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Long-Duration Interplanetary Spacecraft: A Design Study


Long-Duration Interplanetary Spacecraft: A Design Study Ryan Haughey Undergraduate Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Texas A&M University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Long-Duration Interplanetary Spacecraft: A Design Study

Long-Duration Interplanetary Spacecraft A
Design Study
Ryan HaugheyUndergraduateDept. of Aerospace
Engineering Texas AM University
Project Overview
  • Design project for aerospace engineering students
    in final year of undergraduate program
  • Subgroups developed initial goals, which were
    later integrated into a final spacecraft
  • Presented to board of industry and academic
    reviewers in Dec. 2012

Mission Statement
  • To expand the domain of humanity beyond the
    earth for the betterment, preservation, and
    advancement of all humankind by creating a
    self-sustaining, mobile habitat that ensures the
    physical and psychological well-being of its
  • gt24 Month Trip Time
  • 12 Crew Members
  • Capable of Interplanetary Space Travel

Whats the Purpose?
  • Scientific
  • Advance the state of the art in diverse
    technological areas
  • Innovations for space usually have important
    terrestrial applications
  • Economic
  • Mining of asteroids could yield many valuable
  • High demand for space tourism, research
  • Exploratory
  • Spark a new age of enthusiasm for the sciences
  • Inspire next generation of scientists and

Ultimate goal
  • Attain economic viability and sustainability of
    the interplanetary habitat through a range of
    revenue-generating activities, primarily mining
    of asteroids

Design DriversDetailed DesignCompetitive
  • Presentation Outline

Design DriversDetailed DesignCompetitive
  • Presentation Outline

Design Goals
  • Elements of a viable system
  • Livability Crew must be able to function,
  • Practicality Magic solution will not appear,
    must deal with proven feasibility of technology
  • Modularity Assembly must be simple, repairs
    must be efficient, expansion must be an option

Challenges of a Interplanetary Space
  • Physiological
  • Physiological
  • Weightlessness
  • Livability
  • Radiation
  • Cost barriers to entry

Design Driver Physiological Factors in Prolonged
  • No human being has ever traveled into
    interplanetary space
  • In 5 decades of manned spaceflight, our
    understanding of physiological change during long
    duration missions remains limited
  • Physiological impacts are significant and varied
  • During the course of a mission 0-g effects (bone
    loss, muscle loss, immune system impairment,
    etc.), radiation exposure and immunological
  • Return to Earth cardiovascular de-conditioning
    and orthostatic intolerance
  • Both in-flight and post-flight physiological
    issues must be countered

Design Driver Countering 0-g Effects
  • There is no completely satisfactory approach to
    countering 0-g effects aside from sustained
    artificial gravity.
  • We do not know how much g is required to
    maintain human health indefinitely (besides zero
    g bad, and one g good)
  • We will not know the answer to this for a long
    time, since long term experiments are required.
  • Therefore, in this design study, we require
  • 1 g artificial gravity.
  • Acceptable levels of Coriolis effects
  • Exposure to 1g almost all the time

Countermeasures Artificial Gravity
To avoid motion sickness, we must rotate below 4
rpm (while keeping the rotation radius as small
as possible)
Physiological Factors ? Size and Rotation Rate
  • 1 g artificial gravity and acceptable levels of
    Coriolois forces motivate
  • Rotation rate 3.5 rpm
  • Rotation radius 70m (Thus max dimension cant
    be less than 140m)
  • Exposure to 1g almost all the time means entire
    s/c must rotate (a separate wheel with an
    attached zero-g component is not practical)

Design Driver Interplanetary Space Environment
  • High levels of radiation present in
    interplanetary space
  • Material must limit radiation exposure to levels
    on par with ISS astronauts
  • Micrometeorite protection must also be included
  • Livable temperature must be maintained

Design Driver Mass
  • Support needed to keep structure together
  • Launch costs are around 2,000 per pound of
  • Standard trusses would add unnecessary mass
    alternative solution needed

