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### Electromagnetic Radiation Light is a form of energy. Technically, light is one type of a more general form of energy called electromagnetic radiation and travels in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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1
• Light is a form of energy.
• Technically, light is one type of a more general
form of energy called electromagnetic radiation
and travels in waves.
• Every wave has four characteristics that
determine its properties wave speed, height
(amplitude), length, and the number of wave peaks
that pass in a given time.
• Velocity (c) is the speed of light and equals
2.997925 x 108 m/s (msec-1) in a vacuum.
• It is constant! All types of light energy travel
at the same speed.
• Amplitude (A) is a measure of the intensity of
the wave (the height of the wave) or
brightness.
• Wavelength (l ) is the distance between crests.
• It is generally measured in nanometers (1 nm
10-9 m)
• frequency (n) represents the number of peaks
passing a point in one second.
• It is generally measured in Hertz (Hz) where
• 1 Hz 1 wave/sec 1 sec-1

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3
Particles of Light
• Scientists in the early 20th century showed that
particles we call photons, particles of light
energy.
• Max Planck and Albert Einstein
• Each wavelength of light has photons that have a
different amount of energy

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Light passing through a prism is separated into
all its colors and is called a continuous
spectrum.
• The color of the light is determined by its
wavelength.

4
• Wavelength and frequency are related by the speed
of light c ? ?
• The speed of light, c, is a constant
therefore, wavelength and the frequency
are inversely proportional as the wavelength
increases, the frequency decreases.
• Planck related the frequencies of EM radiation to
the energies of vibrational transitions in matter
to give the equation E h ?
• where h Plancks constant 6.626 x 10-34 Js
• This equation represents the energy of a SINGLE
photon of the given frequency.
• Energy and frequency are directly proportional
• High frequency short wavelength high energy
• Low frequency long wavelength low energy

5
• Classified by the Wavelength
• Radio waves l gt 0.01 m
• low frequency and energy
• Microwaves 10-4m lt l lt 10-2m
• Infrared (IR) 8 x 10-7 lt l lt 10-5m
• Visible 4 x 10-7 lt l lt 8 x 10-7m
• ROYGBV
• Ultraviolet (UV) 10-8 lt l lt 4 x 10-7m
• X-rays 10-10 lt l lt 10-8m
• Gamma rays l lt 10-10
• high frequency and energy

6
Electromagnetic Spectrum
7
Lights Relationship to Matter
• Atoms can acquire extra energy, but they must
eventually release it.
• When atoms emit energy, it always is released in
the form of light.
• However, atoms dont emit all colors, only very
specific wavelengths.
• In fact, the spectrum of wavelengths can be used
to identify the element!

8
Emission Spectrum
Spectra
9
The Bohr Model of the Atom
• The Nuclear Model of the atom does not explain
how the atom can gain or lose energy.
• Neils Bohr developed a model of the atom to
explain how the structure of the atom changes
when it undergoes energy transitions.
• Bohrs major idea was that the energy of the atom
was quantized, and that the amount of energy in
the atom was related to the electrons position
in the atom
• quantized means that the atom could only have
very specific amounts of energy.

10
The Bohr Model of the AtomElectron Orbits
• In the Bohr Model, electrons travel in orbits
around the nucleus
• more like shells than planet orbits.
• The farther the electron is from the nucleus the
more energy it has

Each orbit has a specific amount of energy. The
energy of each orbit is characterized by an
integer - the larger the integer, the more energy
an electron in that orbit has and the farther it
is from the nucleus. The integer, n, is called a
quantum number
11
Energy Transitions
• When an atom gains energy, an electron leaps from
a lower energy orbit to one that is further from
the nucleus.
• However, during that quantum leap it doesnt
travel through the space between orbits it just
disappears from the lower orbit and appears in a
higher orbit!
• When the electron leaps from a higher energy
orbit to one that is closer to the nucleus,
energy is emitted from the atom as a photon of
light!

12
Ground and Excited States
• In the Bohr Model of hydrogen, the lowest amount
of energy hydrogens one electron can have
corresponds to being in the n 1 orbit we call
this its ground state.
• When the atom gains energy, the electron leaps to
a higher energy orbit we call this an excited
state.
• The atom is less stable in an excited state, and
the ground state
• either all at once or in several steps.

Every hydrogen atom has identical orbits, so
every hydrogen atom can undergo the same energy
transitions. However, since the distances between
the orbits in an atom are not all the same, no
two leaps in an atom will have the same
energy. The closer the orbits are in energy, the
lower the energy of the photon emitted. A lower
energy photon a longer wavelength. Therefore,
we get an emission spectrum that has a lot of
lines that are unique to hydrogen.
13
The Bohr Model of theHydrogen Spectrum
Success and Failure
The mathematics of the Bohr Model very accurately
predicts the spectrum of hydrogen but fails when
applied to multi-electron atoms. It cannot
account for electron-electron interactions.
Enter the Quantum-Mechanical Model of the atom! ?
14
The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
• Erwin Schrödinger applied the mathematics of
probability and the ideas of quantization to the
physics equations that describe waves resulting
in an equation that predicts the probability of
finding an electron with a particular amount of
energy at a particular location in the atom.
• The result is a map of regions in the atom that
have a particular probability for finding the
electron.
• An orbital is a region where we have a very high
probability of finding the electron when it has a
particular amount of energy.
• It is generally set at 90 or 95.

