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Chapter 16: Abnormal Psychology


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Title: Chapter 16: Abnormal Psychology

Chapter 16 Abnormal Psychology
  • To study the abnormal is the best way of
    understanding the normal
  • William James (1842-1910).
  • At various moments, all of us feel, think, or act
    the way disturbed people do much of the time we
    all get anxious, depressed, withdrawn,
    suspicious, or deluded, just less intensely and
    more briefly.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates
    that 450 million people worldwide suffer
    psychological disorders.

  • In order to help us figure out if behavior is
    abnormal, it helps to ask and answer 3 major
  • 1. How should we define psychological disorders?
  • 2. How should we understand psychological
    disorders? Biological sickness (nature) or result
    of environment (nurture)?
  • 3. How should we classify psychological

1. Defining Disorders
  • When behavior is deviant, distressful, and
    dysfunctional it is classified as a disorder.
  • It is important to remember that deviant behavior
    varies by culture and context nudity and the
  • Psychological standards can also vary with time
    from 1952-1973, homosexuality was classified as
    an illness. One of todays biggest controversies
    revolves around ADHD (see Box on pg. 641).

  • While deviance and distress are components of
    disorders, dysfunction is the key someone can
    act strangely or be in distress, but unless their
    behavior interferes with their normal
    functioning, it is not considered disordered.
  • An intense fear of spiders may be deviant, but is
    not a disorder.
  • If you refuse to leave your house because there
    may be spiders outside, well

2. Understanding Disorders
  • To explain puzzling behavior, people in earlier
    times often presumed that strange forces the
    movement of the stars, godlike powers, or evil
    spirits were at work.
  • By the 1800s, psychology took on a medical
    model mental illnesses are sicknesses, can be
    diagnosed through their symptoms, and can be
    cured through therapy.
  • The medical model has gained a great deal of
    support in recent decades thanks to the
    advancement of neuroscience and its associated

  • Today, the biopsychosocial approach seems to be
    the most prevalent among psychologists this
    theory contends that all behavior (normal or
    disordered) arises from the interaction of nature
    (biological predisposition) and nurture (past and
    present experience).
  • Environmental factors can be seen in the
    occurrence of psychological disorders by culture
    schizophrenia is worldwide / anorexia and
    bulimia occur mostly in Western culture.
  • The biopsychosocial approach recognizes the mind
    and body as inseparable negative emotions can
    lead to physical illness and physical
    abnormalities contribute to emotional disorders.

3. Classifying Disorders
  • In all sciences, classification creates order
    by classifying disorders, we can quickly describe
    complex disorders. In psychiatry and psychology,
    diagnostic classification aims not only to
    describe a disorder but also to predict its
    future course.
  • In order to study a disorder, we must first name
    and describe it the current method for doing so
    is the American Psychological Associations
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders (Fourth Edition), nicknamed the
  • DSM-IV defines a diagnostic process and 16
    clinical syndromes. Without presuming to explain
    their causes, it describes various disorders and
    lists their prevalence (See Table 16.1 on pg.
  • DSM-IV guidelines are proven reliable (83).

Labeling Psychological Disorders
  • Critics fear that labeling psychological
    disorders can have a detrimental effect. Once we
    label a person, we view that person differently
    labels create preconceptions that guide our
    perceptions and our interpretations.
  • Rosenhans patient study (1973)
  • Pages rooms for rent (1977)
  • Unfortunately, mass media has created lasting
    images of psychological disorders the vast
    majority are not only unrealistic, but also
    inaccurate people with psychological disorders
    are more likely to be victims of crimes than they
    are to be perpetrators for crime.

Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety is a part of life we all feel anxious
    sometimes (tests, public speaking, the big game,
    the first date). Fortunately for most of us, our
    uneasiness is not intense and persistent.
  • If it were to be, we may have one of the anxiety
    disorders psychological disorders characterized
    by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive
    behaviors that reduce anxiety.
  • For now, we will focus on 4 types of anxiety
  • 1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder 
  • 2. Panic Disorder
  • 3. Phobias
  • 4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Tom, a 27-year-old electrician, complains of
    dizziness, sweating palms, heart palpitations,
    and ringing in his ears he often feels edgy and
    finds himself trembling that occasionally forces
    him to leave work his doctor can find no
    physical problems with him.
  • Toms unfocused, out-of-control, negative
    feelings suggest generalized anxiety disorder
    anxiety disorder in which an individual is
    continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state
    of autonomic nervous system arousal.

