History of Oceanography - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

History of Oceanography


History of Oceanography Why study historic oceanography? Connected to the world s overall history Commerce, warfare, resources, weather The oceans have shaped ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:11
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 50
Provided by: E19946
Learn more at: http://images.pcmac.org


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: History of Oceanography

History of Oceanography
Why study historic oceanography?
  • Connected to the worlds overall history
  • Commerce, warfare, resources, weather
  • The oceans have shaped humanitys past

Why study Oceanographic History?
  • Understand how and why people apply marine
    sciences today
  • Oceanographys history is about people, not just
    oceans and test tubes.

Ancient Uses and Explorations (5000 B.C. to 800
  • Not sure when ocean voyages actually began
  • Fish hooks and spears dated approximately 5000
  • Earliest recorded sea voyage Egyptians about
    3200 B.C.

Phoenician Explorations
  • Most important early Western seafarers
  • Motivated by trade, Phoenicians traveled
    incredible distances
  • Established first trade routes throughout the
    Mediterranean and as far north as Great Britain

Phoenician Navigation
  • Stayed within sight of land
  • Traveled at night steered by observing
    constellations and the North Star.
  • In the ancient world, the North Star was called
    the Phoenician Star

Polynesian Exploration
  • Between 2000 and 500 B.C.
  • Often traveled thousands of kilometers across
    open ocean
  • Open canoes cut from tree trunks
  • Developed stick maps with ocean currents
  • Settled most of the islands in the Pacific Ocean
    hundreds of years before Europeans reached
    Pacific Ocean

Polynesian Significance
  • Earliest known regular, long-distance, open-ocean
    seafaring beyond sight of land

Greek Exploration
  • First who used mathematical principles and
    developed sophisticated maps for seafaring
  • Pytheas Greek explorer, noted that he could
    predict tides in Atlantic based on phases of moon
  • He also measured angle between horizon and the
    North Star to determine position improved

Eratosthenes (264-194 B.C)
  • 2 major contributions that furthered Pytheas
  • Calculated Earths Circumference 40,000 km
  • Invented first latitude/longitude system

Map of World According to Eratosthenes
Ptolemy (100-168 A.D.)
  • Created map of Earth that showed a portion of the
    Earth as a sphere on flat paper.
  • Produced first world atlas
  • Improved longitude/latitude system
  • System still used today

Middle Ages (800 A.D.-1400)
Vikings (790 A.D. to 1100)
  • Vikings of Scandinavia were active explorers
    during The 9th century
  • Discovered Iceland and Greenland
  • Leif Eriksson son of Eric The Red, set off in
    search of timber for Greenland Colony and
    discovered North America (Newfoundland, Canada)

Chinese Exploration
  • The Chinese Ming Dynasty sent large convoys of
    ships out on missions in which seven voyages were
  • There ships were more technologically advanced
    than anything in Europe, consisting of five masts
    and magnetic compasses and navigational charts
  • The Ming Dynasty reached as far as Africa

European Exploration and the Renaissance
  • Prince Henry the navigator, (1420s) founded
    first school of navigation
  • Christopher Columbus (1490s) was attempting to
    find a west-ward route to India when he reached
    the Bahama Islands
  • Ferdinand Magellan (1520) led the expedition that
    first circumnavigated the word he was killed in
    the Philippines

Magellans Circumnavigation of World
The Beginning of Ocean Science
18th Century
  • Previous exploration driven by military, trade,
    or conquest objectives
  • Royal Navy of Britain launched voyages with
    objectives of exploration, mapping and projecting
    British presence around the world

Cooks Expedition(1768 1779)
  • Made 1st accurate maps of many regions in the
    ocean w/ new invention
  • Chronometer invented by John Harrison
  • Chronometer is a time piece capable of keeping
    accurate time aboard ship at sea

Ben Franklin and the Gulf Stream (1777)
  • Noted northerly routed ship from Europe took
    longer than ships that came by a longer more
    southerly route
  • Learned about gulf stream from nephew, who gave
    his uncle a chart
  • Franklin had the chart printed and distributed to
    the captains of mail ships.
  • They shortened their inbound voyages by avoiding
    the current and they shortened their outbound
    voyages by using the current.

Father of Oceanography Matthew Maury
  • Matthew Maury, in charge of the Depot of
    Naval charts and instruments.
  • Organized first international meteorological
    conference to establish uniform methods
  • Published a summarized version of data in first
    Oceanographic textbook in 1855

Darwin, Coral Reefs and Biological Evolution
  • From 1831 to 1836 a naturalist for the HMS Beagle
    circumnavigated the southern oceans and oceanic
  • Darwin observed birds and other organisms on
    isolated islands, most of his research took place
    in the Galapagos Islands.
  • In 1859, his observations were published in the
    book On the origin of Species.

The Rosses, Edward Forbes, and life in the deep
  • John Ross took samples and animals in Baffin bay
    (Canada) Later James Ross took samples from
    Antarctic ocean bottom at 4.3 Miles
  • John Ross and James Ross found that there are
    some bottom dwelling creatures in Baffin Bay and
    Antarctic Ocean. They discovered that deep
    Atlantic is uniformly cold.
  • Forbes Oceans divided into life-depth zones
    concluded that ocean life decrease as depth
    increases. This contrasted with Rosses finings
    and created dispute for decades in Britain.