The crew has to breathe!
Atmospheric compositionpO2 22.7 /- 9 kPa(170 /- 10 mm Hg)
p(inert gas most likely N2) 26.7 kPa
pCO2 lt 0.4 kPa
pH2O 1.00 /- 0.33 kPa(7.5 /- 2.5 mm Hg)
Total pressure ½ atm
What Shape?
  • ½ Atm pressurization centrifugal loading ?
    Solids of revolution are the most efficient
    pressure vessels

Torus Minimum ratio of pressurized volume to
useful floor space Rotation axis axis of
maximum inertia ? Attitude is passively stable
Sphere Large ratio of pressurized volume to
useful floor space (projected area)
Long cylinder Axis of minimum inertia rotation
axis ? Energy dissipation results in disruptive
nutation Active attitude control of this one
more thing to go wrong
How Much Space Do People and Plants Need?
Space use Surface arearequired,m2/person No. oflevels Projectedarea, m2 Estimatedheight, m Volume,m3/person
Residential 49 4 12 3 147
Offices 1 3 0.33 4 4.0
Assembly rooms radiation storm shelter 1.5 1 1.5 10 15
Recreation andentertainment 1 1 1 3 3
Storage 5 4 1 3.2 16
Mech. subsystemCommunication distr.switching equipment 0.5 1 0.5 4 0.2
Waste and water treatmentand recycling 4 1 4 4 16
Electrical supply anddistribution 0.1 1 0.1 4 0.4
Miscellaneous 2.9 3 1 3.8 11.2
Subtotals 65.0 - 21.43 - 212.8
Agricultural space (a) Plant growing areas 44 3 14.7 15 660
(b) Food processingcollection, storage, etc. 4 3 1.3 15 60
(c) Agricultural drying area 8 3 2.7 15 120
Totals 121.0 - 40.13 - 1052.8
Total Projected area per person 40 m2 Total
Volume per person 1050 m3
Note This is Table 3.2 of cited reference 2, but
with several categories of space removed owing to
the limitations of a 12-person vessel. The
spaces removed are Shops, schools and hospitals,
public open space (500 m3) service industry
space, transportation and animal areas.
Is a Complete Torus Too Roomy?
z, zb
2 r
y, yb
x, xb
With R70m, r5m and three floors Projected
area 10X2?RX3 12,600 m2 Enough for 315
people! But we only need to sustain 12 ..
Solution Use only what you need!
  • Embed the hab modules in a stiff, light tensioned
    cable, compressed column structure a proven
    approach to precision space structures.
  • Cables carry most of the centrifugal loading
  • Junctions are statically determinite, permitting
    accurate analysis
  • Stiffness is provided in all six rigid body hab
    module degrees of freedom.
  • Lowest vibration modes avoid frequencies that
    induce motion sickness
  • Design is expandable by adding more hab modules
    and more supporting cables
  • Note
  • A truss and walkway connect the hab modules
    (with each other and with agrimodules)
  • Cross truss and rotation axis column serve to
    give sufficient stiffness.
  • Cross truss supports agg modules
  • Propulsion engines located at tips of cross
    truss. Protects Hab and Agg modules from
    radiation. Provides control authority for both cm
    acceleration and rotation control
  • Modular pod configuration
  • Attach modules as needed to support volume
  • Addressing new challenges
  • Vibration damping using tensioned cables and
    compression columns
  • Natural frequencies causing motion sickness are
  • Capitalizing new advantages
  • Engines may be placed along outer radius of
    structure without interfering with livable area

Mission Requirements
  • Minimize delta-v required for transportation
  • 2-3 year mission duration

  • Constant thrust departure from LEO to Lagrange
  • Grand Tour of interplanetary space in Earth
    Sun system
  • Drift along energy boundary of Earth-Sun system
    with little to no delta-v
  • Orbit cycle used by many asteroids, could allow
    for rendezvous and mining

Initial Deployment Spiral out to E-M L1
  • Start in 300 km circular orbit about Earth
  • Thrust always aligned with the velocity vector
  • Full thrust up until 11 days and coasting to L1
  • Spiral out to a coasting trajectory to the E-M L1
  • Meld into the Lyapunov orbit of L1 Station and
  • Propellant mass 21 MT
  • Trip duration 5.6 months