  • While symptoms of this disorder are common,
    their persistence is not 2/3 with this
    condition are women, most are continuously tense
    and jittery, worried bad things may happen, and
    plagued by muscular tension, agitation, and
  • Concentration is often difficult as attention
    switches from one worry to another many times,
    the worst characteristics is that a person cannot
    identify its cause and therefore, cannot deal
    with it.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder is often accompanied
    by depression and can lead to physical problems
    like headaches, ulcers, and high blood pressure.

2. Panic Disorder
  • Panic disorder an anxiety disorder marked by
    unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense
    dread in which a person experiences terror and
    accompanying chest pain, choking, or other
    tightening sensations.
  • Panic is to anxiety what a tornado is to a windy
    day it strikes suddenly, wreaks havoc, and

  • Some individuals are prone to panic attacks
    the physical effects of which may be misperceived
    as a heart attack or some other serious physical
    ailment. So unpredictable and frightening is
    this false-alarm experience that after several
    attacks, people come to fear the fear itself and
    to avoid situations where panic has struck
  • Agoraphobia is the fear or avoidance of
    situations in which escape might be difficult or
    unavailable when panic arrives given such fear,
    people may avoid being outside the home, in a
    crowd, on a bus, or even on an elevator.
  • Darwin _at_ 28

3. Phobias
  • Marilyn, a 28-year-old homemaker, is otherwise
    healthy and happy, but she so fears thunderstorms
    that she feels anxious as soon as a weather
    forecaster mentions possible storms later in the
    week. During a storm, she hides from windows and
    buries her head to avoid seeing lightning.
  • Phobias an anxiety disorder marked by a
    persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a
    specific object or situation it is an
    irrational fear that disrupts behavior. Many
    people accept and live with this common
    psychological disorder, but some specific phobias
    can lead to incapacitating efforts to avoid the
    feared situation.
  • Other people suffer from irrational fears of
    specific animals, insects, heights, blood, or
    tunnels. Potentially embarrassing social
    situations are difficult for those with social
    phobia an intense fear of being scrutinized by
    others social phobia is shyness taken to an

4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety
    disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive
    thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions
  • As with most other disorders, we all experience
    aspects of this phenomenon but obsessive
    thoughts and compulsive behaviors cross the fine
    line between normality and disorder when they
    become so persistent that they interfere with
    everyday living and cause a person distress.
    Checking doors and washing hands are normal
  • For suffers of OCD, the obsessive thoughts
    become so haunting, the compulsive rituals so
    senselessly time-consuming, that effective
    functioning becomes impossible.
  • Billionaire aviator Howard Hughes and germs

  • Obsession A young woman is continuously
    terrified that cars might careen onto the
    sidewalk and run her over.
  • Compulsion The woman walks as far from the
    street as possible and wears red clothes to be
    visible to drivers.
  • Obsession A mother is tormented by the concern
    that she might inadvertently contaminate the food
    she cooks for her family.
  • Compulsion Every day she sterilizes all cooking
    utensils and scours every pot and pan before
    cooking she also wears rubber gloves while
    handling food.
  • Obsession A man cannot rid himself of the
    thought that he might accidentally leave his gas
    stove on, causing his house to explode.
  • Compulsion Every day he feels the irresistible
    urge to check the stove exactly 10 times before
    leaving for work.
  • Researchers estimate that approximately 4
    million Americans have OCD at some time in their
    life this makes OCD more common than panic
    disorder or even schizophrenia it generally
    appears before the age of 25.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Traumatic stress experiencing or witnessing
    severely threatening, uncontrollable events with
    a sense of dear, helplessness, or horror can
    produce post-traumatic stress disorder an
    anxiety disorder characterized by haunting
    memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy
    anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks
    or more after a traumatic experience.
  • Combat veterans, accident/disaster survivors,
    sexual assault victims, children of war zone,
  • In the recent Iraq war, one in six U.S. combat
    infantry has reported symptoms of PTSD,
    depression, or severe anxiety in the months after
    returning home.

