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Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration


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Title: Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration

Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration
  • SOC 101 Social Problems
  • Chapter Nine
  • Instructor Peggy Roberts

9-11Backlash U.S.
  • United States- Prejudice and discrimination
    against individuals who are (or who are perceived
    to be) Muslim or Middle Eastern
  • Target- Minority Groups-people who have unequal
    access to positions of power, prestige, and
    wealth in society and who tend to be targets of
    prejudice and discrimination
  • Minority status is not based on numerical
    representation in society but rather on social

Diversity Worldwide
  • Classification by external appearance
  • Why?

The Social Construction of Race
  • Race- people who are believed to share distinct
    physical characteristics that are deemed socially
  • Can You Name A Few?

The Social Construction of Race
  • Racial groups are sometimes distinguished on the
    basis of such physical characteristics as skin
    color, hair texture, facial features, and body
    shape and size.

The Social Construction of Race
  • Science of genetics challenges the notion of race
  • Geneticists have discovered that the genes of any
    two unrelated persons, chosen at random from
    around the world, are 99.9 alike
  • Most human genetic variations approximately 85
    - can be found between any two individuals from
    the same group (racial, ethnic, religious..)

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • When two or more racial or ethnic groups come
    into contact, one of several patterns of
    interaction occurs-
  • Genocide, Expulsion or Population Transfer,
    Colonialism, Segregation, Acculturation,
    Pluralism, Assimilation, And Amalgamation

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Genocide- the deliberate, systematic annihilation
    of an entire nation of people
  • 20th Century Hitler led the Nazi extermination of
    12 Million people, including 6 Million Jews
  • 1994 Hutus slaughtered hundreds of thousands of
    Tutsis (Tutsis was called cockroaches by the
    Hutus) in Rwanda, Africa

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Expulsion or Population transfer- when a dominant
    group forces a sub-ordinate group to leave the
    country or to live only in designated areas of
    the country
  • U.S. - Trail of Tears 1830 Indian Removal Act
    relocation of eastern tribes to land west of the
    Mississippi River
  • Pearl Harbor in 1941 Japanese American
    evacuation camps surrounded by barbed wire
    experienced economic and psychological devastation

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Colonialism- when a racial or ethnic group from
    one society takes over and dominates the racial
    or ethnic group(s) of another society
  • European invasion of North America British
    occupation of India the Dutch presence in South
    Africa before the end of apartheid

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Segregation- the physical separation of two
    groups in residence, workplace, and social
  • de jure (by law)
  • de facto ( in fact)
  • 1890-1910 Separate blacks from whites by
    prohibiting blacks from using white buses,
    hotels, restaurants, and drinking fountains

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Acculturation- adopting the culture of a group
    different from the one in which a person was
    originally raised.
  • Involves learning the dominant language, adopting
    new values and behaviors, and changing the
    spelling of the family name
  • California decision to discontinue bilingual
    education and forces students to learn English in

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Pluralism- A state in which racial and ethnic
    groups maintain their distinctness but respect
    each other and have equal access to social
  • Switzerland- four ethnic groups- French,
    Italians, Germans, and Swiss Germans- maintain
    their distinct cultural heritage and group
    identity in an atmosphere of mutual respect and
    social equality

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Assimilation process by which formerly distinct
    and separate groups merge and become integrated
    as one.
  • Melting Pot creating a new common culture-
    United States
  • Secondary Assimilation- when different groups
    become integrated in public areas and in social
    institutions, such as neighborhoods, schools, the
    workplace and in government

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Primary Assimilation- occurs when members of
    different groups are integrated in personal,
    intimate associations, as with friends, family,
    and spouses

Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction
  • Amalgamation (Marital Assimilation)- when
    different ethnic or racial groups become married
    or pair-bonded and produce children
  • Interracial marriages are more common today than
    in previous generations, although less than 5 of
    U.S. married couples in 2007 were interracial

Racial Diversity in United States
  • 1790 U.S. Census population into four groups-
    1. free white males, 2. free white females, 3.
    slaves, and 4. other persons (including free
    blacks and Indians)
  • 1990 U.S. Census- population into five
    groups-1. white 2. black or African American 3.
    American Indian or Alaska Native (Aleut or Eskimo
    ) 4. Asian and 5. Native Hawaiian or Pacific

Racial Diversity in United States
  • Mixed-Race Identity- About 4.5 of U.S.
    male-female married couples and 10 of unmarried
    couples are interracial
  • New Census option for identifying as mixed race
    to avoid putting children of mixed-race parents
    in difficult position of choosing the race of one
    parent over the other when filling out data on
    school forms and other forms

