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Introduction to Shipping


Introduction to Shipping Lecture 10 Environmental Sustainability of Shipping – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Shipping

Introduction to Shipping
  • Lecture 10
  • Environmental Sustainability of Shipping

Shippings Main Environmental Footprints
  • Ballast water
  • Oil spills
  • Marine wastes (operational discharges)
  • Garbage (including cargo residues)
  • Sewage (black grey water)
  • Oily residues from engine room (bilge water
  • Air emissions
  • SOx, NOx, PMs
  • CO2

Main Environmental Footprint
Regulatory Regime
  • International Regime
  • MARPOL 73/78 (umbrella convention)
  • Six Annexes addressing different sources of
    operational pollution can be ratified
  • Annex I - Oil
  • Annex II Liquid Noxious Substances
  • Annex III Packaged Cargo
  • Annex IV Sewage
  • Annex V Garbage
  • Annex VI Air pollution
  • Subject-specific conventions
  • on ballast water, oil spill preparedness and
    response, etc.

Regulatory Regime
Source Uson Marines website
Regulatory Regime
  • Canadian Regime
  • Vessel Pollution Dangerous Chemical Regulations
  • Adopted under the Canada Shipping Act
  • Address discharges from ships (Part 2)
  • Oil (Division 1)
  • Noxious liquid substances dangerous chemicals
    (Division 2)
  • Marine pollutants (Division 3)
  • Sewage (Division 4)
  • Garbage (Division 5) (including cargo residues)
  • Air (Division 6)
  • Greywater (Division 9)

Management of Ballast Water
Ballast Water
  • 1. What is the issue?
  • BW is water carried by ships to ensure stability,
    trim and structural integrity
  • Essential for un-laden ships, loading/unloading
  • Shipping transfers between 3 to 5 billion tonnes
    of BW internationally each year (IMO data)
  • Excluding BW volume transferred domestically

Ballast Water
Source Globallast Partnerships (IMO)
Ballast Water
  • Discharge of BW sediments can lead to transfer
    of organisms from one marine ecosystem into
  • Organisms small enough to pass through the ships
    BW pumps
  • Bacteria , other microbes, small invertebrates
    and eggs, cysts, larvae, etc
  • Over 7000 different species can potentially be
    carried in ships BW tanks (IMO data)
  • Vast majority wont survive the journey
  • BUT, when factors are favorable, damages to host
    ecosystems are significant (ecologically

Ballast Water
  • European Zebra Mussel believed to have been
    introduced in Great Lakes through BW
  • Impacts
  • Believed to be responsible for extinction of many
    native species in the GL
  • Threat to human health Zebra mussels take in
    hazardous compounds such as PCBs and enter our
    food chain through fish and waterfowl that eat
    the mussels
  • Block pipelines, clogging water intakes of
    municipal water supplies and hydro companies ,
  • Estimated costs
  • Over 5 billion for industries, businesses and

Ballast Water
  • International Regime
  • In 1991, IMO adopted first set of Guidelines for
    the control and management of ships ballast
  • Promoted mid-ocean ballast exchange (subject to
    safety of ship/crew)
  • In 2004, IMO adopted the Ballast Water
    Management Convention requires
  • BW exchange (temporary options)
  • Limits safety concerns, salinity tolerance,
    sediments, etc
  • Onboard BW treatment to be phased in would be
    required for all vessels by 2016 and
  • Ship-specific BW management plan, record book and
    international BW management certificate

Ballast Water
Ballast Water
  • International Regime - Challenges
  • Availability of BW treatment technology and
    feasibility of retrofitting vessels
  • In 2004, expectations were that BW treatment
    technology would be ready by 2009 not the case
  • In summer 2013, only a limited number of vessels
    had been fitted with onboard BW treatment
    technologies In fall 2013, IMO adopted a
    resolution to delay implementation
  • Period of retrofitting for the world fleet will
    now be between 2017-2021 (instead of the original
    timeframe of 2016-2019)
  • Types of BW treatment technologies
  • Chemical treatment, heating, filtration,
    ultraviolet light, chlorination, etc.
  • There are about 40 BW treatment system approved
    to date

