Dr. Maureen Rubin - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 62
About This Presentation

Dr. Maureen Rubin


Rebuilding New Orleans after Katrina. ... the effectiveness of the college and limits the vision of the student. Boyer, Community Education Journal, October 1987. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:137
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 63
Provided by: innovative74


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Dr. Maureen Rubin


Seven Steps To Service-Learning A Practical
Approach To Course Design 
  • Dr. Maureen Rubin
  • California State University, Northridge
  • maureen.rubin_at_csun.edu

Who is here?
  • Please let me know if you are faculty or staff
    and either what you are teaching or what your
    position is at the University.
  • Tell me one thing you would like to explore at
    todays webinar.
  • This will help me tailor my presentation to what
    the audience wants me to cover (to the maximum
    extent possible in a prepared webinar!)

Goals for Today
  • Understand what service-learning is
  • Explain benefits and challenges
  • Design a course
  • Give overview of recent changes

What is Service-Learning?
  • Federal Definition
  • Service-learning is an education and youth
    development strategy that connects learning
    objectives with meaningful service to the
    community. Students build civic, leadership, and
    academic skills while strengthening communities
    through service.
  • (Corporation for National and Community Service)

Highly Individualized Pedagogy
  • What are your student learning objectives?
  • What skills do you want to develop?
  • The answer to these two questions should be
    foremost in your mind throughout this webinar.

College students like it! (Its real life
application of classroom concepts.)
  • Our new President is setting an example for a
    new generation of young Americans to share
    responsibility for addressing our nations
    serious issues.
  • Los Angeles Times (2009)

Many great projects are happening
  • Examples of college students accepting that
    responsibility abound
  • Restoring communities post-Hurricane Sandy
  • Rebuilding New Orleans after Katrina
  • Oil spill clean-ups
  • National Days and Summers of Service
  • Mentoring programs to curb drop-out rates
  • Thousands of state and local initiatives

Have students always done service-learning?
  • No! Throughout their history, many universities
    were criticized for being disconnected ivory
    towers marked by an aloof lack of concern with or
    interest in the communities where they are
  • What caused the change? The Carnegie
    Foundations 1987 report College The
    Undergraduate Experience in America decries the
    lack of connection between campuses and the real
    world by noting a pervasive sense of parochialism
    and intellectual and social isolation that
    reduces the effectiveness of the college and
    limits the vision of the student.
  • Boyer, Community Education Journal, October

Boyers work is just as relevant now as it was
nearly 25 years ago.
  • Boyer supports the scholarship of application,
  • that it is concerned with questions such as
  • How can knowledge be responsibly applied to
    consequential problems?
  • How can it be helpful to individuals as well as
  • Can social problems themselves define an agenda
    for scholarly investigation?
  • Boyer, Scholarship Reconsidered, 1990

Universities Do Not Live by Research Alone
  • "Throughout the country, educators and their
    critics are renewing the old debate over the
    faculty's preoccupation with research and its
    effects on the quality of teaching. On one campus
    after another, there are stirrings that seem to
    presage a willingness to think afresh about the
    criteria that determine tenure and measure the
    success of faculty careers. Derek Bok,
    Harvard University
  • And California Governor Jerry Brown just
    made the same points in this 2013 Budget Address.
  • We have learned that research and community
    service-learning are very compatible.
  • Faculty can publish what they do.

Research Shows Service-Learning Works
  • Personal Outcomes - Identity, spiritual growth.
    moral and interpersonal development, ability to
    work with others, leadership and communication
  • Social Outcomes - Reducing stereotypes,
    facilitating cultural and racial understanding,
    more social responsibility and citizenship
    skills, increased commitment to service and
    involvement in community service after
  • Career Outcomes - Contributes to career
    development and choice of majors, which aids in
    student retention.