Ethnic Diversity in United States
  • Ethnicity- a shared cultural heritage or
  • Distinguished on the basis of language, forms of
    family structures and roles of family members,
    religious beliefs and practices, dietary customs,
    forms of artistic expression such as music and
    dance, and national origin

Ethnic Diversity in United States
  • The largest ethnic population in the United
    States is of Hispanic origin
  • More than one in eight (13.3) people in the U.S.
    are Hispanic or Latino and two-thirds (66.9) of
    all U.S. Hispanics or Latinos are of Mexican

Immigrants in United States History
  • 1917 The Immigration Act- required all
    immigrants to pass a literacy test before
    entering the U.S.
  • 1921 Johnson Act introduced a limit on the
    number of immigrants who could enter the country
    in a single year with stricter limitations for
    certain countries (Africa and Near East)

Immigrants in United States History
  • 1924- Immigration Act further limited the number
    of immigrants allowed into the U.S. and
    completely excluded the Japanese
  • 1943- Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act
  • 1948 Displaced Persons Act which permitted
    refugees from Europe

Immigrants in United States History
  • 1952- Immigration and Naturalization Act which
    permitted a quota of Japanese immigrants
  • 1960s most immigrants were from Europe, but today
    most immigrants are from Central America
    (predominantly Mexico) or Asia
  • 2007- More than 1 in 10 U.S. residents (11.7)
    were born in a foreign country

Immigrants in United States Challenges and
  • Immigrants are less likely than U.S. natives to
    graduate from high school
  • The percentage of foreign-born residents (27.3)
    with a bachelors degrees or more education is
    nearly equivalent to that of native-born (27.2)
  • Why?

Immigrants in United States Challenges and
  • Compared to the Native-born U.S. population,
    immigrants are more likely to be unemployed and
    to live in poverty
  • Almost 43 of immigrants work at jobs that pay
    less than 7.50 an hour, compared to 28 of all
    workers in the U.S.

Immigrants in United States Challenges and
  • Low-income immigrants are less likely than
    low-income natives to use benefits such as
    Medicaid, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
    (TANF), and food stamps
  • Noncitizen immigrants are ineligible for federal
    public benefit programs
  • State Funded Service- one time only 1500

Illegal Immigration
  • 9.3 million undocumented immigrants in the United
  • One-fourth of the total foreign-born population
  • More than half of undocumented immigrants (57)
    are Mexicans

Undocumented Immigrants in the Workforce
  • Estimated 5 of U.S. workers are undocumented
  • Virtually all undocumented men are in the labor
  • 62 of undocumented women are less likely to be
    in the labor force because they are more likely
    to be a stay-at-home mom

Undocumented Immigrants in the Workforce
  • Undocumented workers often do work that U.S.
    worker are unwilling to do
  • Workers routinely work 60 or more hours per week
    and earn less than the minimum wage of 5.15 per
  • They are not paid overtime and have no benefits

Undocumented Immigrants in the Workforce Wal-Mart
  • Wal-Mart- hired undocumented immigrants to clean
    their stores- they worked 7 nights a week, 364
    days a year, and were often locked in stores
  • In 2005 Wal-Mart agreed to pay a record 11
    Million to settle charges that it used hundreds
    of illegal immigrants to clean its stores

Undocumented Immigrants in the Workforce
  • 1986 Congress approved the Immigration Reform and
    Control Act which made hiring illegal
    immigrants an illegal act punishable by fines and
    even prison sentences
  • This Act also prohibits employers from
    discriminating against legal immigrants who are
    not U.S. citizens

Becoming a U.S. Citizen
  • To become a U.S. citizen, immigrants must have
    been lawfully admitted for permanent residence
  • Have resided continuously as a lawful permanent
    U.S. resident for at least five years
  • Must be able to read, write, speak, and
    understand basic English
  • Must show that they have good moral character

Becoming a U.S. Citizen
  • Applicants who have been convicted of murder or
    an aggravated felony are permanently denied U.S.
  • They are also denied if, in the last five years,
    they have engaged in any one of a variety of
    offenses, including prostitution, illegal
    gambling, controlled substance law violation,
    habitual drunkenness, willful failure or refusal
    to support dependents, and criminal behavior
    involving moral turpitude

Becoming a U.S. Citizen
  • Naturalized Citizen- immigrants who applied and
    met the requirements for U.S. citizenship

Prejudice and Racism
  • Prejudice and Racism starts at HOME - we are not
    born to hate
  • Attitudes shape and control who we are
  • Stop the cycle- Only you can!!!
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