From E-M L1 to S-E L2 Start of the First Grand
  • After refueling, leave L1 on the outward
    invariant manifold.
  • Swing by the Moon and exit the E-M L2 throat in
    time to meld with a heteroclinic orbit leading to
    the Sun-Earth L2
  • Take one turn around the Lyapunov orbit and
    enter the external domain of the Sun-Earth system

E-L1 to S-L2 ?V12m/s, 50 days
122,720 km
Earth-Moon Frame
Sun-Earth Frame
Asteroid Mining Tours Exterior Realm
  1. Drop off cargo at L1 Station. Leave L1 Lyapunov
    orbit. Follow heteroclinic orbit to L2 (pink
    line, left to right) (drop off cargo at
    Earth-Moon system)
  2. Meld into L2 Lyapunov orbit, follow for ¾ of a
    period, then follow the unstabile manifold (green
    line, heading down)

3.0 million km
Sun-Earth Frame
Through S-E L2 to the Grand Tour of the Exterior
3. Follow the homoclinic, exterior domain orbit
(green path issuing from L2 and going
clockwise) 4. Mine Amors and Apollos on the way
(3 years) Then see next slide
1 AU
Heteroclinic Transfer Between Exterior and
Interior Realms
  1. Follow homoclinic exterior domain orbit to L2 on
    the stable manifold (green line, pointing down,
    left). Refurbish and repair at L2 Station
  2. Meld into L2 Lyapunov orbit, follow for ½ of a
    period, then follow the heteroclinic orbit to L1
    (pink line, right to left).

3.0 million km
  1. Deliver cargo to Earth-Moon system. Meld into L1
    Lyapunov orbit, Exchange crew and refuel at L1
  2. Follow Lyapunov orbit for one period, then follow
    the homoclinic interior domain orbit (blue line
    heading to the left).

Through S-E L1 to the Grand Tour of the Interior
9. Follow the homoclinic, interior domain orbit
(red path issuing from L1 and going counter
clockwise) 10. Mine Atens and Apollos on the way
(two years) 11. Then follow the stable manifold
to L1 (blue line in previous slide, heading to
the right). 12. Refuel and exchange crew at L1
station. Go to step 1 and repeat.
Forbidden zone
3-2 resonance
Design DriversDetailed DesignCompetitive
  • Presentation Outline

Management PM Ryan Haughey Assistant PM Blaise
Budget Scheduling
System Overview ArchitectureMichael Pierce,
Paola Alicea, Terry Huang, Luis Carrilo,
Christopher Roach, Mario Botros
  • Goal
  • Synergize design concepts to meet functional
  • Challenges
  • Physiological radiation, bone loss, air
  • Psychological confinement, productivity
  • System stability

Moment of Inertia Overview
x,y,z axes Principal axes of inertia Ixx
203,300 MT-m2 Iyy 463,600 MT-m2 Izz 641,300
MT-m2 Total Mass 350MT
46MT (total)
Izz is largest moment of inertia rigid body
nutation of the spin axis due to energy
dissipation coupling is suppressed
Architecture Overview
Nuclear Reactor and Engine
Water Ballast
40 m
70 m
70 m
17 m
40 m
Living Area
Agriculture Pods
Inflatable Living Pod
  • Modeled on NASA Transhab study (Inflatable pod)
  • Nearly 2 dozen layers in 1-ft thick skin provide
    thermal, ballistic, and radiation protection
  • Radiation Protection conservatively 30 rem/yr
    (ISS is 50 rem/yr)
  • Ballistic Protection Micrometeorite and Orbital
    Debris Shield
  • Each pod provides living space for four crew

Auxiliary pods
  • Identical to living pods
  • Low-gravity environment sufficient to allow for
    proper survival by plants
  • One pod optimized for food growth, other for
    oxygen generation