  • Some psychologists believe the PTSD is
    overdiagnosed, due partly to a broadening
    definition of the word trauma. Debriefing
    immediately after a traumatic event has proven
    generally ineffective and sometimes harmful.
  • Researchers also point to the impressive
    survivor resiliency most people display about
    half of adults experience at least one traumatic
    event in their lifetime, but only 1 in 10 women
    and 1 in 20 men develop PTSD the vast majority
    of adults do not experience PTSD after a
    traumatic event.
  • Tedeschi and Calhoun (2004) have developed the
    idea of post-traumatic growth this idea
    states that people actually become more
    psychologically strong/sound after experiencing a
    traumatic event they often reset their
    priorities, and report higher appreciation for
    life and relationships.
  • What doesnt kill you makes you stronger could
    be changed to What doesnt kill you may reveal
    to you just how strong you really are.

Explaining Anxiety Disorders 
  • Anxiety is both a feeling and a thought the
    question is, where does anxiety originate? Most
    of todays psychologists have turned to 2
  • 1. The Learning Perspective
  • 2. The Biological Perspective

1. The Learning Perspective
  • We know that traumatic experience often leads to
    future anxiety. Classical conditioning might
    explain why anxious people are hyper-attentive to
    possible threats and how panic-prone people come
    to associate anxiety with certain cues.
  • If dogs can learn fear from a neutral stimulus,
    then humans can as well an infant learning to
    walk learns to fear falling/near-falling, which
    leads to an overall fear of heights.

  • Two specific learning processes may contribute to
  • Stimulus generalization occurs when a person
    fears heights after a fall and later develops a
    fear of flying in an airplane without ever having
    flown (Little Albert).
  • Once phobias and compulsions arise,
    reinforcement may help maintain them. Avoiding
    or escaping that fearful situation reduces
    anxiety, thus reinforcing the phobic behavior
    (washing hands reduces anxiety next time you
    feel anxious you wash your hands ? compulsion).
  • Observational learning can also have an impact
    we learn by observing what others fear monkeys
    and snakes.

2. The Biological Perspective
  • The biological perspective helps explain why we
    learn some fears more readily and why some
    individuals are more vulnerable.
  • Evolutionary psychologists believe that natural
    selection created fears that helped our ancestors
    survive (heights, animals, storms, etc.).
  • It also explains compulsory acts as exaggerated
    behaviors that once contributed to survival
    (washing, checking locked doors, grooming, etc.).

  • There also seems to be a genetic factor of
    fear/anxiety identical twins often develop
    similar phobias.
  • Brain scans of OCD patients reveal elevated
    activity in specific brain areas associated with
    behaviors such as compulsive hand washing,
    checking, ordering, and hoarding.
  • When the disordered brain detects something
    amiss, it seems to generate a mental hiccup of
    repeating thoughts or actions.

Dissociation and Multiple Personalities (pg
  • Dissociative disorders disorders in which
    conscious awareness becomes separated
    (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts,
    and feelings. Facing trauma, such detachment may
    actually protect a person from being overwhelmed
    by emotion.
  • The king of dissociative disorders is
    dissociative identity disorder (DID) a person
    exhibits two or more distinct alternating
    personalities also called multiple personality
  • Not Jekyl and Hyde
  • Hillside Strangler (10 murders, guilty)
  •  While some believe in DID, many people feel it
    is made up or used by individuals as an excuse
    after the fact some feel it may be an effort to
    detach after a horrific event.

Mood Disorders 
  • The emotional extremes of mood disorders come
    in two principal forms
  • 1. Major Depressive Disorder in which the person
    experiences prolonged hopelessness and lethargy
    until usually rebounding to normality.
  • 2. Bipolar Disorder (formerly Manic-Depressive
    Disorder) in which a person alternates between
    depression and mania, an overexcited, hyperactive

1. Major Depressive Disorder
  • We have all felt depressed at one time or another
    (discouraged, uncertain, sad, or blue).
    Sometimes it is hard to find the energy to get
    things done, concentrate, eat, or sleep normally
    we are not alone. Depression is the common
    cold of psychological disorders.
  • Although phobias are more common, depression is
    the number one reason people seek mental health
    services as anxiety is a response to the threat
    of future loss, depression is often a response to
    past and current loss it is a warning to stop
    and take protective measures.
  • Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of
    depression last two weeks or more and are not
    caused by drugs or a medical condition.
  • Gasping vs. Chronic Shortness of Breath

2. Bipolar Disorder
  • With or without therapy, people temporarily or
    permanently return to their previous behavior
    patterns however, some people rebound to the
    opposite emotional extreme the euphoric,
    hyperactive, wildly optimistic state of mania.
  • If depression is living in slow motion, mania is
    fast forward. Alternation between depression and
    mania signals bipolar disorder. Manic
    individuals are typically overactive, elated,
    loud, fidgety, and optimistic to the point of
    making reckless and sometimes dangerous
  • As true with everything else, what goes up must
    come down before long, the elated mood either
    returns to normal or plunges into a depression.