Research Shows Service-Learning Works
  • Academic Learning Mixed impact. Doesnt improve
    grades or GPA, but does improve complexity of
    understanding, problem analysis, critical
    thinking and cognitive development.
  • Service-learning has been identified as one of
    five high impact practices in a landmark 2010
    study by the American Association of Colleges and
  • And its impact extends to post-college.
  • Many other studies are available on impact from
    the National Service-Learning Clearinghouse

Service-Learning 101
  • Definitions
  • Volunteerism
  • Community Service
  • Internships/Practicum
  • Field Work
  • Civic Engagement
  • Community Service-Learning

  • Volunteerism - Describes people, who of their own
    free will and without pay, perform service or do
    good work. This can be done on a regular or
    sporadic basis with community groups, faith-based
    organizations, political parties, etc.
  • Community Service - Organized volunteering
    designed to meet the needs of the community.
    Most often through non-profit organizations,
    schools or public agencies. Can be court-ordered,
    so some may think its a punishment.
  • Internships/Practicum - Capstone academic
    experience through which students implement
    material covered in a series of classes.
  • Field Work- Depending on discipline, refers to
    class-related experiences in clinical or natural
    settings. Often required for licensing or
  • Civic Engagement - A commitment to active
    learning, developing student awareness of civic
    responsibility, and addressing social and
    economic needs defined by the larger community.

Community Service-Learning
  • Academic study linked to community service
    through structured reflection so that each
    reinforces the other. The academic study may be
    in any discipline or combination of fields. The
    community service may be direct service to people
    in need community outreach and education,
    research or policy analysis.

(No Transcript)
Sound good? Lets design a course!
  • 7 simple steps
  • Define student learning outcomes
  • Define scholarship outcomes
  • Plan community collaboration
  • Design the course
  • Prepare logistics and forms
  • Reflect, analyze, deliver
  • Assess your results

(No Transcript)
Define Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)
  • Primary Goal
  • Understanding of Course Content
  • Value Added Goals
  • Understanding Related Societal/Professional
  • Awareness of and Involvement with Community
  • Commitment to Service
  • Career Development
  • Self-awareness, Sensitivity to Diversity, Sense
    of Ownership
  • Improved Communication and Critical Thinking
  • Leadership, Values, Taking Responsibility,
  • What value added goal are you trying to achieve?
    Type in (1) what course you teach and (2) what
    your value added goal is.

Lets Try One
  • Primary Goal
  • Understanding of Course Content
    Service-learning project always advances this
    goal, but the pedagogy and service experiences
    change depending on the other value-added student
    learning outcomes, level of course, and how it
    fits into departmental assessment plans.
  • Value-Added Goal
  • Example - Understanding Related
    Societal/Professional Issues. Lets use
    accounting majors. They can tie their service to
    current events and policy issues, such as tax
    reform, that raise issues of social justice.

How will it work for different disciplines?
  • Accounting, finance and business students can
    help seniors and low-income community members
    complete tax forms and analyze how pending bills
    and current events such as the fiscal cliff
    will affect them.
  • Social science students can compare how varying
    tax policies will affect the non-profit agencies
    they serve.

How will it work for different disciplines?
  • Art, music and theatre students can research
    effects of government budgets on donations and
    write fundraising appeals.
  • Science students can compare grant guidelines and
    help write grants.
  • What you teach will define the s-l experience.
  • Lets do one of yours.

Define Scholarship Outcomes
  • What messages are being sent about how your
    institution values service?
  • Developmental Model Junior faculty should
    devote early years to establishing teaching and
    research expertise that will become the basis for
    service later in their careers.
  • Perpetual model Service is valued and expected
    throughout the professional career and is a
    responsibility equal to research and teaching
    (Stanton, Giles and Cruz, 1999).

Some Good Questions To Ask
  • Are non-traditional teaching and learning
    practices valued at your institution?
  • Are there proper evaluation tools for
    non-traditional practices?
  • What types of service-learning related research
    will be acceptable?
  • Only discipline-based?
  • Pedagogical?
  • Both?
  • What other forms of the scholarship of service
    will be rewarded?
  • BOTTOM LINE Learn the culture of your

A Scholarship Example
  • Identify problem with community partner
  • Develop a question
  • Select a research design
  • Have students gather data while they are
    performing service
  • Data will allow submission to both
    discipline-based and pedagogical journals
  • The case of the senior wheeler-dealers!
  • Romack, J. L. (2004). Increasing physical
    activity in nursing home residents using
  • student power, not dollars. Educational
    Gerontology, 30(1), 21-38.