Engine Power Pods
  • Provides housing for power plant and engine
  • Power plant selected as nuclear reactor (further
    discussion later)
  • Shielding for nuclear reactor assists structure
    in deep space radiation and micrometeorite

Water Ballast
  • Stores system water
  • Displace water along structure length to adjust
    moments of inertia
  • Thermal management of water could be accomplished
    using heat pipes from power source
  • High levels of redundancy needed to protect
    against micrometeorite impacts on water column

Docking Module
  • Standardized module allows for docking of
    rendezvous craft
  • ISS PIRS module may serve as good model
  • Combination docking port and airlock

Image credit NASA
Floor Space Summaries
Living Pod Summary Living Pod Summary
Floor Area per Pod (m2) 79.48
Number of Pods 4
Number of Crew 12
Floor Area per Person (m2) 26.49
Stanford Study per Person Requirement2 (m2) 19.83
Agriculture Pod Summary Agriculture Pod Summary
Floor Area per Pod (m2) 142.98
Number of Pods 2
Number of Crew 12
Floor Area per Person (m2) 23.83
Stanford Study per Person Requirement2 (m2) 18.70
System Summary Architecture
  • Goal
  • Synergize design concepts to meet functional
  • Findings
  • Modular, inflatable habitation pods
  • Water ballast
  • Locate power, engine away from
  • the axis of rotation

System Overview Life SupportMegan Heard, Sarah
Atkinson, Mary Williamnson, Jacob Hollister,
Jorge Santana, Olga Rodionova, Erin Mastenbrook
  • Goal
  • Create an environment conducive to healthy human
    functions with minimal re-supply for duration of
  • Challenges
  • Crew nutrition health
  • Water recycling distribution
  • Waste Management
  • Oxygen regeneration

Crew Nutrition
  • Modeled on diet of residents of Greek island of
    Ikaria, noted for exceptional health and
  • For missions past 21 months, more practical to
    self-sustain food
  • Some portions of diet require bringing food along
    (meats, oils)
  • Proposed solutions
  • Aeroponically grow food in low-gravity
    agriculture pods
  • Maintain cold storage for stowed perishable food

Image credit Tower Garden
Nutrition Logistics
Aeroponics Farming Tower Gardens Aeroponics Farming Tower Gardens
Height (m) 1.83
Base (m2) 0.58
Number of Towers 12
Plants per Tower 28
Max Plant Output 336
Stored Farming (12 people, 2 years) Stored Farming (12 people, 2 years)
Total Stored Mass (kg) 8165
Total Stored Volume (m3) 13
Stored food consists of all which can not be
grown in tower gardens. Includes meats, grains,
sugars, salts, milk
Aeroponics Farming Shelf Aeroponics Farming Shelf
Total Area (m2) 6.69
Tower gardens used to grow range of fruits,
vegetables, and herbs. Shelf used to grow potatoes
Combination of produce and stored food allow for
full sustainment of crew for around 3 years
Water Treatment
  • Must handle waste-water and gray-water
  • Prevent disease development
  • Effective water recycling becomes advantageous
    after 0.5 months
  • Proposed solution
  • Utilize ECLSS system currently in place on ISS
    (95 efficient)

Water Summary Mass (kg) Volume (m3) Power (kW)
Water for Humans 5100 5.1 N/A
Water for Algae 7920 7.92 N/A
Water for Agriculture 1514 1.514 N/A
ECLSS Water Recycling System (2 units) 1782 6.51 4.42
Total 14801.87 18.81 4.42
Waste Management
  • Isolation of outpost requires full effective
  • Human waste can serve as effective crop
    fertilizers, reducing need for artificial
    fertilization (added mass)
  • Proposed solutions
  • Closed-loop system with high-efficiency
    composters ECLSS water filtration system
  • Tie-in to agriculture system for fertilization

