV program concerning hot issues of current
affairs and social topics. The interview may
cover the following topics.
Text B How to Make Sense of Science
  • Background Information
  • 1. El Ninoan abnormal warming of surface ocean
    waters in the eastern tropical Pacific, is one
    part of what's called the Southern Oscillation.
    The Southern Oscillation is the see-saw pattern
    of reversing surface air pressure between the
    eastern and western tropical Pacific when the
    surface pressure is high in the eastern tropical
    Pacific it is low in the western tropical
    Pacific, and vice-versa. Because the ocean
    warming and pressure reversals are, for the most
    part, simultaneous, scientists call this
    phenomenon the El Nino/Southern Oscillation or
    ENSO for short. South American fisherman have
    given this phenomenon the name El Nino, which is
    Spanish for "The Christ Child," because it comes
    about the time of the celebration of the birth of
    the Christ Child-Christmas.

  • 2.Apocalypse (Greek apoca'lipsis, meaning
    literally the lifting of the veil), is a term
    applied to the disclosure to certain privileged
    persons of something hidden from the majority of
    humankind. Today the term is often used to mean
    "End of planet Earth", which may be a shortening
    of the phrase apokalupsis eschaton which
    literally means "revelation at the end of the
    æon, or age".

Words and phrases
  • yield to reveal, offer, produce
  • e.g. An examination of the plane yielded vital
    secrets about their anti-weapon technology.
  • Talks between the two sides have yield no
  • He finally yielded his consent

  • Random made, done, happening or chosen without
    method or conscious decision
  • e.g. The way the books were arranged seemed
    completely random.
  • The quality inspectors made a random check of the
  • at random

  • submit sth. for present sth. to a person or body
    for consideration or judgment
  • e.g. He submitted his application to the
    committee for consideration.
  • Have you submitted your plan to your boss for

  • Wear down overcome by persistence
  • As I waited for him for nearly three hours, my
    patience wore down.
  • The strategy was designed to wear down the
    enemys resistence.

  • Writing Practice
  • Write a paper of about 80 words entitled Should
    cloning of human beings be banned? Your paper
    should cover the following points.
  • 1.Your opinion on cloning of human beings.
  • 2. Give supporting evidence.
  • 3. Use to begin with, secondly, thirdly and
    finally to
  • connect all the evidence.

(No Transcript)
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