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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam


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Title: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
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Comparative Religions
Religion Judaism Christianity Islam
Origins Canaan 2000 BCE Palestine 30 CE Saudi Arabia 622 CE
Founders Moses Jesus Christ Mohammad
Adherents Jews Christians Muslims
Population 14 million Israel, Euro, US 2.1 billion Euro, Americas, Africa 1.5 billion Mid East, SE Asia
Comparative Religions
Religion Judaism Christianity Islam
Diety God Yahweh, Elohim God God Allah
Holy Book People of the book Torah (Old Test.) Bible (Old and New Test.) Quran (Koran)
Religious Law Halakhah Canon Law Sharia
Place of Worship Synagogue Church Chapel Cathedral Mosque
Clergy Rabbis Priest, Minister, Pastor Imam
Origins and History of Each Faith
4000550 BC
Abrahams Genealogy
All 3 Religions are linked by AbrahamHe is the
patriarch of all 3
  • Islam-Quran
  • Judaism-Torah

12 Arabian Tribes
Mecca (Muslims)
  • Muhammad (the last prophet)
  • Quran and the Five Pillars of Islam

12 Tribes of Israel
  • Other 10 tribes-(Israelites) (Hebrews)
  • 2 Tribes - (Jews) of Judah
  • Jesus Christ (son of God)
  • The Hebrew Bible - Old Testament in the Christian

Ten Commandments
Judaism, Christianity, Islam
  • All developed among the Semitic-speaking people
    of the deserts of the Middle East.
  • Judaism 4,000 years ago
  • Christianity 2,000 years ago
  • Islam 1,300 years ago
  • Share a common hearth in southwestern Asia.

Origins of Each Faith
  • Date and Place founded
  • Judaism approximately 1300 B.C. in Palestine
  • Some say the date is unknown
  • Christianity approximately 33 A.D. in Palestine
  • Islam 622 A.D. in Saudi Arabia

Founders and Early Leaders
  • Founders and Early Leaders
  • All three trace their origins originally to
    Abraham as explained in the reading
  • Judaism Abraham and Moses
  • Christianity Jesus
  • Islam - Muhammad

Brief History on Origins
  • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded
    Judaism around 2000 B.C.
  • Judaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths
    (religions with one God).
  • Christianity - Founded by Jesus Christ, who was
    crucified around A.D. 30 in Jerusalem
  • After his death his followers came to believe in
    him as the Christ, the Messiah.
  • Islam - Founded in Arabia by Muhammad between
    A.D. 610 and A.D. 632

Spread of Each Faith
  • Early Expansion
  • Judaism Little expansion mostly confined to
  • Christianity by the end of the 4th century
    Christianity spread across the entire Roman
  • Islam Within 12 years, entire Arabian peninsula
  • After 100 years stretched from Spain to
    Southeast Asia

Terms for Followers and Clergy
  • Followers Called
  • Judaism ?Jews
  • Christianity ? Christians
  • Islam ? Muslims
  • Clergy Called
  • Judaism ? rabbis
  • Christianity ? bishop, pastor, ministers, priest
  • Islam ? imams

Judaism Timeline
  • 1800 BCE ? Hebrews flee Canaan, migrate to Egypt
  • Lead by Moses to Sinai Peninsula. Covenant
  • 1 God, 10 Commandments, Chosen People
  • 1025 BCE? form kingdom of Israel in Fertile
  • Kings David Solomon help reach greatest glory
  • 500 BCE? Persians take over, Return to Israel
    rebuild temple in Jerusalem.
  • 70 CE ? Romans expel Jews from Israel/Palestine
  • Wont return until late 1800s

  • Jesus born in Roman ruled Palestine (Bethlehem)
  • Carpenters apprentice
  • Studied w/ rabbis - Preacher 30 yrs old
  • Some believed he was the messiah Savior from
    foreign rule, restore kingdom
  • Romans, scared of popularity refusal to accept
    emperor as a god, crucified him in 33 CE.
  • Followers, Christians, spread word
  • Everyone equal, salvation eternal life
  • Persecuted by Romans, became martyrs
  • 313 CE, Emperor Constantine converts
  • 395 CE, official religion Roman Empire

