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The Presidency

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Title: The Presidency


1
The Presidency
2
Elect the President
  • Every eligible citizen in each state and DC can
    vote
  • Whichever party wins the majority of the popular
    vote within the state gets the electors (though
    in some states they split them based on the of
    popular vote)
  • Each state gets electors to representatives to
    U.S. House of Rep 2 senators.
  • Meet at Srare Capital on 2nd Wed. in Dec. to vote
  • All states electoral votes are counted in DC on
    January 6th
  • 270 Electoral votes required to win
  • If no 270, HoR votes (1 vote per state, 26 votes
    needed)
  • If HoR cant decide, V.P. serves until they do
  • If no VP wins majority, senate chooses between
    top 2 nominees
  • Only happened once in 1837, Richard Johnson

3
Defects in the Electoral College
  • Majority take-all doesnt match popular vote
  • CA 1 elector 551, 122
  • AK 1 elector 183,384
  • No federal law that elector has to vote for state
    majority
  • House having to select gives AK to CA
  • If strong 3rd party candidate, house might not
    reach 26 votes

4
Proposed Electoral College Reforms
  • District Plan
  • 2 electors (same as Senators) vote as state
  • of electors (same as Reps) vote as district
  • Problem Popular vote still could lose, ex.
    Kennedy v. Nixon in 1960
  • Proportional Plan
  • Win the of electors to state vote
  • Problem Popular vote still could lose as as
    smaller states over-weighted with electors v.
    population
  • Smaller parties could win electoral votes, making
    270 nearly impossible and turning vote over to
    House
  • Direct Popular Election
  • Small states lose advantage
  • Could weaken Federalism b/c states lose their
    role in choice of pres.
  • Voter fraud increased because individual votes
    mean more

5
The Roles of the President
6
Chief of State
  • This role requires a president to be an inspiring
    example for the American people. In some nations,
    the chief of state is a king or a queen who wears
    a crown on special occasions, celebrates national
    holidays, and stands for the highest values and
    ideals of the country. As the American Chief of
    State, the president is a living symbol of the
    nation. It is considered a great honor for any
    citizen to shake the president's hand.

7
Examples of Behavior as Chief of State
  • Awarding medals to the winners of college
    scholarships.
  • Congratulating astronauts on their journey into
    space.
  • Greeting visitors to the White House.
  • Making a patriotic speech on the Fourth of July.

8
Chief Executive
  • The president is "boss" for millions of
    government workers in the Executive Branch,
    deciding how the laws of the United States are to
    be enforced and choosing officials and advisers
    to help run the Executive Branch.

9
Examples of Behavior as Chief Executive
  • Appointing someone to serve as head of the
    Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
  • Holding a Cabinet meeting to discuss government
    business.
  • Reading reports about problems of the Federal
    Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

10
Chief Guardian of the Economy
  • In this role, the president is concerned with
    such things as unemployment, high prices, taxes,
    business profits, and the general prosperity of
    the country. The president does not control the
    economy, but is expected to help it run smoothly.

11
Examples of Behavior as Chief Guardian of Economy
  • Meeting with economic advisers to discuss ways to
    reduce unemployment.
  • Meeting with business and labor leaders to
    discuss their needs and problems.

12
Chief Diplomat
  • The president decides what American diplomats and
    ambassadors shall say to foreign governments.
    With the help of advisers, the president makes
    the foreign policy of the United States.

13
Examples of BehaviorsChief Diplomat
  • Traveling to London to meet with British leaders.
  • Entertaining Japanese diplomats in the White
    House.
  • Writing a message or a letter to the leaders of
    the Soviet Union.

14
Commander-in-Chief
  • The president is in charge of the U.S. armed
    forces the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines.
    The president decides where troops shall be
    stationed, where ships shall be sent, and how
    weapons shall be used. All military generals and
    admirals take their orders from the President.

15
Examples of Behavior as Commander-in-Chief
  • Inspecting a Navy yard.
  • Deciding, in wartime, whether to bomb foreign
    cities.
  • Calling out troops to stop a riot.

16
Chief Legislator
  • Only Congress has the actual power to make laws.
    But the Constitution gives the president power to
    influence Congress in its lawmaking. Presidents
    may urge Congress to pass new laws or veto bills
    that they do not favor.