Waste Summary
Solid Waste Mitigation Summary Solid Waste Mitigation Summary
Solid Waste Production (kg/person/day)3 0.2
Number of Crew 12
Daily Waste Production (kg/day) 2.4
Waste Processor Performance (kg/unit/day)4 0.43
Number of Processors 10
Waste Capacity (kg/day) 4.3
Excess Waste Handling (kg/day) 1.9
Liquid Waste Migitation Summary Liquid Waste Migitation Summary
Liquid Waste Production (l/person/day)5 2
Gray Water Production (l/person/day)6 19
Number of Crew 12
Daily Waste Production (l/day) 252
Water Processor Performance (l/unit/day)7 140
Number of Processors 2
Waste Capacity (l/day) 280
Excess Waste Handling (l/day) 28
Oxygen Regeneration
  • Standard CO2 scrubbing and Oxygen Generation
    Systems consume water in production of oxygen
  • After 21 months, a closed-loop system becomes
    more efficient
  • Proposed solution
  • Convert CO2 into O2 using green algae (Spirulina)
  • Mechanically filter other impurities
  • Back-up system (in case of disease or
    catastrophic failure) would be standard OGS/C02
    scrubber similar to ISS

Image Credit California State University Long
System Summary Life Support
  • Goal
  • Create an environment conducive to healthy human
    functions with minimal re-supply for duration of
  • Findings
  • High-nutrition, efficient diet
  • Recycle, grow as much as possible
  • Multipurpose systems
  • Waste used as fertilizer

System Overview Stress ThermalAlex Herring,
Brendon Baker, Scott Motl, Keegan Colbert, James
Wallace, Travis Ravenscroft
  • Goal
  • Develop a stable structure capable of
    withstanding loading profile
  • Challenges
  • Rotational Loading Rigidity
  • Truss design
  • Vibration Mitigation
  • Cable design and placement
  • Thermal Environment Management

Structural Layout Tensioned Cable
  • Cables connect pods in rotation plane to central
  • Transfers centrifugal loads from rotation plane
  • Significantly reduces need for trusses, total
    structure mass
  • Manages vibration propagation
  • Total compressive force 782 kN
  • Vibration mitigation drives cable size

Why such a complicated design?
  • Another structural configuration Bola
  • Habitation areas connected by cable in rotation
  • Suited to small structures, with few crew members
  • Scale, mass of current structure would cause
    serious vibration problems
  • Tensioned cable with column gives structural
    rigidity in all 6 rigid body DOFs
  • Additional benefits
  • Thrust located off the spin axis
  • More maneuverable, allows for easier docking
  • Much more expandable
  • Pods can be more easily located at intermediate
    points in structure

Structural Rigidity
  • Trusses needed to maintain crafts shape, operate
    in case of no centrifugal loading (much lower
  • Dimensions of structure require advanced
    materials to minimize weight
  • Proposed solutions
  • Composite (carbon-fibre) truss structure
  • Outer connecting tubes enclose truss, prevents
    outgassing radiation degradation of composite

Vibration Mitigation
  • Torus has been segmented, resulting in vibration
  • Cable dimension driven by vibration mitigation,
    not centrifugal loading
  • Failing to address vibrations could result in
    structure shaking itself apart
  • Augment tension cables to mitigate vibration in
    other planes
  • Avoid natural frequencies which induce motion
    sickness (0.05 0.8 Hz), 8 Hz (need more
    detailed model to address)

Cable Sizing Summary Cable Sizing Summary
X-translation mode minimum size (cm) 2
Y-translation mode minimum size (cm) 0.8
X-rotation mode minimum size (cm) 0.8
Thermal Management
  • Nuclear reactor will produce large amounts of
    waste heat
  • Near constant exposure to solar radiation once in
    deep space
  • Simple white exterior to living pods renders a
    temperature on order of -60oF
  • Proposed solution
  • Black/white surface coating combination (43
    white, 57 black) passively raises temperature to
    comfortable levels
  • Radiator of around 200 m2 sized using Idaho
    National Labs CERMET study (design basis for
    nuclear reactor)10
  • Heat pipes convey additional heat throughout
    structure to utilize as needed

System Summary Stress Thermal
  • Goal
  • Develop a stable structure capable of
    withstanding loading profile
  • Findings
  • Tensioned-cable structure reduces
  • truss mass, vibration
  • Passive cooling can accomplish
  • thermal control, with minor support

