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Introduction to Primary Sources


Introduction to Primary Sources & Historical Thinking Skills Thank you for sitting with your table team from last class. We ll keep these teams through the unit test. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Primary Sources

Introduction to Primary Sources Historical
Thinking Skills
Thank you for sitting with your table team from
last class. Well keep these teams through the
unit test. Please take out your class materials
to be checked and U.S. Geography
focus/map. Please pick up the following items
from the side table materials check rubric the
regional images sheet Please also find your
textbook (if you left it here). You can keep it
at home. We now have a class set.
Todays Objectives
  • We will
  • focus on U.S. geography and regions
  • set up the course binder and review binder
    grading procedures
  • identify the difference between primary and
    secondary sources
  • learn about historical thinking skills
  • apply historical thinking skills to analyze a
  • primary source

Focus on U.S. Geography Materials Check
  • Work with your table to correctly match each
    image with its region and then glue the images on
    to Part II of the focus sheet and write in some
    regional descriptors.
  • Please complete Part I (the U.S. map) or work on
    make-up work or Homework 1 while we complete the
    materials check. Please write your name on the
    materials check rubric and have it ready.
  • Color in your regions as follows
  • Northeast Maine to Pennsylvania/New Jersey
  • South states south of Pennsylvania and the Ohio
    River, as well as south of Missouri and Kansas
  • West everything west of and including New
    Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana
  • Midwest the 12 states that are left

U.S. Regions
There are many ways to divide the country into
regions but this is the simplest categorization
The Northeast
  • Heavily industrial and urban
  • Major centers of commerce and higher education
    (ex New York City Boston)
  • Highly diverse population
  • First region to industrialize (early 1800s)

New England textile mill town, early 1800s
Manhattan skyline, post-2001
The South
  • Heavily rural and agricultural
  • Major industries oil and tourism
  • High proportion of African Americans
  • Dixie dominated by plantations and slavery
    before the Civil War

Southern cotton plantation, 1850s
Louisiana bayou
The Midwest
  • Heavily agricultural and industrial
  • Major industries grain, livestock, automobiles
  • Relatively flat plains and prairies
  • Settled in the 1800s by pioneer families

Present-day Iowa farm
North Dakota homestead, 1890s
The West
  • Largely arid and mountainous
  • Major industries mining, timber, and high tech
  • High proportion of Latinos and Native Americans
  • Growth fueled by mining booms and railroads

Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, 1869
Grand Teton Range in Wyoming
Course Binder Set-up
  • Please write your name on your completed U.S. map
    and turn it in to the box on the back table.
    Keep the focus 2 sheet to place in your binder.
  • Pick up the course binder guide from the back
    table and label your dividers as follows
  • Unit Guides
  • Focus Activities
  • Class Notes
  • Tests Quizzes
  • Exhibit Guides
  • Well go over the course binder guide together.
  • Keep it in the front behind your syllabus.

Course Binder Grading
  • Your course binder will be your single most
    important resource in the course this year.
  • Please keep all handouts in your binder and
    organized by category. The sample binder on the
    back table provides a model.
  • Always check the While You Were Out sheet in
    the sample binder for each day you are absent.
  • Binder checks will take place on each unit test
    date. Be prepared to turn in all materials for
    the unit so that you can earn (and recover)
  • Lets clean up any trash and return supplies
    before moving on to primary sources.

Primary Secondary Sources
  • Look at your first set of class notes for
  • Primary sources are first-hand accounts of an
    event, a life, a moment in time. They are in
    their original form, usually without explanation
    or interpretation.
  • Secondary sources are often written/created some
    time after an event happened by people who were
    not present when the event occurred. Secondary
    sources are based on a variety of other sources
    and can include books, journal articles,
    textbooks, and reference sources.

Primary vs. Secondary Sources
  • Work with your partner to categorize the sources
    listed on the first page of your notes as either
    primary (P) or secondary (S).
  • Primary Secondary
  • Personal Letter Textbook
  • Photograph Historical Fiction Novel
  • Political Cartoon Documentary Film
  • Speech Text Wikipedia Article
  • Personal Objects Encyclopedia Entry
  • Diary Entry Journal Articles

Why use primary sources?
  • 1. To develop critical thinking skills Primary
    sources are pieces of history. They are
    incomplete and often dont have context. They
    require us to thoughtfully examine the past.
  • 2. To gain empathy for the human condition
    Primary sources help us relate personally to
    events of the past, gaining a deeper
    understanding of history as a series of human
  • 3. To consider multiple perspectives History is
    not just made up of one narrative. Its the
    product of many differing points of view.
  • 4. To understand the continuum of history We all
    participate in making history every day, leaving
    behind primary sources that will one day help to
    shape future views of our own times.

Historical Thinking Skill 1
  • Before examining the content of a source,
    consider what kind of source it is, who created
    it, and why they created it.
  • What kind of primary source is it?
  • Who created the source? Why did they create it?
  • What is the point of view of the sources
  • Is the source believable? Why or why not?

Historical Thinking Skill 2
Close Reading
  • Carefully investigate any text or images provided
    in the source to determine its message and tone,
    as well as to determine what evidence the
    sources creator uses to make his or her point.
  • What words or phrases stand out to you? Why?
  • What images stand out to you? Why?
  • If an image, what is happening? Any symbols?
  • What is the overall tone and message of the

Historical Thinking Skill 3
  • Place the source in history and determine what
    trends or events are connected with it. Think
    also about the audience for the source and what
    it tells us about viewpoints of the time.
  • When was the source created?
  • What trends or events are connected with the
  • What else was happening when the source was
  • Who was the audience for the source?

Historical Thinking Skill 4
  • Compare and contrast the source with other
    sources from the same time period or another time
    period. Determine to what extent they agree or
    disagree with each other to understand the topic
  • How are the sources similar or different?
  • How do the sources help to provide a more
    complete picture of historical events?

William Penns Treaty with the Indians (1775)
Primary Source AnalysisWhere in Time?
  • Youll now have a chance to investigate one of
    two primary sources with your partner.
  • Work together to answer the questions provided
    for Part I on the Focus 3 handout.
  • Both of the sources, along with the Penn
    engraving, will help guide us on a brief overview
    of American history in our next class.
  • Be prepared to share your answers with the class.
    Try your best and dont worry if youre not sure
    about something. Take some risks and make some
    educated guesses.

John Smiths Map of Virginia, 1624http//www.lear
The Pilgrims Signing the Compact, on board the
Mayflower, Nov. 11th, 1620 (published

Before you leave, please
  • Place Class Notes 1 and Focus 3 in the
    appropriate sections of your binder.
  • Remember to bring any materials you may be
    missing in order to recover credit.
  • Remember that Homework 1 is due at the start of
    class on Friday.
  • Remind your parents about Back to School Night
  • Please take your textbook home with you we now
    have a class set for our use in 208.
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