Explaining Mood Disorders
  • Psychologists have tried to explain depression
    for hundreds of years any theory of mood
    disorder tries to explain the following
  • Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany
    depression (when depressed, we doubt everything
    when depression lifts, these thoughts disappear).
  • Depression is widespread (therefore, its causes
    must be widespread as well).
  • Compared to men, women are nearly twice as
    vulnerable to major depression (in general, women
    are more susceptible to disorder involving
    internalized states men tend to be more

  • Most major depressive episodes self-terminate
    (therapy usually speeds the process, but is not
    always necessary).
  • Stressful events related to work, marriage, and
    close relationships often precede depression (if
    anxiety is a burning fire, depression is a wet
    blanket thrown on top of it).
  • With each new generation, the rate of depression
    is increasing, and the disorder is striking
    earlier (in North America, todays young adults
    are three times as likely as their grandparents
    to report having suffered depression).
  • Todays biopsychosocial perspective is broadening
    our understanding with biological and cognitive

The Biological Perspective
  • Depression is a whole body disorder it involves
    genetic predispositions, biochemical imbalances,
    negative thoughts, and melancholy mood.
  • Genetics Mood disorders run in families the
    risk of major depression and bipolar disorder
    increases if you have a depressed parent or
  • Recently, scientists have focused on isolating
    specific chromosomes that may cause depression.
    Many genes have small effects that can combine
    with one another with nongenetic factors to put
    some people at greater risk for mood disorders.

  • The Brain The neurotransmitter, norepinephrine
    (arousal), is scarce during depression and
    overabundant during mania.
  • A second neurotransmitter, serotonin, is also
    scarce during depression.
  • Drugs that relieve depression tend to increase
    the level of these two neurotransmitters by
    blocking their reuptake or their chemical
  • Diet and exercise can also affect these
    neuro-transmitter levels.

The Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Some people slide into depression for no obvious
    reason, even when life has been going well
    depressed people see the world through dark
    glasses their intensely negative assumptions
    about themselves, their situation, and their
    future lead them to magnify bad experiences and
    minimize good ones.
  • Self-defeating beliefs and negative
    explanatory styles feed depression.
  • Self-defeating beliefs may arise from learned
    helplessness humans act depressed, passive, and
    withdrawn after experiencing uncontrollable
    painful events.

  • Explanatory styles involves blame depressed
    people tend to explain events in terms that are
  • Stable (it will last forever)
  • Global (its going to affect everything I do)
  • Internal (its all my fault).
  • The result of these pessimistic,
    over-generalized, self-blaming attributions is a
    depressing sense of hopelessness.
  • Pessimism fuels depression individualism vs.

Depressions Vicious Cycle
  • Depression can be brought on by anything that
    disrupts your sense who you are and why you are a
    worthy human being. Depression-prone individuals
    respond to bad events in an especially
    self-focused, self-blaming way their
    self-esteem fluctuates more rapidly up with
    boosts and down with threats.
  • When down, brooding amplifies negative feelings,
    which in turn triggers depressions other
    cognitive and behavioral symptoms when things
    arent going our way, it may seem a though they
    never will.
  • Our depressed attitudes often elicit negative
    responses from those around us depressed people
    are at high risk for divorce, job loss, and other
    stressful life events. These losses and stresses
    only serve to compound the original depression.
    Misery may love company, but company does not
    love misery.

  • The pieces of the depression puzzle seem to be
  • 1 Negative, stressful events
  • 2 a pessimistic explanatory style
  • 3 a hopeless, depressed state that
  • 4 hampers the way the person thinks and acts
  • (Which leads back to 1).
  • To get out of depression, it often helps to move
    to a different environment, reverse our
    self-blame and negative attributions, turn our
    attention outward, or engage in more pleasant
    activities and more competent behavior.