17
Examples of Behavior as Chief Legislator
  • Inviting members of Congress to lunch in the
    White House.
  • Signing a bill of Congress.
  • Making a speech in Congress.

18
Chief of Party
  • In this role, the president helps members of his
    political party get elected or appointed to
    office. The president campaigns for those members
    who have supported his policies. At the end of a
    term the president may campaign for reelection.

19
Examples of Behavior as Chief of Party
  • Choosing leading party members to serve in the
    Cabinet.
  • Traveling to California to speak at a rally for a
    party nominee to the U.S. Senate.

20
Why has the Power of the Presidency Increased
since G.W.?
  • State of U.S. social and economic life
    increasingly complex, calls for leadership in an
    industrialized and technologically advanced
    country.
  • transportation
  • labor-management relations
  • civil rights
  • health
  • welfare
  • communications
  • education
  • environmental protection
  • decisive action in times of national crisis

21
Where does he get his power?
  • President can gain control due to specific
    elements
  • role as Chief legislator
  • role as Chief citizen
  • role as Party Leader
  • ran attract and hold public attention, making it
    easier to gain support for public policy and
    actions
  • use of media

22
Major Responsibility Executing Laws
  • Constitution says he shall Faithfully execute
    the laws
  • Executes enforces, administers, carries out
  • Consists of all federal laws, even if he does not
    agree with it
  • Example Congress passes Immigration Reform
    Legislation
  • Executive Branch must execute the law
  • President would assign Immigration and
    Naturalization Services, an office under the
    Justice Department, to draw up appropriate
    documents and details, for example if there was a
    language requirement to be a citizen.

23
Ordinance Power
  • Executive Ordera directive, rule, or regulation
    that has the effect of law.
  • Example Gitmo closed in 1 year
  • Ordinance Powerauthority to issue executive
    orders comes from 2 sources
  • a. The Constitution
  • b. Acts of Congressdue to of people
    president has working for him, congress has
    often delegated authority to president and
    staff to spell out policies and programs.

24
Appointing Power
  • With Senate consent, president names most of top
    ranking Federal Govt. officers (of nearly 3
    million civilian employees)
  • ambassadors
  • other diplomats
  • cabinet members and their top aides
  • heads of independent agencies
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • all federal judges
  • federal attorneys
  • officers in armed forces
  • Courtesy plays a role in Senate approval
    (majority of senators present voting is
    required for authorization)

25
Removal power
  • President may remove any officers he appointed
    EXCEPT federal judges.
  • V.P. cannot because he is elected by the people

26
Diplomatic Power
  • Power to Make Treaties
  • A formal agreement between 2 or more sovereign
    states
  • Senate must approve by 2/3 of those present
  • Senate and not House b/c secrecy thought
    necessary in foreign relations and House too big
    a body to keep secretoriginally Senate only 26
    members.
  • Based on need for 2/3, a small group can reject a
    treaty, example Senate rejected Versailles
    Treaty in 1919 which included provisions for
    League of Nations (President Wilsons baby)
  • Executive Agreements
  • A pact b/w President and heads of foreign states
  • Does NOT require senate consent
  • Typically based on legislation or treaty already
    passed by senate, but not always
  • Power of Recognition
  • President receives the diplomatic rep.s of
    another sovereign statehe is acknowledging the
    existence of that country and govt.
  • Does not mean that one country approves of
    anothers character or conduct
  • Used as weapons in foreign relations
  • Recognition can help a new country survive
    turbulent beginnings
  • 1903 Pres. Roosevelt recognized Panama within 3
    days, after we helped them win a Revolution
    against Colombia
  • 1948 Pres. Truman recognized Israel within 24
    hrs.

27
Military Powers
  • Undeclared War
  • 1. More than 200 times, Presidents have used
    forces without a declaration of war
  • Wartime Powers
  • powers as commander in chief are far greater
    during war
  • exampleduring World War II congress gave Pres
    power to ration food and gasoline, control wages
    and prices, and seize and operate certain
    industries.
  • Pres. Can use armed forces to keep domestic
    peace, including calling on state militias
  • War Powers Resolution
  • designed to place close limits on Presidents
    war-making powers
  • A result of Vietnam, passes in 1973
  • Nixon vetoed the act and congress overrode the
    veto
  • Central Provisions
  • After committing American troops to combat, Pres.
    Must report detailed circumstances to Congress
  • Combat commitment must end within 60 days, can be
    extended another 30 to assure safe return of
    troops
  • Congress may bring an end to combat commitment at
    any time by passing a resolution
  • Constitutionality still a dispute, wont be
    determined until Congress demand Pres. Follow
    their provision and he disobeys.