Islam Timeline
  • 610 CE? Angel Gabriel tells Mohammed he is to be
    the messenger of God/Allah
  • Merchant in Mecca
  • 622 ? flee to Medina, build 1st mosque
  • Hejira Yr 1 of Muslim Calendar
  • Prophet
  • Expansion of Islam
  • Uses war political maneuvering to spread
  • 632 control Peninsula
  • 732 Atlantic to Indus

How They Worship
Where and When They Worship
  • House of Worship
  • Judaism synagogue or temple
  • Christianity church, cathedral, chapel
  • Islam mosque
  • Day of Worship
  • Judaism Saturday
  • Christianity Sunday
  • Islam Friday

Languages of Faiths
  • Original Language
  • Judaism Hebrew
  • Christianity Aramaic and Greek, then Latin
  • Islam Arabic
  • Names of God
  • Judaism Yahweh and Elohim
  • Christianity God, the Trinity
  • Islam Allah

Holy/Religious Texts
Sacred Texts of Each Faith
  • Sacred Texts
  • All three accept the Old Testament as explained
    in the reading.
  • Judaism Hebrew Bible is the Torah, Talmud
  • Christianity Old Testament and New Testament
  • Islam Quran (Koran)

Monotheistic Beliefs
  • Ultimate Reality (Type of Theism)
  • Judaism One God
  • Christianity Trinity (God the father, God the
    Son, and God the Holy Spirit)
  • Islam One God

Divine Revelation---Gods Words
  • How do we know about God?
  • Judaism through prophets recorded in the Hebrew
  • Christianity through prophets and Jesus as
    recorded in the Old and New Testament
  • Islam through Gods final prophet Muhammad
    recorded in the Quran

Identity of Jesus
  • Judaism False prophet
  • Christianity Son of God, the Messiah, Savior
  • Islam prophet of God

Death of Jesus
  • Judaism death by Crucifixion
  • Christianity death by Crucifixion
  • Islam Did not die, but ascended into heaven (a
    disciple took his place)

Resurrection of Jesus
  • Judaism Denied
  • Christianity Affirmed
  • Islam Denied since he did not die

Means of Salvation
  • Judaism Belief in one God good deeds
  • Christianity correct belief, good deeds by
    faith accept Christ as Savior (Protestants)
  • Islam Belief in one God good deeds and follow
    Five Pillars of Faith

  • Judaism eternal heaven/ eternal hell
  • Christianity eternal heaven/ eternal hell
  • Islam eternal paradise (heaven)/ eternal hell

Symbols of Faiths
  • Judaism Star of David
  • Christianity cross
  • Islam crescent with name of Allah in Arabic

Views of Fellow Abrahamic Religions
View of Fellow Abrahamic Religions
  • Judaism Islam and Christianity are false
    interpretations and extensions of Judaism.
  • Christianity Judaism is a true religion, but
    with incomplete revelation. Islam is a false
  • Islam Jews and Christians are respected as
    fellow believers, but with wrong beliefs and only
    partial revelation.

Where They Can Be Found
  • Major Locations TODAY
  • Judaism Europe, Israel, North America
  • Christianity Europe, North and South America
  • Islam Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia

PP Design of T. Loessin Akins H.S.
Current Worldwide Followers TODAY
  • Judaism 14 million (ranks 12th)
  • Christianity 2 billion (ranks 1st)
  • Islam 1.3 billion (ranks 2nd)
  • In the USA
  • Judaism 5.6 million
  • Christianity 159 million
  • Islam 1.1 million

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Judaism In More Depth
  • religion of just one people the Jews.
  • first to teach belief in only one God.
  • Two other important religions developed from
    Judaism Christianity and Islam.