  • If depression is the common cold of psychological
    disorders, chronic schizophrenia is the cancer
    nearly 1 in 100 people will develop schizophrenia
    it knows no national boundaries and affects
    both males and females (men tend to be struck
    earlier, more severely, and slightly more often).
  • Literally translated, schizophrenia means
    split mind it refers not to a
    multiple-personalities split but rather to a
    split from reality that shows itself in
    disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and
    inappropriate emotions and actions.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • 1. Disorganized Thinking A schizophrenics
    thinking is fragmented, bizarre, and distorted by
    false beliefs delusions false beliefs, often
    of persecution or grandeur that may accompany
    psychotic disorders.
  • Many psychologists believe disorganized thoughts
    result from a breakdown of selective attention.
  • The normal person has the capacity to give
    undivided attention to one voice, noise, or
    action those with schizophrenia cannot do this
    even minute stimuli like cracks in the
    sidewalk, colors on walls, or the sound of wind
    can distract their entire attention.

  • 2. Disturbed Perceptions A person with
    schizophrenia may perceive things that arent
    there such hallucinations sensory
    experiences without sensory stimulation, are
    usually auditory and often take the form of
    voices making insulting statements or giving
    orders (Youre bad, Burn yourself, etc.)
  • When the unreal becomes real, the resulting
    perceptions are at best bizarre, at worst
  • 3. Inappropriate Emotions/Actions The emotions
    of schizophrenia are often utterly inappropriate
    (laughing when others cry, screaming when in a
    quiet room, etc.). Other victims lapse into
    flat affect a zombielike state of apparent
  • Motor behavior may also be inappropriate the
    person may perform senseless, compulsive acts,
    such as continuously rocking or rubbing an arm.
    This who exhibit catatonia may remain
    motionless for hours on end and then become

  • As you can imagine, such disorganized thinking,
    disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions
    and actions profoundly disrupt social
    relationships and make it difficult to hold a
  • Many schizophrenics live in a private inner
    world, preoccupied with illogical ideas and
    unreal images.
  • Given a supportive environment, some eventually
    recover to enjoy a normal life or experience
    bouts of schizophrenia only intermittently.
    Others remain socially withdrawn and isolated
    throughout much of their lives.

Subtypes of Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders the
    subtypes have some common features, but they also
    have some distinguishing symptoms.
  • Patients with positive symptoms may experience
    hallucinations, talk in deluded ways, and exhibit
    inappropriate actions.
  • Patients with negative symptoms have toneless
    voices, expressionless faces, or mute and rigid
  • Positive symptoms are the presence of
    inappropriate behaviors and negative symptoms are
    the absence of appropriate behaviors.

  • Sometimes schizophrenia develops gradually
    (chronic / process schizophrenia).
  • Sometimes schizophrenia develops rapidly (acute
    / reactive schizophrenia).
  • Those who develop acute/rapid schizophrenia are
    much more likely to recover as are those with
    positive symptoms of the disorder.
  • See Table 16.3 on pg. 671.

Understanding Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia is not only the most dreaded
    psychological disorder but also one of the most
    heavily researched. Most of the new research
    studies link it with brain abnormalities and
    genetic predispositions. Schizophrenia is a
    disease of the brain exhibit in symptoms of the
  • Brain Abnormalities By examining schizophrenia
    patients brains after death, researchers found
    an excess of receptors for dopamine they
    believe this results in intensified brain signals
    that create positive symptoms such as
    hallucinations and paranoia drugs that block
    dopamine often help these symptoms.

  • Researchers have also found patterns of abnormal
    brain activity in schizophrenia patients low
    brain activity in the frontal lobes (reasoning,
    planning, problem solving), highly active
    thalamus (filtering station for incoming
    stimuli), and increased activity in the amygdala
    (fear-processing center).
  • If anything, this research shows that there is
    not one isolated brain abnormality that causes
    schizophrenia, but the work of several different
    problems in combination.
  • There has also been significant research
    concerning maternal virus during pregnancy (see
    pg. 673-674).

  • Genetic Factors Schizophrenia is inheritable (1
    in 10 who have a parent or sibling / 1 in 2 if
    identical twins). Children adopted by someone
    who develops schizophrenia seldom catch the
  • Researchers are now searching for specific genes
    that, in some combination, might predispose
    schizophrenia-inducing brain abnormalities.
  • Psychological Factors no environmental causes
    have been discovered that will invariably, or
    even with moderate probability, produce
    schizophrenia in persons who are not related to a
    person with schizophrenia.