The Ocean as Laboratory The Challenger
Expedition (1872-1876)
  • The expedition covered 79,178 miles.
  • Directed by C. Wyville Thompson
  • 2 contributions
  • Discovery and classification of 4,717 new marine
  • Measurement of record water depth at the Mariana
    Trench of 26,847 feet.

Alexander Agassiz(1836-1919)
  • multimillionaire benefactor to oceanography,
    especially in the U.S.
  • 1st to use steel cables for deep sea dredging

Victor Henson and Marine Ecology
  • Victor Henson solved the problem about population
    fluctuations in commercial fish.
  • Coined the term plankton
  • He found that cold water is more nutrient rich,
    leading to more plankton, and a larger fish

Polar oceanography begins with the voyage of the
  • Fridtjof Nansen set out with a crew of 13 on a
    boat called Fram to explore the Artic sea.
  • His boat became frozen in ice and drifted for 3
  • His drift proved that there was no continent in
    the Artic sea.

Twentieth century oceanography
Voyage of the Meteor
  • First drilling ship
  • Ship came from Germany
  • Set the standard for multidisciplinary studies of
    the Ocean
  • Mapped the ocean bottom by echo sounding
  • Meteor sailed for 25 months

Oceanography gets institutionalized
  • Musée océanographic Europe
  • Scripps institution of Oceanography (1st
    institute in U.S.) California
  • Woods Hole Ocean. Inst. (Boston)
  • Lamont Geological Observatory - New York
  • Rosenstiel school of Marine Atmosphere Sciences
    - Miami
  • Texas AM University administered The Ocean
    Drilling Program

Woods Hole
The expansion of oceanography
  • German U-boat led to the invention of the echo
    sounder to detect submarines
  • WW2_military performed and supported many studies
    on transmission of sound in the ocean waves,
    currents, and ocean- floor topography.
  • After WW2 U.S. government established a Sea Grant
    program to fund ocean research

Large-scale and international oceanographic
  • The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) was the 1st
    large-scale cooperative effort in academic ocean
  • The Glomar Challenger began 1st leg of deep sea
  • The deep sea drilling project became the ocean
    drilling program (ODP)
  • The ODP drill ship JOIDES Resolution, which is a
    lot larger than the Glomar Challenger, conducted
    its first scientific cruise and the JOIDES
    program continues today.

The history behind plate tectonic theory
  • In 1915, Alfred Wegener developed the theory of
    continental drift.
  • He conceived of a single ancient landmass called
    Pangaea that began to break 180 million years
  • Fredrick Vine and Drummond Matthews provided
    evidence for sea floor spreading in 1963
  • They mapped magnetic patterns of the ocean floor,
    which showed parallel bands of similarly
    magnetized reaches on either side of oceanic
    mountain ranges. Which were records of changes in
    Earths magnetic field over time

Humans invade the deep ocean
  • Increased pressure on body cavities and gases
    dissolved in body tissues limits duration of
  • Decompressing is necessary at greater depths
    because rapid ascending turns dissolved gases in
    tissues into nitrogen. These nitrogen bubbles
    can stop blood flow. This is know as the bends
    and is extremely painful illness which can be
  • To protect oneself, a strict decompression
    schedule which includes stopping at different
  • Jim suit allows a person to repair machinery at
    the ocean floor at surface pressure

  • William Beebe- descended to a depth of 923 meters
    off Bermuda in a tethered bathysphere to observe
    deep-sea life.
  • Jacques Piccard- designed untethered vessel
    Trieste - 1960
  • Alvin, Sea Cliff- 2 most widely used submersibles
  • Japans Shinkai- to study microbes in the deep

Trieste (1960)
  • The bathyscaphe, Trieste, descends to 10,915
  • Into Marianas Trench
  • Deepest depth in the ocean

  • Factors of manned sub
  • Risk to human life
  • High cost of the systems required
  • Relatively short time that can be spent making
  • Advantages of ROVs (remotely operated vehicles)
  • No risk to humans
  • Can make computer-assisted maps (based on sonar)
  • Stay down in water for a long time
  • Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
  • Programmed to carry out specific data gatherings
    missions of long durations without human life

A.U.V.s vs. R.O.V.s
Living under the sea
  • Jacques Cousteau- began designing and testing the
    underwater living chamber in the 1950s
  • In the 1970s teams lived undersea chambers for up
    to 60 days
  • May be placed on ocean floor or suspended
  • Can respond and equalize to any pressure

Remote sensing
  • Sometimes ocean is observed from space they can
    measure temp., ice cover, color, etc.
  • Seasat A - 1st dedicated oceanographic satellite.
  • Nimbus 7- mapped phyto-plankton populations
  • TOPEX/ Poseidon- mapped global sea level and got
    data on ocean atmosphere interaction.
  • Global Positioning system- allows ship to
    determine positions with in a meter

Terms Equipment
  • Secchi disk- Determines how transparency of
  • the water
  • Core Sampler- takes samples of core sediments
  • Hydrometer- Determines the density of the
  • water
  • Dredge- scoops up marine life
  • Alvin- famous submarine that explored
  • deep sea

Terms Equipment
  • Side-scan sonar- sonar that can scan in all

  • directions
  • Current meter- determines the speed

  • direction of the current
  • Underwater camera camera that can work

  • underwater
  • Flip- a bottle like vessel that
  • can flip sideways in the
  • water
  • Purse seine net- used to capture schools
  • of fish
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com