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Effective Training Techniques


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Title: Effective Training Techniques

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Effective Training Techniques
  • Mark A. Hernandez, CHST
  • Houston South Area Office

Presentation outline
  • Most frequent cited standards 2010
  • Training requirements for Construction Industry
  • Other training references ANSI Z 490.1 Blooms
  • ASSE Professional Safety Articles on Effective
    Training Techniques
  • OSHA Construction Trainer resources and
  • OSHA Resources

Top 10 MFC standards in FY 2011 (1926)
  1. Scaffolding
  2. Fall Protection
  3. Ladders
  4. Fall Protection, Training Requirements
  • General Safety Health Provisions
  • Head Protection
  • Aerial Lifts
  • Eye Face Protection
  • Specific Excavation Requirements

Inspections Region VI 5,635 Nationally
40,993 Construction 3,600 (68)
Blooms Taxonomy
  • In 1780 Abigail Adams stated, "Learning is not
    attained by chance it must be sought for with
    ardor and attended to with diligence"
  • Although it received little attention when first
    published, Bloom's Taxonomy has since been
    translated into 22 languages and is one of the
    most widely applied and most often cited
    references in education.

Blooms Taxonomy
  • Creating can the student create new product or
    point of view?
  • Evaluating can the student justify a stand or
  • Analyzing can the student distinguish between
    the different parts?
  • Applying can the student use the information in
    a new way?
  • Understanding can the student explain ideas or
  • Remembering can the student recall or remember
    the information?

ANSI Z490.1 Criteria for Accepted Practices in
Safety, Health Environmental Training
  • 1.1 Scope - This Standard establishes criteria
    for safety, health, and environmental training
    programs, including
  • development,
  • delivery,
  • evaluation, and
  • program management.

ANSI Z490.1 Criteria for Accepted Practices in
Safety, Health Environmental Training
  • 3.2 The training program shall, at a minimum,
    include the following elements
  • - training development, including needs
  • - learning objectives,
  • - course content and format,
  • - resource materials, and
  • - criteria for course completion (see Section 4
    of this Standard)

ANSI Z490.1 Criteria for Accepted Practices in
Safety, Health Environmental Training
  • 3. Training Program Administration and
  • training delivery by competent trainers in a
    suitable training environment (see Section 5 of
    this Standard)
  • training evaluation and a continuous improvement

Effective training Case Study (Oil Gas)
  • 1. Compelling content
  • Must be interesting, credible, and compelling.
    Lessons learned proved to be significant
    (relevant story).
  • Use Adult learning theories.
  • 2. Identify the players
  • The Master in the group to act as a narrator
    for video, describing task and potential hazards.

Source Professional Safety March 2001
Pareto Principle
  • The Pareto Principle 20 of your priorities will
    gill you 80 percent of your production. If you
    spend your time, energy, money, and personnel on
    the top 20 of your priorities.
  • Determine which people are the top 20 producers
  • Spend 80 of your people time with the top 20
  • Spend 80 of your personnel development dollars
    on the top 20
  • Ask the top 20 to do on-the-job training for
    the next 20 (Multiply vs. Growth)

Pareto Principle
  • How to implement
  • Step 1 I do it.
  • Step 2 I do it and youre with me.
  • Step 3 You do it and Im with you.
  • Step 4 You do it.
  • Step 5 You do it and someone is with you.
  • Compounding (Multiplication) happens when you
    equip someone who equips someone else. People
    do what people see.

Effective training Case Study
  • 3. Avoid Common Mistakes
  • Do not use professional actors, the CEO for
    videos. The worker knows much more about the job
    than an outsider.
  • Best choice for the master trainer is the person
    who looks the part and speaks with occupational
    (not organizational) authority.
  • Use language that is understood by the workers
    and is a cultural insider.

Source Professional Safety March 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • The Training Process According to Kline (1985)
  • Training emphasizes the psychomotor domain
  • of learning. Training that is done in the
    cognitive domain is generally at the knowledge
    level or lower part of the comprehension level.
    Education, on the other hand, teaches a minimum
    of psychomotor skills. It concentrates instead on
    the cognitive domain, especially the higher
    cognitive levels. (ie. High comprehension above)

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • Adult Learners retain
  • 20 of what they read and hear
  • 40 of what they see
  • 50 of what they say
  • 60 of what they do
  • (people do what people see)
  • Building Rapport (Connecting)
  • 38 Tonality
  • 55 Physiology
  • 7 Words

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • Talk
  • All kinds monologues, dialogues, discussions,
    debates, interviews promotes creative and
    critical thinking.
  • Lecturing is the most common form of training
    only 20 what is heard is retained.
  • 2. Role Playing
  • Based on believability of scenario and
    participants -will gain life interpersonal

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • 3. Group Projects with single response
  • Break-out into 3 or 4 groups, give a scenario
    with same question, ea. group responds to 2
    questions, and has a time-limit for answers. Each
    group will deliver their responses.
  • 4. Group Project with Individual responses
  • Similar to 3., with instructor choosing one
    person and each person writes their own answers.