  • Still hoping to identify environmental triggers,
    researchers have begun following at-risk
    children and have pinpointed the following
    warning signs of schizophrenia
  • A mother with severe, chronic schizophrenia
  • Birth complications involving oxygen
    deprivations and low birth weight
  • Separation from parents
  • Short attention span and poor muscle
  • Disruptive or withdrawn behavior
  • Emotional unpredictability
  • Poor peer relations and solo play
  • As with other psychological disorder we have
    discussed, we have all experienced schizophrenic
    like behavior/emotions (lack of attention,
    suspicion of others, inappropriate behavior), but
    these things are not the norm, nor are they
    chronic. For schizophrenics, these traits are
    constant and affect their normal functioning

Personality Disorders
  • Personality disorders psychological disorders
    characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior
    patterns that impair social functioning they do
    not include anxiety, depression, or delusions,
    they simply affect our interaction with society.
  • Examples
  • Avoidant PD fear of rejection
  • Schizoid PD eccentric behaviors
  • Histrionic PD shallow, attention-getting
    emotions to gain others praise/reassurance
  • Narcissistic PD exaggerated feeling of
    self-importance, aided by success fantasies
  • Borderline PD unstable identity,
    relationships, and/or impulsive emotions

Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • The most troubling and heavily researched
    personality disorder is antisocial personality
    disorder an individual exhibits a lack of
    conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends
    and family members (aggressive, ruthless, con
    artists, etc.).
  • Henry Lee Lucas (360 victims)
  • Once Ive done a crime, I just forget it.

Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder 
  • As with other disorders, antisocial personality
    disorder is both biological and psychological
    these individuals show little to no autonomic
    nervous arousal when impending pain/danger is
    present. This lack of danger/social
    responsibility can produce a cool con artist or a
    ruthless killer.
  • These people have been found to have less brain
    activity (and sometimes size) in their frontal
    lobes which control planning, organization, and
  • Environmental factors like childhood poverty also
    seem to be a precursor to this disorder.

Rates of Psychological Disorders
  • See Tables 16.4 and 16.5 on pg. 680-681
  • Psychological disorders are present throughout
    the world North America, and especially the
    United States, has some of the worlds highest
  • Why do you think this is the case?

  • Those who experience a psychological disorder
    usually do so by early adulthood symptoms of
    antisocial disorder and phobias are among the
    earliest to appear at a median age of 8 and 10
    respectively. Major depression hits later with a
    median age of 25.
  • These findings make it clear that research and
    treatment need to focus on younger individuals if
    preventative measures are to be taken. While
    psychological disorders can steal ones life, the
    right therapy can often bring it back.

  • 1. Research suggests that the stigma and stress
    associated with being gay increase the risk of
    mental health problems.
  • --True
  • 2. In some cultures, depression and schizophrenia
    are non-existent.
  • --True
  • 3. Research indicates that in the United States
    there are more prison inmates with severe mental
    disorders than there are psychiatric inpatients
    in all the countrys hospitals.
  • --True
  • 4. About 30 of psychologically disordered people
    are dangerous that is, they are more likely than
    other people to commit a crime.
  • --False
  • 5. Identical twins who have been raised
    separately sometimes develop the same phobias.
  • --True
  • 6. Dissociative identity disorder is a type of
  • --False
  • 7. In North America, todays young adults are
    three times as likely as their grandparents to
    report having experienced depression.
  • --True
  • 8. White Americans commit suicide nearly twice as
    often as black Americans do.
  • --True
  • 9. There is strong evidence for a genetic
    predisposition to schizophrenia.
  • --True
  • 10. An estimated one in seven Americans suffers a
    clinically significant mental disorder.

Penn State Worry Questionnaire
  • 1. If I do not have enough time to do everything,
    I do not worry about it.
  • 2. My worries overwhelm me.
  • 3. I do not tend to worry about things.
  • 4. Many situations make me worry.
  • 5. I know I should not worry about things, but I
    just cant help it.
  • 6. When I am under pressure I worry a lot.
  • 7. I am always worrying about something.
  • 8. I find it easy to dismiss worrisome thoughts.
  • 9. As soon as I finish one task, I start to worry
    about everything else I have to do.
  • 10. I never worry about anything.
  • 11. When there is nothing more I can do about a
    concern, I do not worry about it anymore.
  • 12. I have been a worrier all my life.
  • 13. I notice that I have been worrying about
  • 14. Once I start worrying, I cannot stop.
  • 15. I worry all the time.
  • 16. I worry about projects until they are done.