Judaism Beliefs
  • Jews believe that there is a single God (Yahweh)
    who not only created the universe, but with whom
    every Jew can have an individual and personal
  • They await the Messiah, who will be an earthly
    king. They believe in heaven, but that God
    determines where they go after life on earth.
  • Ten Commandments is the basic code of law.

Judaism Briefly
  • Judaism is around 3500 years old and is the
    oldest of the world's four great monotheistic
    religions (religions with only one God).
  • It's also the smallest, with only about 12
    million followers around the world.
  • Its holy city is Jerusalem.
  • The Jewish calendar is based on 29 or 30 days
    therefore they have 12.13 months.

Judaism Beliefs
  • Jews believe that there is a single God who not
    only created the universe, but with whom every
    Jew can have an individual and personal
  • They believe in heaven, but that God determines
    where they go after life on earth.
  • Give a tithe (10).
  • Ten Commandments is the basic code of law.

  • Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a
    deliverer) to unite them and lead them in His
  • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah.
  • The Jewish people do not agree they anticipate
    His arrival in the future.

  • Basic Precepts
  • Belief in One God
  • Torah - original 5 chapters of Bible
  • Prophecy of Moses
  • Coming of the Messiah still to come
  • Atonement accomplished by sacrifices, penitence
    good deeds

Jewish Philosophy
  • God is one and unique
  • God is the creator
  • God is transcendent
  • God is immanent.
  • God is lawgiver
  • God is personal
  • We have the obligation to worship
  • The Torah is God's law
  • God is judge
  • The Messiah will come.

Judaism Holy Book
  • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah (the first
    five books of the Christian Bible)
  • Others include Judaism's oral tradition, the
    written form of which is known as the Talmud.
  • The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five
    books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai.
  • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers Deuteronomy
  • Another important book is the "Talmud," serving
    primarily as a guide to the civil and religious
    laws of Judaism.
  • Hebrew is read right to left.

Judaism Place of Worship
  • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples.
  • Men and women usually sit separately.
  • Worship is led by a Rabbi.
  • Friday evening is time for worship.

Stamford Hill, London
The Temple
  • According to the Bible, the First Temple for
    Jewish worship was built around 900-1000 BCE and
    destroyed by Babylonians in 586 BCE.
  • The Jews were then sent out of Canaan, but
    returned after 50 years in exile.
  • A Diaspora occurs when a group of people leave
    their homeland and move to many different
    locations separately.
  • All of the worlds Jewish communities today that
    do not live in present-day Israel are part of the
    Jewish Diaspora.

The Temple
  • A new temple was finished 70 years later on the
    site of the First Temple, but was badly
    plundered by invading Romans about 54 BCE.
  • King Herod, a Jew, ruled Judea for the Romans.
    Under him the second temple was rebuilt in 20
  • When the Romans attacked Jerusalem again in 70
    CE(AD), they destroyed Herods temple.
  • Today, the single remaining temple wall, the
    Western Wall, is a place of prayer for Jewish
  • Jews moved away from the land again, until the
    modern state of Israel was formed in the late

  • Three major branches
  • ORTHODOX Traditionalists who observe most
    ceremonial laws and dietary restrictions.
  • CONSERVATIVE Do not hold the importance of a
    Jewish political state, but emphasize the
    historical and religious aspects of Judaism.
  • REFORM Liberal wing culture and race oriented
    with little consensus on doctrinal or religious

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7 Holy Days
  • Rosh Hashanah-Jewish New Year
  • Yom Kippur-A day of fasting and praying which
    occurs 10 days after the first day of Rosh
    Hashanah. The holiest day in the year
  • Sukkot-8 day festival of thanksgiving
  • Hanukkah-The Feast of Lights is an 8 day Feast of
    Dedication. It recalls the war fought by the
    Maccabees in the cause of religious freedom 

  • Purim-The Feast of Lots recalls the defeat by
    Queen Esther of the plan to slaughter all of the
    Persian Jews, circa 400 BC
  • Pesa(Passover)-The 8 day festival recalls the
    exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt
    circa 1300 BCE. A holiday meal, the Seder, is
    held at home
  • Shavouth-Pentecost recalls God's revelation of
    the Torah to the Jewish people

  • The Star of David is the international symbol of
  • Flag of Israel has it

  • Menorah-It is a symbol of the nation of Israel
    and a mission to be "a light unto the nations.