System Overview PropulsionKyle Monsma,
Benjamin Morales, Carl Runco, Paul Schattenberg,
Mark Baker, Steven Swearingen
  • Goal
  • Provide sufficient thrust to transport space
    craft into interplanetary travel
  • Challenges
  • Mission duration
  • Long-duration thrust development
  • Attitude control

Engine Selection
  • Continuous thrust system is most practical
  • Electrodeless Lorentz Force (ELF) thrusters are
    emerging as (relatively) high thrust, high Isp
    engine at a low weight size

Engine Comparison ELF8 VASIMR9
Engine Mass (MT) 3.8 7.6
Thrust (N) 66.5 47.5
Fuel Mass ( total) 8.74 7.84
Burn Time (days) 279 389
ELF Operation Fuel

Xe 5.894 3.057 1,839
Kr 3.749 2.413 2,891
  • Xeon provides maximum efficiency
  • Xeon has greater compatibility with existing
    spacecraft technologies

Image credit University of Washington, Dept. of
Aerospace Engineering
Spin-up Attitude Control
  • Need to attain 3.5 RPM for 1g conditions in given
  • Engines are mounted on edge of rotation plane,
    allowing gimballing to combine spin and forward
  • Proposed solution
  • During transit to Lagrange point, angle both
    engines to produce rotation
  • CMGs could also be used to provide heading

Spin-Up Detail
Properties Summary Properties Summary
Total Mass (MT) 350
Principle Moment of Inertia (kg m2) 6.63 E8
Required Angular Velocity (rpm) 3.5
Moment Arm (m) 70
System Summary Propulsion
  • Goal
  • Provide sufficient thrust to transport space
    craft into interplanetary travel
  • Findings
  • Low thrust, high-Isp engine (ELF)
  • Xeon fuel
  • Deflect engines to obtain spin

System Overview PowerCollin Marshall, Andrew
Tucker, Carl Mullins, Jack Reagan, Colby Smith,
Andrew Nguyen
  • Goal
  • Provide reliable electrical power to meet
    spacecraft systems requirements
  • Challenges
  • High power requirements by engines
  • Mass, size constraints
  • Radiation management
  • System redundancy

  • Estimated power requirements around 2 MWe
  • Solar array would be prohibitively large and
  • INL CERMET study demonstrated conceptual
    feasibility of space nuclear reactors of this
  • Emergency power must be available for sustaining
    limited life support functions in event of outage
  • Power distributed using similar system to ISS

Image credit (modified) Boeing Defense, Space
Reactor Core
  • 2 separate reactors placed on opposite arms of
  • Each reactor supports minimum power requirements
  • Location near engine reduces transmission cable
  • Passively stable with active control rods
  • Allows for variable power output
  • Conserves fuel and reduces overall mass

Shielding Power Generation
  • Be-W-LiH Layered Shielding covers broad spectrum
  • Required thickness 0.28m mass of 1,450 kg per
  • Shadow shielding Only shield craft needing
  • Power generated with standard Brayton cycle
  • High efficiency due to near 0K heat sink
  • Helium is working fluid
  • No regeneration
  • Each reactor-turbine combination produces
  • 1.5 MWe
  • Heat pipes circulate waste heat around structure

To center of craft
Note Cut-away view, shield is hemispherical
Power Conversion
Power Conversion Specifications10
Turbine Inlet Temperature (K) 1500
Pressure Ratio 15
Specific Mass (kg/kWe) 7.67
Total Mass (kg) 23,000
Efficiency 52
Total thermal output (kWt) 5770
Total electrical output (kWe) 3000
Total waste heat (kWt) 2770
Emergency Power
  • Solar panels capable of providing minimum
    life-support functionality paired with each pod
  • Back-up OGS system heating will require 20 kW

Solar Panel Array Specifications Solar Panel Array Specifications
Panel Efficiency11 0.29
Panel Area per Pod (m2) 16.7
Panel Mass per Pod (kg) 176
System Summary Power
  • Goal
  • Provide reliable electrical power to meet
    spacecraft systems requirements
  • Findings
  • Dynamic cycle power generation
  • Nuclear reaction heat production
  • Solar panels provide back up power