Plan Community Collaboration
  • Why join a partnership?
  • What makes a good partnership?
  • Dont ever say Were from the University and we
    know what you need
  • Designing the partnership?
  • Role-playing exercise
  • Follow up with visits including faculty member
  • Complete forms
  • Decide logistics

What makes a good partnership?
  • Honoring the role of the community as
    co-educators and their support in providing
    students with professional skills.  Recognizing
    community voices in defining needs, faculty
    expertise in developing projects to address
    defined needs, and students' voices in
    implementing community learning projects.
  • Cal State Northridge Center for Community
  • http//www.csun.edu/csl/

(No Transcript)
Meet Your Potential Partner
  • Faculty need to explain their student learning
    outcomes. Partner needs to know that
    service-learning students are not the same as
    other volunteers.
  • Is it a good match?
  • If yes, talk logistics
  • Dates, available hours, how many students can
    site handle?, total hours per student?, are any
    tests necessary (TB, fingerprints, etc.)
  • Site procedures check in, tracking hours,
    parking or public transportation, clothing,
    supervision, communication, work site features,
    should they bring anything?

Plan Orientation
  • First introduction. Make it a good one upbeat,
    informative and appreciative.
  • Thorough (mission, history, population, programs
    and services)
  • Define expectations and open lines of
  • communication. Exchange contact
  • information and complete necessary
  • forms.
  • Tell students what they will learn.
  • Give them a tour and introduce them to staff.

Cover Rules Regulations
  • Cover relevant policies and procedures.
  • Review safety rules and accident procedures.
  • Review confidentiality and other legal rules.
  • Discuss supervision.

Cover Rules Regulations
  • Tell students what their responsibilities will be
    and what the staff responsibilities are.
  • Tell students your expectations re attendance,
    hours, professional conduct, job descriptions,
    training, evaluation process.
  • Create specific schedules, make-ups, school
    vacations, recording hours.
  • Tell partners to write it all down.

Sample Responsibilities Information
  • Show respect for your site.
  • Conduct yourself in a professional manner. Never
    report while under the influence.
  • Be punctual, responsible and courteous.
  • Wear appropriate attire.
  • Never loan money or personal belongings to
  • Never give clients rides.
  • Never tolerate any form of sexual harassment.
  • Be cautious about email, Facebook, etc.
  • Never make promises you might not be able to
  • Ask for help when in doubt.
  • Respect the privacy of clients.

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Design the Course
  • Many models available
  • Engaged departments develop 4 or 5-year
    (graduate students) plans to integrate service
    with department/ college goals for student
    learning at each level.
  • Service projects reflect appropriate levels of
    responsibility and ownership for students'

Design the Course
  • Freshmen will learn skill sets and build on them
    each year. Senior capstone courses allow seniors
    much more independence.
  • Students can be placed all together
    simultaneously, at different pre-screened sites,
    or at a site they choose individually
  • Without department plan, use your judgment.

Create a Learning Agreement
  • Student must complete it, sign it and give it to
    the site supervisor to sign.
  • Students should clearly state what they want to
    learn from the experience. To do this, students
    should review their class syllabus and determine
    how course content can be used at
    service-learning site.
  • Students should also explain why they chose the
    site, if appropriate.
  • Students should meet with supervisors to
    carefully decide the nature of the service
    activities. These should be designed to help
    students meet their learning objectives.
  • Students should acknowledge and agree to abide by
    the outlined responsibilities.

What is reflection?
  • Planned activities designed to help students
    process their service experience in a thoughtful
  • Integrates service into the heart of the course
    to promote desired learning outcomes.
  • The glue that ties the learning to the service.
  • Dynamic process that involves critical
  • thinking, analysis, evaluation,
  • problem solving, mediation and
  • reasoning.