15
Orbits vs. OrbitalsPathways vs. Probability
16
The Quantum-Mechanical ModelQuantum Numbers
• in Schrödingers Wave Equation, there are 3
integers, called quantum numbers, that quantize
the energy
• the principal quantum number, n, specifies the
main energy level for the orbital
• each principal energy shell has one or more
subshells
• the number of subshells the principal quantum
number
• the quantum number that designates the subshell
is often given a letter
• s, p, d, f
• each kind of sublevel has orbitals with a
particular shape
• the shape represents the probability map
• 90 probability of finding electron in that
region

17
Shells Subshells
18
How does the 1s Subshell Differ from the 2s
Subshell
Probability Maps Orbital Shapes Orbitals
19
Probability Maps Orbital Shapep Orbitals
d Orbitals
20
Subshells and Orbitals
• The subshells of a principal shell have slightly
different energies.
• The subshells in a shell of H all have the same
energy, but for multielectron atoms the subshells
have different energies
• s lt p lt d lt f
• Each subshell contains one or more orbitals
• s subshells have 1 orbital
• p subshells have 3 orbitals
• d subshells have 5 orbitals
• f subshells have 7 orbitals
• Each energy shell and subshell has a maximum
number of electrons it can hold
• s 2, p 6, d 10, f 14

21
• Each orbital may have a maximum of 2 electrons
• -Pauli Exclusion Principle
• Electrons spin on an axis generating their own
magnetic field.
• When two electrons are in the same orbital, they
must have opposite spins so that their magnetic
fields will cancel.

Orbital Diagrams
22
Order of Subshell Fillingin Ground State
Electron Configurations
Start by drawing a diagram putting each energy
shell on a row and listing the subshells, (s, p,
d, f), for that shell in order of energy,
(left-to-right).
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d
7s
Next, draw arrows through the diagonals, looping
back to the next diagonal each time.
23
The Quantum Mechanical ModelEnergy Transitions
• As in the Bohr Model, atoms gain or lose energy
as the electron leaps between orbitals in
different energy shells and subshells.
• The ground state of the electron is the lowest
energy orbital it can occupy.
• Higher energy orbitals are excited states.
• Both the Bohr and Quantum Mechanical models
predict the spectrum of hydrogen very accurately.
• Only the Quantum Mechanical model predicts the
spectra of atoms with more than one electron.

24
Electron Configuration of Atoms in their Ground
State
• the electron configuration is a listing of the
subshells in order of filling with the number of
electrons in that subshell written as a
superscript
• Kr 36 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6
• a shorthand way of writing an electron
configuration is to use the symbol of the
previous noble gas in to represent all the
inner electrons, then just write the last set
• Rb 37 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s1
Kr5s1

25
Example Write the Ground State Orbital Diagram
and Electron Configuration of Magnesium.
• Determine the atomic number of the element from
the Periodic Table
• This gives the number of protons and electrons in
the atom
• Mg Z 12, so Mg has 12 protons and 12 electrons
• Draw 9 boxes to represent the first 3 energy
levels s and p orbitals.
• Add one electron to each box in a set, then pair
the electrons before going to the next set until
you use all the electrons.
• When pairing the electrons, put the arrows in
opposite directions.
• Use the diagram to write the electron
configuration
• Write the number of electrons in each set as a
superscript next to the name of the orbital set
• 1s22s22p63s2 Ne3s2

26
Valence Electrons
• The electrons in all the subshells with the
highest principal energy shell are called the
valence electrons. These electrons can
participate in chemical bonding. If an atom is in
the second row, then all the electrons in the
second row are valence electrons
• Electrons in lower energy shells are called core
electrons. In the electron configuration, the
core electrons are equivalent to a noble gas
configuration. These electrons do NOT participate
in chemical bonding
• Rb 37 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s1
• the highest principal energy shell of Rb that
contains electrons is the 5th, therefore Rb has 1
valence electron and 36 core electrons
• Kr 36 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6
• the highest principal energy shell of Kr that
contains electrons is the 4th, therefore Kr has 8
valence electrons and 28 core electrons

27
Electron Configurations andthe Periodic Table
28
Electron Configuration fromthe Periodic Table
8A
1A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3A
4A
5A
6A
7A
2A
Ne
P
3s2
3p3
P Ne3s23p3 P has 5 valence electrons
29
The Explanatory Power ofthe Quantum-Mechanical
Model
• The properties of the elements are largely
determined by the number of valence electrons
they contain.
• Since elements in the same column have the same
number of valence electrons, they show similar
properties

30
Stable Electron ConfigurationAnd Ion Charge
• Metals form cations by losing enough electrons to
get the same electron configuration as the
previous noble gas.
• Nonmetals form anions by gaining enough electrons
to get the same electron configuration as the
next noble gas.

31
Trends in Ionization Energy
32
Trends in Atomic Size
33
Metallic Character
Metallic Properties Shiny Tend to form
cations Low ionization energies 3 or fewer
valence electrons High conductivity Malleable
(shapeable)
Nonmetallic Properties Dull - no luster Tend to
form anions High ionization energy 4 or more
valence electrons Low conductivity Brittle
34
Trends in Metallic Character