  • A Yarmulke is worn during prayer to shoe respect
    to G_d

Kosher Foods
  • Foods are kosher when they meet all criteria that
    Jewish law applies to food
  • Characteristics that make a food non-kosher
  • the mixture of meat and milk
  • the use of cooking utensils which had previously
    been used for non-kosher food
  • The type of animal it is

  • Leviticus 113 says that Jews may eat all animals
    that have cloven hooves and chew their cud
  • Leviticus 114 explicitly prohibited the
    consumption of animals that do not have these
    characteristics designating them "unclean to
  • Six mammals are specifically not allowed
  • The camel
  • The hyrax
  • The hare
  • The pig
  • Whales and dolphins

  • Kosher animals are as follows
  • Cows, goats, sheep, antelope, deer, giraffes,
    okapis and pronghorns
  • Most fish(excluding shellfish, sharks, octupus,
    eels and squid)
  • Chicken, duck, turkey
  • Milk and cheese are kosher but cannot be eaten
    with meat or mixed with meat.
  • Preparation
  • the slaughter of animals is designed to minimize
    the painusually done by a slice across the
  • this eliminates the practice of hunting for food
    unless it can be captured alive and ritually
  • All blood and veins must be removed from
    meat(salting and broiling are common methods)

Jewish homeland
  • Created 1948 from a British mandate from
  • Some people do not recognize its existence.
  • Long history of conflict with Arabs, particularly
  • Capital is Jerusalem, considered to be a holy
    place for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Judaism Map!
  • Judaism in 1500 C.E.
  • Judaism Today

Today, located in Israel and U.S.
In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East
Christianity In More Depth
Christianity briefly
  • Christianity is the world's biggest religion,
    with about 2.2 billion followers worldwide.
  • It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who
    lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.

  • The early Hebrews who eventually developed into
    the Jewish religion became the foundation of
  • Jesus, or the Messiah, was a Jewish boy who
    disagreed with some of the Jewish principles of
    his day began to profess a new way of thinking.
  • This eventually led to the beginning of the
    Christian religion.
  • The central point of Christian belief is that
    God, the Father, entered into human history as
    the Son, Jesus of Nazereth, and arose as the Holy

  • Monotheistic.
  • Evolved from Judaism.
  • Moved east and south of its hearth area.
  • Routinely spread through force.
  • European contact with the New World brought
  • Worlds largest religion.
  • Segmented into three separate churches
  • Catholics
  • Protestants
  • Eastern Christians

  • Catholicism - largest branch
  • Headed by the Pope
  • direct link to God
  • Ceremonial - 7 sacraments
  • baptism, marriage, Eucharist, etc.
  • Very traditional

  • Protestantism - (1517) Reformation era
  • No Pope needed
  • individual has direct link to God
  • Grace through faith rather than sacraments
  • forgiveness for sins through indiv. prayers
  • Spread though N. Europe and England
  • arose same time as 1466 Gutenberg Bible and the
    printing press

Martin Luther
  • Eastern Orthodoxy - 5th Century split
  • Rivalry between Pope and Patriarch of
    Constantinople (Istanbul)
  • Rome remained center for Roman Catholicism
  • Rejected Roman Catholicism doctrine
  • by 1054 officially split
  • National Churches
  • Russian, Greek, Serbian Orthodox, etc.

Christian Sects
  • Roman Catholicism vs. Eastern Orthodox-Christian
    Church divided when the Roman Empire was divided
    and then fell. Orthodox Christians do not
    recognize the authority of the Pope.
  • Catholicism vs. Protestantism-as a result of the
    Reformation, Protestant sects broke with the
    Catholic Church and established their own
    separate churches.