Ballast Water
  • International Regime - Challenges
  • Convention not yet in force
  • Although number of ratifications required (30)
    has been exceeded (36), necessary percentage of
    the world fleet (35) has yet to be reached
  • US has not yet ratified the Convention
  • Issues with states developing their own
    local/regional requirements

Ballast Water
  • Canadian Context
  • In 1989, Canadian guidelines for voluntary BW
    exchange for vessels entering the Great Lakes
  • Precursor to the IMO guidelines
  • Expanded in 2000 to apply nationally
  • Legal requirements ( 2006 and 2011)
  • Ocean going vessels entering Canadian waters
  • Conduct mandatory mid-ocean BW exchange and/or
  • Treat BW to IMO standards and/or
  • Retain BW onboard
  • Inspection salinity (30 ppm) of BW measured with
    a refractometer
  • Ballast Water Control and Management
    Regulations (under the CSA 2001)

Ballast Water
  • Canadian Context
  • Exclusion for coastal navigation
  • Not applicable if ships operate solely between
    certain ports on the west coast and east coast
  • Eg Vessels trading between ports North of Cape
    Cod up to Newfoundland
  • Canadian fleet (including lakers in the Great
  • Canada ratified BW Convention in 2010
  • Ongoing review of Canadian regulations
  • One scenario extending requirement to domestic

Oil Spills
Oil Spills
  • Two main sources of oil spills (accidental)
  • Vessels using oil /bunker as fuel for
  • Tankers carrying oil as cargo
  • Operational discharges of oily waste will be
    addressed later

Oil Spills
Oil spills from tankers have decreased
significantly, while oil trade has increased
Source Intertanko, Jeddah, 31 May 2010
Oil Spills
  • International Regime
  • International Convention for the Prevention of
    Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) Annex 1
  • Phasing out of single-hull tankers
  • Requirements for vessels to carry a shipboard oil
    pollution plan, etc
  • International Convention on Oil Pollution
    Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC 90)
  • Countries that have ratified the Convention must
    establish measures to deal with oil pollution in
    their waters, either nationally or regionally
  • Ships required to carry a shipboard oil pollution
    emergency plan report any oil spill incidents
    to coastal authorities
  • Requirements for stockpiling adequate equipment
    for combating oil spills, holding exercises and
    training, etc.

Oil Spills
  • International Regime
  • Civil Liability Conventions (CLC) Ensure
    adequate compensation to cover oil pollution
    damage resulting from maritime casualties
    involving oil
  • CLC for Oil Pollution imposes strict (no fault)
    liability on shipowner for pollution damage from
    tankers however, NOT absolute liability i.e.
    Convention and its Protocol set financial
    liability for any one incident (unless shipowner
    is at fault) - shipowners must have
    insurance/security to demonstrate ability to meet
    financial liability (1992 CLC Certificate)
  • International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund
    complements CLC Convention Protocol by
    establishing international fund with additional
    compensation for victims of pollution damage when
    CLC compensation is inadequate or unobtainable
    burden is shared between shipowners and cargo
  • CLC for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage addresses
    liability for pollution damages resulting from
    bunkers of ships other than tankers provides for
    compulsory insurance
  • This civil liability regime implemented in Canada
    through Marine Liability Act

Oil Spills
  • Canadian Regime - Ships source oil pollution
    prevention, preparedness and response regime
  • Regulatory agencies
  • Transport Canada (TC), Canadian Coast Guard and
    Environment Canada
  • Since 2010 only double hulled foreign flagged
    tankers calling in Canadian waters
  • All non-Canadian flag tankers inspected by TC
    Marine Safety on their first call to Canada in
    each calendar year
  • Ensure that tankers operate at norms