Why is it done?
  • Helps students understand the big picture re
  • Proper role of the university
  • Their own lives
  • Understanding others
  • Understanding their roles as citizens
  • Professional requirement for adaptability in the
  • Lifelong learning and openness to new information
  • Without reflection, its not service-learning

When is it done?
  • Must be continuous (before, during and after
    service), connected, and challenging (ask the
    HARD questions- challenge beliefs, assumptions
    and expectations).
  • Must permeate the service experience.
  • Must be extensive - modest levels dont work.
  • Must be guided by professor, but students can
    help design.
  • Must receive feedback throughout the semester,
    not just at the end.
  • See Eyler, Janet, Creating your reflection map

How is it done?
  • Through specific activities designed to assist
    the student in processing the service-learning

How is it done?
  • Many, many paths
  • Journals (email is more convenient)
  • Think pieces and creative expression (make plays
    or videos, photo exhibits, art projects, write a
    letter to yourself at start, write songs or
    poems, letter to the editor or to director of
    government agency or corporation, design a
    website )

How is it done?
  • Role playing
  • Writing assignments
  • Assignments that link to learning styles
  • Problem-solving exercises
  • Deliverables
  • Creating community displays

Structured Reflection Journals
  • Journals that pose different questions throughout
    the semester
  • Journals that pose the same questions after each
  • Journals mixed with mini-analysis papers
  • Journals tied to lecture and reading
  • Interactive journals with classmates or community
    partners using technology
  • Groups journals in accessible places such as
    online chat rooms, Facebook, etc.


Think Pieces Creative Expression
  • Not the same as the deliverable
  • Write a play
  • Write a letter to yourself, seal it, leave it
    with instructor at semesters end reread it and
    write about change
  • Make a video
  • Write a poem or song
  • Compose a travelogue
  • Write a letter to the editor
  • Take photos
  • Draw or paint a scene
  • Design a website

Role Play
  • Bring a community partner to class and have them
    create or reenact a typical or challenging
    service experience
  • Divide students into groups and have each one act
    out a different role played by various
    populations involved in service experience (e.g.
    service-recipients, agency staff, professor,
    government agency, student)

Sample Writing Assignments
  • Community commentary
  • Describe a scene in the community
  • What story does it tell?
  • What does it say about the community?
  • What does this scene mean to you and why?
  • If the scene were a painting, what title would
    you give it?
  • Interpret quotes
  • A cynical young person is almost the saddest
    sight to see because it means that he or she has
    gone from knowing nothing to believing in
  • --Maya Angelou

Integrating Reflection Research
  • Reflection tools ARE data collection instruments.
  • So are interviews, surveys, participant
    observations, document analyses and analyses of
  • Software can analyze qualitative data by
    searching for keywords and developing themes.
  • Particularly useful when writing for pedagogical

Assessment Evaluation
  • Each stakeholder should evaluate all others.
  • Students evaluate agency
  • Agency supervisor evaluates student
  • Community partner evaluates experience
  • Students evaluate faculty
  • Faculty evaluate students

What do students evaluate?
  • Helpfulness of staff, orientation
  • Adequacy of supervision
  • Meaningfulness of tasks
  • Recognition of efforts
  • Did service enhance understanding of course?
  • (SLO 1) Did it achieve other value-added SLO?
  • Would you have learned more if you spent more
    time in class instead of at service site?
  • Do you plan to continue at the site as a
  • What would you do to improve the service

What Does Community Partner Evaluate about the
  • Did student fulfill the Learning Plan?
  • Did the student attend regularly and was s/he
  • What was the quality of the students service?
  • Was s/he sensitive to clients? Was there
    sufficient respect for confidentiality?
  • Were assigned tasks completed?
  • Did the student understand the sites role and
  • Was any aspect of the students work
  • What were the students main strengths/challenges?
  • Does this evaluation count toward the students
    grade in the course? How much? Make this clear
    on the syllabus.