Christian Philosophy
  • God is the Creator of the universe. There is one
    God, Who is Three  Persons-      Father, Son and
    Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus is both fully man and fully God.  He was
    born of the Virgin Mary  Crucified, resurrected
    from the dead, and ascended to the Father.

Christianity Beliefs
  • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son
    of God
  • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from
    the consequences of its sins
  • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after
    his Crucifixion (the Resurrection)
  • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah
    promised in the Old Testament
  • Christians believe that there is only one God,
    but that this one God consists of 3 "persons"
  • Christians believe that God made the world.

Christianity Beliefs continued
  • Christians believe that they can have a personal
    relationship with God, and that they are saved by
    faith, not works. Grace is the law code.
  • They believe in actual heaven and hell.
  • Sin and Evil are realities in our existence.
  • They believe that the Bible is the inspired word
    of God.
  • The leader of Christianity was Jesus, and the
    followers was his 12 disciples.
  • Their giving is a tithe or offerings.

Christians Holy Book
  • The Bible is the Christian holy book.
  • It is divided into the Old and New Testaments.
  • Parts of the writing contained in the Old
    Testament are also sacred to Jewish and Muslim

Christian Place of Worship
  • The Christian place of worship is called a
    Church, which are built in the shape of a cross
    with the altar facing east towards the rising
  • Services are led by a priest, pastor or reverend.
  • Day of worship is normally Sunday but most
    recently Saturday has been added.

Westminster Abbey London
Christianity Map!
  • Christianity 1500 C.E.
  • Christianity Today

In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East
Today, located in Americas and Europe
Islam In More Depth
  • Spread in a manner similar to Christianity.
  • Proselytic faith.
  • Adherents are known as Muslims.
  • Worship one god, called Allah.
  • Founded by the prophet Muhammad.
  • Holy book is the Quran (or Koran).
  • Basis for sharia, or holy law.
  • Divided into two major groups
  • Shiite Sunni
  • Fastest growing world religion

Islam Briefly
  • Islam is the second most popular religion in the
    world with over a billion followers.
  • Islam began in Arabia and was revealed to
    humanity by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon
  • Those who follow Islam are called Muslims.
  • Muslims believe that there is only one God,
    called Allah, who speaks Arabic.
  • The Muslim calendar has 354 days
  • based on the 12 crescent moon cycles.

  • ISLAM is the name given to the religion preached
    by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s A. D.
  • The Islamic religion started in the area known as
    Palestine in the year 600AD.
  • It has about 850 million followers, most of them
    in the region north and east of the Mediterranean

  • Allah, is the Islamic God.
  • People who believe these ideas are called

Islamic Philosophy
  • Muslims learn that life on earth is a period of
    testing and preparation for the life to come.
  • Angels record good and bad deeds.
  • People should behave themselves and help others,
    trusting in Allah's justice and mercy for their

  • Basic Precepts
  • Submission to the will of God (Allah)
  • Lineage - Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus,
    Mohammed (different lineage)
  • Holy Book - Koran - built on Old Testament
  • Five (5) pillars of faith

  • 5 Pillars of Faith
  • Creed
  • There is no God but Allah
  • Prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca
  • Giving to the poor
  • Month of Rammadan
  • Pilgrimage to Mecca

Islam Holy Book
  • The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is
    'the word of God'. Muslim beliefs and practices
    are rooted in the Qur'an.
  • Muslims treat the Qur'an with great respect
    because they believe that the Qur'an is from
    Allah, and every word and every letter is sacred.
  • Muslims regard the Qur'an as the unaltered word
    of God.
  • It is read from right to left and written in
    Arabic, the language of heaven.

Islam Place of Worship
  • The Muslim building for communal worship is
    called a Mosque. The word comes from the Arabic
    for "place of prostration".
  • Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day
    from minarets towers on the mosque corners.
  • They contain only designs, no people or animals
    or furniture.
  • Normal day of worship is Friday.
  • Religious leaders are called imams.