Oil Spills
  • Canadian Regime
  • Oil Spill response organizations (ROs) certified
    by TC under the Canada Shipping Act to respond
    to oil spills
  • Regional framework 4 ROs to cover Canadian
  • All ships in waters under Canadian jurisdiction
    (South of 60N) must have
  • An oil pollution emergency plan on board and
  • A contract with a TC certified oil spill RO that
    can respond to an oil spill anywhere the ship
    will travel in Canada
  • Ships pay an annual fee to ROs to maintain the
    level of preparedness to respond to a spill
    (private services as opposed to governmental

Oil Spills
Oil Spills
  • Ongoing review of Canada's Marine Oil Spill
    Preparedness and Response Regime Designed to
  • Review structure/effectiveness of the response
    regime (public/private partnership)
  • Assess adequacy of liability and compensation
  • Review tanker safety issues
  • Assess needs in Arctic waters (North of 60N)
  • Assess how to address increased risks of chemical
    spills in Canadian waters (including LNG)
  • Timeframe First report due Nov 2013 (existing
    regime), second report due Sept. 2014 (Arctic
    HNS/LNG response regime)
  • Review panel has heard from 100 stakehlders so
    far (see TC website)

Marine Waste
  • Environmental footprint of ships garbage
  • 70 immediately sinks to bottom of ocean
  • 15 washed up on the shore
  • 15 floats on or just under oceans
    surface(garbage islands)
  • How long for an object to dissolve at sea?
  • Painted wood13 yrs
  • Tin can100 yrs
  • Aluminum cans 200-500 yrs
  • Plastic bottles 450 yrs
  • Source Hellenic Marine Environment Protection

  • Obligations on vessels
  • MARPOL 73/78 - Annex V (revised in Jan 2013)
  • Garbage
  • Food waste, cargo residues, cleaning agents,
    plastic domestic oil, incinerator ashes, etc
  • Total prohibition on disposal of plastic
  • Total prohibition of discharge of waste in
    special areas
  • See map (next slide)
  • Restrictions on discharge of garbage (other than
  • in coastal waters

  • Cargo residues
  • Residual cargo that remains on board (in bilges,
    pipes or cargo tanks) after unloading
  • These residues end up in the washing waters that
    are used to clean cargo holds before their next
  • Now considered as garbage under revised Annex V
    of MARPOL 73/73

  • Cargo residues and cargo hold washing waters that
    are not harmful to the marine environment (HME)
    can be discharged under certain conditions
  • Outside of special areas if at least 12 nautical
    miles from nearest land AND while ship is en
  • Within special areas applies ONLY to washing
    water, ship must be in transit between ports
    without adequate reception facilities, ship must
    be12 nm from shore and en route
  • Cargo residues (sweepings) must be bagged
    discharged ashore

  • Responsibility of shipper to classify cargo
  • as HME (or not)
  • Harmonized classification by Jan 2015
  • But in the mean time, challenges from shipowners
    and shippers
  • Discharge recorded in the ships garbage record
  • book

  • Transitional regime for cargo residues that are
    Harmful to the Marine Environment (HME)
  • Until Dec. 31, 2015, can be discharged IF
  • NO adequate reception facilities at receiving
    terminal or next port call (as per info from port
    authorities) and
  • Discharge is done outside of Special Areas AND as
    far as practical from nearest land, but no less
    than 12nm
  • Amount is minimized (i.e., solid bulk cargo
    residues swept, bagged and discharged ashore,
    etc) and discharge recorded in ships garbage
    record book

  • What happens if cargoes residues washing waters
    cannot be discharged?
  • Must be discharged ashore prior to leaving berth
    or be stored in a ships tank during passage
  • Economic costs (time at berth at port, shore
    disposal costs and/or loading less cargo)
  • Recommended procedures for shipowners to
    navigate these new requirements
  • Liaise with charterers, shippers and ports of
    discharge to determine whether cargo is
    classified as HME prior to loading and, if it is,
    to ensure suitable reception facilities are
  • Ensure that charterparty will state who pays for
    these additional costs and who will be liable (if
    cargo residue not appropriately disposed of)