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • 5. Group Examination
  • Each group has a different scenarios and
    questions, each group give outcomes.
  • 6. Accelerated Learning
  • A combination of games or activities which
    involves imaginary and all of the senses in order
    to create a rich memorable moment (ex. Bingo).

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • 7. Student Demonstrations Show what they know
  • Allow students who know or are proficient in a
    specific area (Maestro/Master) and allow that
    person the opportunity to show their proficiency
    by allowing five minutes to demonstrate skill.
  • 8. Peer Coaching
  • One-on-One observe work and give positive

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • 9. Guided Discussions
  • This method is useful when a trainer is trying
    to help students develop their ability to asses a
    situation and think on their feet
  • Thinking is the hardest a person can do that is
    why so few engage in it. Henry Ford

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • 10. Simulations
  • A training environment set up to produce a
    comprehensive workplace-like experience.
  • 11. Storytelling
  • The single most effective training is telling
    relevant stories and having students reflect on
    them (Blair Seo. 2007)

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Engaging Learners Techniques To Make training
  • 11. Storytelling Cullen (2007) Four types
  • Hero Stories larger than life characters who
    saves another worker or prevents a crisis.
  • Villain stories one who is opposite of hero and
    causes the loss of life or crisis.
  • Adventure stories tell of a specific event
  • Fool stories a character who does things wrong
    and creates loss of life or crisis.

Source Professional Safety August 2001
Les Browns 3 step process of giving value in a
  • a. Distract From the present story they are
    currently listening to (emotionally, mentally,
    physically etc.)
  • b. Dispute Strategy to have individual back-away
    from their present limited belief. Having a good
    strategy makes you stand out.
  • c. Inspire To Behave different differently.
    Inspire to do more, challenge, think outside
    their present thinking add value. Dont simply
    tell it, Experience it. Only then will you draw
    the audience in with you by using your emotions,
    tone, and body language. You want to take the
    audience there and experience the moment with you
    thats connecting.

Other Resources
  1. Everyone Communicates, Few Connect. John C.
  2. Tribal Leadership Levering groups to Build a
    Thinking Organization Dr. Dave Logan
  3. Blooms Taxonomy http//www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau
  4. Les Brown video http//tellyourstory.lesbrown.com

Heat Illness Campaign
Fact Sheets, Posters English/Spanish, PSA
OSHA Training resources
  • Employee training must be provided in a language
    that employees understand https//www.osha.gov/de
  • OSHA Construction training http//www.osha.gov/dt
  • Intro to OSHA http//www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/te
  • Construction Focus 4 http//www.osha.gov/dte/outr
  • Susan Harwood Grants http//www.osha.gov/dte/gran

Safety Resources
  • Business Case for Safety http//www.osha.gov/SLTC
  • http//www.osha.gov/dcsp/products/topics/businessc
  • OSHCON http//www.tdi.state.tx.us/wc/safety/oshco
  • Safety Pays http//www.osha.gov/dcsp/smallbusines

Compliance Assistance Resources
  • Quick Takes
  • http//www.osha.gov/as/opa/quicktakes/index.html
  • Compliance Assistance Quick Start 1910, 1926,
    Healthcare, Hispanic https//www.osha.gov/dcsp/
  • OSHA Publications https//www.osha.gov/pls/public
  • BLS Incident Rate calculator
  • http//data.bls.gov8080/IIRC/?data_toolIIRC

Emergency Preparedness
  • Hurricane eMatrix https//www.osha.gov/SLTC/etool
  • Evacuation Plan Procedures eTool
  • Incident Command eTool https//www.osha.gov/SLTC/
  • Floods Tornadoes https//www.osha.gov/OshDoc/fl
  • NIEHS Hurricanes Floods http//tools.niehs.nih

Where is OSHA Located?
  • Houston North Area
  • Office
  • 507 N. Sam Houston Pkwy E. Ste. 400
  • Houston, TX 77060
  • 281-591-2438
  • Houston South Area
  • Office
  • 17625 El Camino Real Ste. 400
  • Houston, TX 77058
  • 281-286-0583

  • This information has been developed by an OSHA
    Compliance Assistance Specialist and is intended
    to assist employers, workers, and others as they
    strive to improve workplace health and safety.
    While we attempt to thoroughly address specific
    topics or hazards, it is not possible to
    include discussion of everything necessary to
    ensure a healthy and safe working environment in
    a presentation of this nature. Thus, this
    information must be understood as a tool for
    addressing workplace hazards, rather than an
    exhaustive statement of an employers legal
    obligations, which are defined by statute,
    regulations, and standards. Likewise, to the
    extent that this information references practices
    or procedures that may enhance health or safety,
    but which are not required by a statute,
    regulation, or standard, it cannot, and does not,
    create additional legal obligations. Finally,
    over time, OSHA may modify rules and
    interpretations in light of new technology,
    information, or circumstances to keep apprised
    of such developments, or to review information on
    a wide range of occupational safety and health
    topics, you can visit OSHAs website at

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