Grand mosque in Mecca
Islam Place of Worship
  • The Muslim building for communal worship is
    called a Mosque.
  • The word comes from the Arabic for "place of
  • Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day
    from minarets towers on the mosque corners.
  • They contain only designs, no people or animals
    or furniture.
  • Normal day of worship is Friday.

Jamia Mosque in Derby England
  • While praying, they face the holy city of Mecca
    (in Saudi-Arabia) and sometimes kneel with faces
    to the ground.
  • All Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage
    (trip to a sacred place) to Mecca at least once
    in their lifetime.

Five Pillars Belief System/Law Code
  • Shahadah declaration of faith "I bear witness
    that there is no god, but God I bear witness
    that Muhammad is the prophet of God." By reciting
    this, one enters Islamic faith.
  • Salah prayerMuslims are required to pray five
    times a day, washing themselves before prayer and
    facing in the direction of Mecca while praying.
  • Zakat giving a fixed proportion to charity
    Muslims are required to give away a percentage
    of their earnings to those less fortunate,
    regardless of their religion. It is usually
  • Saum fasting during the month of RamadanMuslims
    fast for one lunar month each year, a period
    called Ramadan. During this time, Muslims reflect
    on their behavior and strive to purify their
  • Hajj pilgrimage to MeccaIf it is financially
    possible, Muslims are required to travel to Mecca
    once in their lifetime.

5 Pillars of Islam
  • 1. Shahada(witness) is the Muslim profession of
  • - "I witness that there is no god but Allah, and
    that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah"
  • Muslims say this when they wake up in the morning
    and just before they go to sleep at night

  • 2. Salat(daily prayer) is a prayer ritual
    performed 5 times a day by all Muslims over the
    age of 10
  • Between first light and sunrise
  • After the sun has passed the middle of the sky
  • Between mid-afternoon and sunset
  • Between sunset and the last light of the day
  • Between darkness and dawn

  • 3. Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day during
  • Sawm helps Muslims develop self-control, gain a
    better understanding of God's gifts and greater
    compassion towards the deprived.
  • Ramadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marks
    when Muhammad had the Qur-an revealed to him
  • Sawm is usually described as fasting, but it
    actually involves abstaining from all bodily
    pleasures between dawn and sunset
  • Not only is food forbidden, but also things like
    smoking, chewing gum, negative thoughts and
    sexual activity

Food Laws
  • Very similar laws to the Jewish kosher foods
  • No alcohol, pork, blood, no pork fat products,
    scavenger animals
  • Food must be prepared similarly to the Jews
  • Slice to the jugular
  • Drain blood

  • 4. Zakat(almsgiving) is giving alms to the poor
  • This is a compulsory gift of 2.5 of one's
    savings each year
  • Giving in this way is intended to free Muslims
    from the love of money
  • It reminds them that everything they have really
    belongs to God.

  • 5. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all
    physically/financially able Muslims should make
    at least once in their life
  • Mecca is the most holy place for Muslims
  • Takes place during days 8-13 of the 12th month of
    the Islamic Lunar calendar
  • They circle the Kaaba seven times on three
    occasions, say prayers, drink from a holy spring,
    walk to Mount Arafat to pray, feast, cast stones
    at three pillars(to fight Satans temptations),
    shave hair, run seven times between some hills

Main Festivals
  • HijjaThe month of pilgrimage during which all
    Muslims, at least once in their life, should try
    to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and worship at
    the Kaaba

The Kaaba
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Muslim Sects
  • Sunni-the majority
  • Shia-the minority
  • The split rose from an early dispute over who
    should be the leader of Islam after the death of
  • The Sunnis argued that the successor should be
    appointed by election and consensus, as tradition
    dictated. (Sunni comes from the Arabic word Sunna
    , meaning tradition.)
  • The Shia believed that Muhammad's successors
    should come from his family, starting with Ali,
    his son-in-law. These, the partisans of Ali, were
    named from the word Shia , meaning partisan in

Islam Map!
  • Islam in 1500 C.E.
  • Islam Today

In 1500, located in Middle East, Africa, and
Southern Europe
Today, located in Middle East, Africa, and Asia
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