  • Garbage management on board vessels
  • Incinerators (for paper, packaging material, food
    waste, glass, etc)
  • Incinerator ashes discharged ashore or in
    accordance with Annex V
  • Grinder (for food), compacters (for cans),
    crushers (for glass)
  • To minimize volume
  • BMPs to reduce wastes at the source and promote
    discharge ashore (including recycling)

  • Canadian Context
  • Transport Canada has not yet updated its
    legislation to
  • reflect the revised Annex V of MARPOL 73/78
  • In the meantime, existing Canadian requirements
    found in
  • Division 5 of the Vessel Pollution and
  • Chemical Regulations
  • General prohibition on disposal of garbage in
    internal waters, fishing zones and arctic waters
  • Some exceptions - including (s. 101)
  • Garbage, when vessels more than 12nm from nearest
    land (except plastic and dunnage)
  • Garbage that has gone through a comminuter or
    grinder, so long as the vessel is more than 3nm
    from shore
  • Cargo residues under certain conditions (sections
    101 and 102)

  • Shore reception facilities
  • MARPOL 73/78 - Annex V
  • State party to Annex V MARPOL shall ensure that
    ports under their jurisdiction provide adequate
    reception facilities to ships
  • What does adequate mean?
  • Not causing undue delay to ships and meeting
    their needs
  • 24/24hrs 7/7 days?
  • Economically accessible?
  • Currently, waste reception facilities NOT
    available at
  • all ports

  • Definitions
  • Black Water Wastewater containing faecal matter
    and urine as well as medical facility waters
  • Grey water Water generated from domestic
    activities such as dishwashing, laundry and
  • Issues
  • Discharge of raw sewage in ocean and coastal
    sheltered water can create health hazards and
    damage to receiving ecosystems (eutrophication,
    visual pollution, etc)

  • International Regime
  • Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78 (Sewage)
  • Only regulates black water does not apply to
    gray water
  • Prohibits discharge of sewage (black water) into
  • Unless ship has an approved sewage treatment
    plant in operation or
  • The ship has an approved sewage comminuting and
    disinfecting system AND ship is 3 nm from nearest
  • Sewage not comminuted and desinfected must be
    kept in holding tanks and discharged 12nm from
    the nearest land

  • Canadian Regime
  • Canada has not ratified Annex IV
  • Legislative framework under division 4 of the
    Vessel Pollution and Dangerous Chemical
  • Blackwater
  • Ships must have approved marine sanitation system
    (or toilet with holding tanks)
  • Prohibition against discharging untreated sewage
    in Canadian inland waters and coastal waters
    within 12nm
  • Specific requirements for discharge of treated
    sewage (limits on faecal coliforms)
  • Greywater
  • Must ensure that release does not result in
    deposits of solids or leave a sheen on the water
    (subsection 4)
  • Specific requirements for passenger vessels
    (subsection 5)

Oily Residues from Engine Room
  • Oily residues are a normal by-product of a ships
    operations and can be generated by
  • Treating bunkers (which ships use as fuel)
  • Bilge water that is produced from cleaning a
    ships machinery spaces
  • This water is often contaminated with fuel oils
    and lubricating oils and accumulates in bilges
    (residual collection tanks) of the engine room

Oily Residues from Engine Room
  • International Regime
  • Annex 1 MARPOL 73/78
  • Prohibits discharge at sea of oily mixtures
    except under certain conditions
  • Ship is not in a special area (see notes)
  • Ship has an approved oily water separator onboard
  • Ship is en route AND bilge water that is
    discharged (after being processed through the
    oily water separator) results in an effluent that
    has an oil content less than 15 parts per million
  • Alternatively, retain in holding tanks until
    discharged at shore
  • Lack of proper reception facilities despite
    obligation imposed on port states..