System Overview Budget SchedulingBlaise
Cole, Kevin Davenport, Lisa Warren
  • Goal
  • Track the mass, power, and monetary requirements
    for the system, and prepare a feasible deployment
  • Challenges
  • Developing funding structure
  • Creating deployment schedule

Systems Overview
System Mass (MT)
Architecture 235.4
Structure 7.0
Propulsion 40.8
Power 28.3
Life Support 34.9
Total 346.4
System Power (MW)
Architecture 0.35
Propulsion 1.9
Life Support 0.3
Power Required 2.56
Power Produced 3.02
  • Program would have extremely high costs for full
  • Significant levels of government support would be
    unlikely, undesirable due to loss of control
  • Very risky nature of project would make
    significant levels of debt unattainable, equity
    can lose direction
  • Proposed solution
  • Use bootstrapping plan start developing core
    components of craft with terrestrial
    applications provides revenue stream while
    supporting further RD of technology
  • Develop LEO research, tourism platform for
    further partnerships revenue streams

  • Significant number of launches would be required
    to deploy full craft
  • Assembling at Lagrange point would be extremely
    difficult and impractical
  • Proposed solution
  • Assemble the structure in LEO, use as platform
    for research and tourism
  • After built, transfer to Lagrange point (while
  • Crew rendezvous with craft at Lagrange point,
    mission starts at this point

Design DriversDetailed DesignSummary
  • Presentation Outline

Design Goals
  • Livability
  • Artificial gravity, radiation shielding, diet
    ensure long-term health
  • Internal architecture provides psychological
  • Practicality
  • All technology grounded in present or near-future
  • Modularity
  • Assembly, repairs simple due to common pod
  • Can incrementally grow station by adding modular
  • Potentially attain full torus

Potential Applications
  • Asteroid mining (would need further development
    of additional spacecraft for use in mining)
  • Space tourism (deep space or near-earth)
  • Debris removal and recycling
  • Scientific research platform
  • Permanent space station at Lagrange point

  • Dr. David Hyland
  • Department of Aerospace Engineering, Dwight Look
    College of Engineering, Texas AM University
  • The Fall 2012 AERO 426 team leaders and team

  • 1 Hyland, David, Class Lectures, AERO 426,
    Texas AM University, Fall 2012.
  • 2 R.D. Johnson, C Holbrow, editors, Space
    Settlements A Design Study, NASA, SP-413,
    Scientific and Technical.
  • 3 Feces, Encyclopedia Brittanica Online
    Edition, 2013.
  • 4 Oshima, T., Moriya, T., Kanazawa, S.,
    Yamashita, M., Proposal of Hyperthermophilic
    Aerobic Composting Bacteria and Their Enzymes in
    Space Agriculture, Biological Sciences in Space,
    Vol. 21 No.4, 2007.
  • 5 Urinalysis, Mercer University School of
    Medicine. 1994-2012 http//library.med.utah.edu/W
  • 6 Johnson, David, Graywater Treatment and
    Graywater Soil Absorption System Designs for
    Camps and Other Facilities, Alaska Department of
    Environmental Conservation, May 2005.
  • 7 Beasley, Dolores, NASA Advances Water
    Recycling for Space Travel and Earth Use, NASA
    News, Nov. 2004
  • 8 Slough, J., Kirtley, D., Weber, T., Pulsed
    Plasmoid Propulsion The ELF Thruster, 31st
    International Electric Propulsion Conference.
    Sept. 2009.
  • 9 Ad Astra Rocket Company, Company Website,
    2009-2013, http//www.adastrarocket.com/aarc/VX20
  • 10 Webb, J. A., Gross, B. J., A Conceptual
    Multi-Megawatt System Based on a Tungsten CERMET
    Reactor, Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for
    Space 2011, Idaho National Laboratory, Feb. 2011.

Thank you very much for your time!
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