Use a scale of 1-5 1 Not Typical 5 Very
  • A. Reverse your responses to 1, 3, 8, 10, and 11
  • B. Add your numbers to all 16 items.
  • Scores range from 16-80 with higher scores
    reflecting a greater tendency to worry.
  • Mean score 48.8 (females 51.2 / males 46.1)
  • Generalized anxiety disorders are characterized
    by chronic worry higher scores are linked to
    lower self-esteem, but higher levels of
    perfectionism, time urgency, and

  • 1. When I am in a social situation, I appear
    clumsy to other people.
  • 2. If I am with a group of people, and I have an
    opinion, I am likely to chicken out and not say
    what I think.
  • 3. I feel as if other people sound more
    intelligent than I do.
  • 4. When I am with other people, I am not good at
    standing up for myself.
  • 5. I am a coward when it comes to interacting
    with other people.
  • 6. I feel unattractive when I am with other
  • 7. I would never be able to make a speech in
  • 8. Other people are more comfortable in social
    situations than I am.
  • 9. Other people are more socially capable that I

0 Never 1 Rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often 4
  • 10. No matter what I do, I will always be
    uncomfortable in social situations.
  • 11. My mind is very likely to go blank when I am
    talking in a social situation.
  • 12. I am not good at small talk.
  • 13. Other people are bored when they are around
  • 14. When speaking in a group, others will think
    what I am saying is stupid.
  • 15. If I am around someone I am interested in, I
    am likely to get panicky or do something to
    embarrass myself.
  • 16. I do not know how to behave when I am in the
    company of others.
  • 17. If something went wrong in a social
    situation, I would not be able to smooth it over.
  • 18. When I am with other people they usually
    dont think I am very smart.
  • 19. When other people laugh it feels as if they
    are laughing at me.

Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale
  • Add up all of your responses.
  • Patients diagnosed with social phobia obtained a
    mean of 52.4.
  • Those with other anxiety disorders had a mean of
  • Controls without any psychiatric diagnosis had a
    mean score of 22.3.
  • 2 factors seem to be involved in social phobias
  • 1. Social Comparison a belief that others are
    more socially competent and capable.
  • 2. Social Ineptness a belief that one will act
    awkwardly in social situations or appear anxious
    in front of others.
  • Research suggest that social phobia can be
    diagnosed as early as 8 years of age it is one
    of the most common disorders in the general
  • These people tend to avoid potentially
    embarrassing social situations if they cannot
    avoid contact, they often experience physical
    symptoms such as trembling, profuse sweating, and
    nausea. For some, their greatest fear is that
    others will detect these bodily symptoms.

Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory
  • 1. I have saved up so many things that they get
    in the way.
  • 2. I check things more often than necessary.
  • 3. I get upset if objects are not arranged
  • 4. I feel compelled to count while I am doing
  • 5. I find it difficult to touch an object when I
    know it has been touched
  • by strangers or certain people.
  • 6. I find it difficult to control my own
  • 7. I collect things I dont need.
  • 8. I repeatedly check doors, windows, drawers,
  • 9. I get upset if others change the way I have
    arranged things.
  • 10. I feel I have to repeat certain numbers.
  • 11. I sometimes have to wash or clean myself
    simply because I feel contaminated.
  • 12. I am upset by unpleasant thoughts that come
    into my mind against my will.
  • 13. I avoid throwing things away because I am
    afraid I might need them later.
  • 14. I repeatedly check gas and water taps and
    light switches after turning them off.
  • 15. I need things to be arranged in a particular
  • 16. I feel there are good and bad numbers.
  • 17. I wash my hands more often and longer than
  • 18. I frequently get nasty thoughts and have
    difficulty getting rid of them.

0 Not at all 1 A little 2 Moderately 3 A
lot 4 Extremely
  • Add up all of your answers scores range from
  • In one study, patients with OCD obtained a mean
    score of 28.01
  • In another study, psychology students at U. of
    Delaware had a mean of 18.82.
  • There are 6 sub-components within the scale that
    introduce common symptoms of OCD
  • A. Washing 5, 11, 17
  • B. Obsessing 6, 12, 18
  • C. Hoarding 1, 7, 13
  • D. Ordering 3, 9, 15
  • E. Checking 2. 8, 14
  • F. Mental Neutralizing 4, 10, 16
  • OCD traps people in seemingly endless cycles of
    repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and in feelings
    that they must repeat certain actions over and
    over (compulsions).
  • Approximately 20 of those with OCD have only
    obsessions or only compulsions all other
    experience both.
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