28
Legislative Powers
  • Recommend Legislation
  • Veto power
  • 1. Sign a bill
  • 2. Veto a bill
  • 3. Bill becomes law by NOT acting on it for 10
    days
  • 4. Pocket vetocongress adjourns before 10
    days after sending bill to Pres. And he has not
    acted on it, it dies
  • 5.Line-item veto, for appropriations (spending)
    bill--ILLEGAL
  • Other Legislative Powers
  • 1.Call Congress into special session
  • Adjourn congress when the houses cannot agree on
    a date of adjournment

29
Judicial Powers
  • Reprievepostponement of the execution of a
    sentence
  • Pardonlegal forgiveness of a federal crime
  • Commutationpower to commute (reduce) the length
    of a sentence or a fine imposed by a court
  • Amnestygeneral pardon offered to a group of
    violators
  • exampleMormons pardoned in 1893 by Pres.
    Harrison for antipolygamy laws
  • 1977 Pres. Carter gave amnesty to Vietnam War
    draft evaders

30
Who Else Makes up the Executive Branch?
  • Besides the V.P. there are many departments and
    independent agencies that report their findings
    to the president
  • Examples CIA, Commission on Civil Rights,
    Federal Reserve System, Postal Service
  • 3 Kinds of Independent Agencies
  • Independent Executive Agency
  • Same as 14 executive departments but not in
    cabinet
  • Independent Regulatory Agency
  • Largely beyond reach of President control or
    regulation
  • Government Corporations
  • Regulated and controlled by President but
    complete business functions (however, monitored
    limited, so not capitalist business)
  • ex. Post Office, FDIC, Medicare

31
The Cabinet
  • Informal advisory body
  • Not in Constitution
  • Heads of 14 Executive depts. V.P. any
    additional persons the president chooses

32
Executive Office of the President and the
Cabinet
  • EOP is right arm of the president
  • made up of several separate agencies staffed by
    most trusted advisers.
  • The White House Office
  • key personal and political staff
  • most hold offices in the white house (about 400)
  • chief of Staff
  • chief executive of Foreign Policy
  • Chief executive of Defense
  • Chief of Economy
  • Chief of National Health Care
  • Chief of Political Affairs
  • Chief of Congressional Relations
  • Counsel to the President
  • Press Secretary

33
National Security Counsel
  • called on short notice to advise on domestic,
    foreign, and military matters
  • President, V.P., Secretaries of State and
    Defense, CIA Director, and Chairman of the Joint
    Chiefs
  • Has a small staff of foreign and military policy
    experts who work for the National Security
    Adviser
  • CIA answers to NSC

34
Office of National Drug Control
  • prepare an annual drug control strategy which
    pres. Sends to congress
  • coordinate more than 50 federal agencies
    participating in war on drugs

35
Office of Policy Development
  • Advises president on all matters of domestic
    affairs.

36
Office of Management and Budget
  • Most influential
  • In charge of preparing federal budget
  • Approves expenditures of federal agencies
  • Monitors spending of the congress appropriates

37
Council of Economic Advisers
  • 3 of countries leading economists, chosen by
    pres. Make up CEA
  • Major source of info. On the state of the
    nations budget

38
Additional Important Offices
  • Council on Environmental Quality
  • Office of U.S. Trade Representatives
  • Office of Science and Technology
  • Office of Administration
  • Support staff

39
The Vice President
  • I am Vice President. In this I am nothing, but
    I may be everything. John Adams
  • 8 deaths 1 resignation in presidential post
  • Today plays a bigger role member of Cabinet and
    NSC, etc.

40
Succession to the Presidency
  • The 25th Amendment to the Constitution ratified
    1967
  • The Vice President Joseph Biden
  • Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi
  • President pro tempore of the Senate Robert Byrd
  • Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton
  • Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner
  • Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
  • Attorney General Eric Holder
  • Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar
  • Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack
  • Secretary of Commerce TBA
  • Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis
  • Secretary of Health and Human Services Tom
    Daschle
  • Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun
    Donovan
  • Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood
  • Secretary of Energy Stephen Chu
  • Secretary of Education Arne Duncan
  • Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki
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