What does the community partner evaluate about
the semester?
  • Were students adequately prepared for their
    service assignment(s)?
  • Did the amount of time required of you/your staff
    to supervise outweigh the benefits of student
  • What benefits do you think the students received?
  • What benefits did your site receive?
  • Please describe your working relationship with
    the faculty member.
  • What can the University do to improve the
    community-service learning program at your site?
  • Are you interested in remaining a partner? Would
    you like to add students in other majors?

Risk Management
  • Follow your University policies and legal
  • Cal State Northridges sample forms are online at
  • http//www-admn.csun.edu/risk/

Hot New Trends
  • Companies are organizing global volunteer
    opportunities for university students. (e.g.
  • Consider creating independent study programs
    where students can write proposals and do service
    for credit
  • Consider taking your entire class to a site that
    will allow them to link course content to

Recent Research Highlights
  • The number of college students who volunteer
    actually decreased from 2009 to 2010, but the
    total number of volunteer hours increased, a 2010
    study conducted by Volunteering in America
  • "This data show that the students who are
    volunteering are doing so more regularly or on a
    longer-term basis," says Heather Peeler, chief
    strategy officer for the Corporation for National
    and Community Service
  • The next generation of service-learning
    practitioners is here as pioneers and leaders are
    retiring. Who will pick up the torch? Are
    universities taking advantage of students who
    have learned about service in high school? Is
    there faculty development in service-learning for
    junior faculty?  Future of Service-Learning,
    (The) New Solutions for Sustaining and Improving
    Practice, Marybeth Lima and Jean Strait, 2009,
    Stylus Publishing, LLC
  • For many years, advocates have promoted
    service-learning's capacity to influence student
    attitudes and beliefs, especially toward
    diversity, social justice, and other pro-social
    attitudes. At the same time, many researchers
    have cautioned service-learning practitioners
    about the potential risks involved in using
    service-learning to affect these attitudes and
    beliefs. In particular, researchers have
    cautioned about the potential for unintended
    consequences of service-learning-- the potential
    for increased prejudice, stereotyping, and
    victim-blaming in service-learning participants.
    Service-Learning's Impact on Attitudes and
    Behavior A Review and Update, Future of
    Service-Learning, (The) New Solutions for
    Sustaining and Improving Practice , Joseph A.
    Erickson, 2009, Stylus Publishing, LLC .,
  • National Service Learning Clearinghouse,

(No Transcript)
Funding ChallengesFederal Support is Waning
  • Learn and Serve America, a national service
    program active from 1994-2011, engaged students,
    educators, youth workers, and community members
    in service-learning.
  • No funds have been appropriated for the program
    since 2011.
  • All program grants will conclude by September
  • Fundraising is more of challenging than ever, but
    service-learning may be done without much

What does it take to be successful?
  • In general, teachers and administrators indicate
    that six factors are important to
    service-learning success
  • Availability of technical support
  • Professional development opportunities
  • Financial support
  • Community support
  • Opportunities to collaborate and network with
  • Good fit between service-learning goals and
    school's mission and vision.
  • Educators Perceptions of How Schools Can
    Foster Successful Service-Learning, Paul Baumann,
    February 2013 , National Center for Learning and
    Citizenship (NCLC) Schools of Success report.

Additional Resources
  • Creating a Climate for Service-Learning
  • Cultivating Community Beyond Classroom
  • Five High-Impact Practices Research on Learning
    Outcomes, Completion, and Quality, Jayne Elise
    Brownell and Lynn E. Swaner, 2010, Association of
    American Colleges and Universities, ISBN /
    ISSN 978-0-9827850-0-3
  • Sustained Dialogue and Civic Life Post-College
    Impacts, Ande Diaz and Rachael Perrault, 2010,
    The Edward Ginsberg Center for Community Service
    and Learning, Michigan Journal of Community
    Service Learning,v.17(1), Fall 2010.
  • Future of Service-Learning, (The) New Solutions
    for Sustaining and Improving Practice. Marybeth
    Lima and Jean Strait , 2009 , Stylus Publishing,


Thank you for participating! 
  • Dr. Maureen Rubin
  • California State University, Northridge
  • maureen.rubin_at_csun.edu
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com