Oily Residues from Engine Room
  • Canadian regime
  • Division 1 of the Vessel Pollution and Dangerous
  • Chemical Regulations incorporates requirements
  • Annex 1 MARPOL
  • However, it provides for stricter requirements
  • discharges in Canadian inland waters
  • Limited to a 5 ppm limit oily content - as
    opposed to the 15 ppm (under MARPOL)
  • Ships must be equipped with a 5ppm bilge alarm
  • Zero discharge in Arctic waters

Oily Residues from Engine Room
  • Primary objective should be to reduce oily water
    residues through operational procedures
  • Shipping Federations Code of Best Practices for
    Managing Oily Water Waste in Ships Engine Rooms
  • Minimize amount of water, condensation, oil,
    lubricants, gray water etc., collecting in the
    engine -room bilges through rigorous maintenance
    of machinery and proper use of receptacles and
    drip pans
  • Clean bilges regularly and remove any solid
    material that may reduce the performance of the
    oily water separator (OWS) etc

Oily Residues from Engine Room
  • Illegal operational discharge of oily water off
    Canadian coasts
  • Chronic pollution? Not unique to Canada
  • According to some estimates, 300,000 birds killed
    off of Newfoundland's coast every year
  • Independently of debates on accuracy of above
    figures, Canadian measures to prevent these
    illegal discharges include
  • Aircraft surveillance
  • Increased enforcement and higher fines
  • Legislative amendments to Migratory Birds
    Convention Act, 1994 and Canadian Environmental
    Protection Act (1999)
  • Some issues with the legislative means but
    several ship-owners support the objectives

Marine Waste - Overview
Marine Waste - Overview
Air Emissions From Ships
SOx and NOx Emissions
  • What is the main issue
  • Combustion of ships fuel (marine bunkers)
  • Sulphur Oxides (Sox)
  • Nitrogen Oxide (Nox)
  • Particles (fine dust) called particulate matter
  • These gases and particles are harmful to human
    health (air quality problems), the oceans and the
    atmosphere (acidification, etc.)

SOx and NOx Emissions
  • SOx emissions can be reduced by decreasing the
    sulphur content in the fuel supplied to the
    vessel this will also lead to lower PM emissions
  • Use of fuel with low sulphur content
  • Move from heavy oil to distillate/diesel oil
    which contains less sulphur or
  • Technological improvements (green technologies)
  • EG Use of scrubbers to reduce SOX from exhaust
    certain studies show this can reduce Sox up to
  • NOx emissions can be reduced by improving engine
    (diesel engine) efficiency

SOx and NOx Emissions
  • International Regime
  • Annex VI MARPOL 73/78
  • Imposes limits on emissions of Sox PMs from
  • Global SOx cap
  • Current 3.5 (reduced from 4.5 as of Jan 2012)
  • By 2020 progressively reduced to 0.5, subject
    to feasibility
  • Stricter in Emission Control Areas (ECAs)
  • Current 1
  • Jan 2015 will be further reduced to 0.1
  • ECAs North America is an ECAs

SOx and NOx emissions
  • Challenges linked to increased SOx limits
  • Availability of low sulphur fuel
  • Increased demand for distillate demand
    availability on the market? Extra costs
  • Fuel costs already represent 50 of operating
  • Alternatives
  • Use of Scrubbers
  • Challenges costs (up to 2 million in some
  • will there be enough space on board, crew
    training, etc
  • Use of Liquid Natural Gas as fuel

SOx and NOx Emissions
  • International Regime
  • Annex VI MARPOL 73/78
  • Imposes limits on emissions of NOx
  • Optimize fuel combustion to reduce NOX emissions
  • Limits apply to new vessels only i.e., built
    after 2000
  • Limits in term of grams of NOx per KWT / depends
    on the engines maximum operating speed (rpm)
  • Global limits for Tier I and II levels
  • Stricter limits in ECAs that cover NOx ( Tier III

SOx and NOx Emissions

NOx emission limits under MARPOL Annex VI
Tier Ship Construction date on or after Engine Speed N engine rated speed Engine Speed N engine rated speed Engine Speed N engine rated speed
Tier Ship Construction date on or after nlt130 rpm n130-1999rpm Ngt2000 rpm
I 1 January 2000 17.0 grams/KWh 45 x n-0.2 g/Kwh 9.8 g/KWh
II 1 January 2011 14.4 grams/KWh 44 x n-0.23 g/Kwh 7.7 g/KWh
III 1 January 2016 3.4 grams/KWh 9 x n-0.2 g/Kwh 2.0 g/KWh
Source IMO website
SOx and NOx Emissions
  • Existing emission control areas

Area Pollutant controlled Adopted Entered into force
Baltic Sea SOx 1997 2005
North Sea SOx 2005 2006
North America Sox, Nox, PMs 2010 2012
US Carribean Sox, Nox, PMs 2011 2014
North America ECA include most of Canada and US
SOx and NOx emissions
  • ECA in North America

SOx and NOx Emissions
  • Canadian Approach
  • Differentiation between foreign flag (ocean
    going) and domestic (Canadian) vessels
  • Foreign flag vessels
  • ECA limits to also apply when vessels transiting
    in Great Lakes St. Lawrence River
  • Domestic vessels
  • Applied on a fleet averaging basis for vessels
    trading solely in the GL St. Lawrence River
  • Note At this stage, US does not intend to apply
    ECA limits to US lakers (although applied to the
    rest of their internal waters)

SOx and NOx Emissions
Possible future ECAs
CO2 Emissions
  • CO2 is the main greenhouse gas
  • Combustion of marine bunkers produces CO2
  • Increase of CO2 emissions contributing factor to
    global warming

CO2 Emissions
Comparison by sectors
Source Global emissions of CO2 in 2007 (Second
IMO GHG Study 2009)
CO2 Emissions
Ships, the most energy efficient on a tonne-km
Source Shipping, World Trade and the Reduction
of CO2 emissions, International Chamber of
CO2 Emissions
  • International shipping accounts for between 2.7
    to 4 of global CO2 emissions while transporting
    90 of international trade
  • Nevertheless, this percentage may increase by as
    much as 200-300 percent by 2050 (from 2007 level)
    due to expected growth in international trade
  • Demand is the primary driver BUT would not fit
    with global objective to reduce CO2 emissions
  • How do we ensure sustainability of marine

CO2 Emissions
IMO has identified significant potential for
reduction of GHGs / CO2 emissions through
technical operational measures Could reduce
emissions rate by 25 to 75 below current levels
CO2 Emissions
  • International Regime
  • MARPOL Annex VI (Chapter 4)
  • Entered into force on January 1, 2013
  • 2 mandatory mechanisms intended to ensure energy
    efficiency standard for ships
  • Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
  • Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)

CO2 Emissions
  • Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) applies
    to new ships
  • This a performance-based mechanism requiring
    specified level of energy efficiency in new
    ships (technical measures)
  • The EEDI index is based on a continuous
    improvement approach , i.e., increased
    requirements over time
  • Set in terms of maximum (Grams of CO2 per
    tonne-nautical mile (g/tnm)

CO2 Emissions
  • Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SSEMP)
    applies to all ships
  • A mechanism for operators to improve the energy
    efficiency of their ships
  • Mostly translates into operational measures to
    reduce fuel consumption
  • Several approaches slow speed, voyage
    optimization (reduced port time, best route
    forecasting), optimization of engine hull
    maintenance, etc.
  • Involves monitoring energy efficiency performance
    and reviewing potential for improvement at
    regular intervals (new technologies, practices)

Other Environmental Issues
  • Ship recycling
  • Shoreline rrosion caused by the wake of the ship
    in narrow passages
  • Eg St. Lawrence
  • Impacts on marine mammals
  • Noise (in port)
  • Dust (loading discharge operations), etc
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