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The elements of the National Physical Activity Guidelines


The elements of the National Physical Activity Guidelines – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The elements of the National Physical Activity Guidelines

The elements of the National Physical Activity
  • Prior to 1990, the focus of activity promotion
    was to improve the cardio-vascular functions of
    the body. The recommended levels of activity were
    for people to engage in vigorous activity (heart
    rate levels of between 60 90 or O2 uptake of
    between 50 85) three to five days a week for a
    duration of 15 60 minutes per session.
  • Australia revised these guidelines and
    recommended vigorous or aerobic exercise for a
    minimum duration of 20 minutes at least 3 time a

  • By 1996, research studies showed a very small
    proportion of people were meeting the fitness
    based guidelines, and the focus switched to
    potential health gains through participation in
    regular physical activities of a less intense
    nature. These studies recommended that
    significant health gains could be obtained
    through engaging in moderate-intensity physical
    activity on most days of the week.
  • Following these recommendations, the Guidelines
    were revised once again to include lifestyle
    physical activities within all domains of
    physical activity.

Definitions for the Guidelines
  • Physical activity refers to any activity that
    involves significant movement of the body or
  • Health, in this instance, refers to metabolic
    well-being as reflected in low risk levels of
    blood fats, blood pressure and body weight as
    well as general physical and mental well-being.
  • Exercise is a type of physical activity defined
    as a planned, structured and repetitive body
    movement done to improve or maintain physical

Definitions for the Guidelines
  • Fitness relates to the capacity of the heart and
    lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working
    muscles and the capacity of the muscles to use
    oxygen to produce the energy for movement.
  • Movement is defined here as any motion of the
    body and limbs.
  • Moderate-intensity physical activity will cause a
    slight, but noticeable, increase in breathing and
    heart rate and may cause light sweating in some

The Guidelines
  • The guidelines are an indication of what is
    recommended minimum amount of exercise each
    person does to enhance their health. These
    guidelines are based on what is recommended for
  • Guidelines 1 3 are not intended for high levels
    of fitness, sports training or weight loss. The
    best results are achieved by carrying out all 3
    guidelines and by combining an active lifestyle
    with healthy eating.
  • Guideline 4 is for those who are able, and wish,
    to achieve greater health and fitness benefits.

Guideline 1
  • Think of movement as an opportunity, not an
  • Where any form of movement of the body is seen as
    an opportunity for improving health, not as a
    time-wasting inconvenience.
  • Due to the improvements in our technology, people
    are becoming more inactive as machines do more of
    the physical work for us. As a result obesity and
    other health problems are increasing.
  • To combat this, we need to view all movement as
    an opportunity, rather than an inconvenience, and
    in doing so taking the first steps towards
    improved health.

Guideline 2
  • Be active every day in as many ways as you can.
  • Make a habit of walking or cycling instead of
    using the car, or do things yourself instead of
    using labour-saving machines.
  • Small increases in daily activity can be achieved
    through small changes to your activities
    throughout the day.
  • Examples riding your bike or walking instead of
    driving or catching a lift, taking the stairs
    instead of the lift, doing some gardening, walk
    and/or play with your pets.

Guideline 3
  • Put together at least 30 minutes of moderate
    intensity physical activity on most, preferably
    all, days.
  • You can accumulate your 30 minutes (or more)
    throughout the day by combining a few shorter
    sessions of activity of around 10 to 15 minutes
  • Moderate-intensity activity will cause a slight,
    but noticeable, increase in your breathing and
    heart rate. A good example of moderate-intensity
    activity is brisk walking, that is at a pace
    where you are able to comfortably talk but not

Guideline 3
  • Research has shown that accumulated short bouts
    of moderate intensity activity are just as
    effective as continuous activity at improving
    indicators of health such as blood pressure and
    blood cholesterol.
  • So you can
  • accumulate your 30 minutes or more throughout
    the day by combining a few shorter sessions of
    activity of around 10 to 15 minutes each or
  • do 30 minutes or more continuously.
  • Moderate-intensity activity should, however, be
    carried out for at least 10 minutes at a time
    without stopping.

Guideline 4
  • If you can, also enjoy some regular, vigorous
    activity for extra health and fitness.
  • This guideline does not replace Guidelines 1-3.
    Rather, it adds an extra level for those who are
    able, and wish, to achieve greater health and
    fitness benefits.
  • Research has shown that people who participate in
    regular vigorous activity can get health and
    fitness benefits over and above the benefits they
    get from increasing daily movement or regular
    moderate-intensity activity. This includes extra
    protection against heart disease.

Guideline 4
  • Vigorous implies activity, which makes you
    huff and puff, and where talking in full
    sentences between breaths is difficult. In
    technical terms this is exercise at a heart rate
    of 70-85 of maximum heart rate (MHR), where MHR
    is calculated as 220 minus your age. Vigorous
    exercise can come from active sports such as
    football, squash, netball and basketball, and
    activities such as aerobics, circuit training,
    speed walking, jogging, fast cycling or brisk
    rowing. For best results, this type of activity
    should be carried out for a minimum of around 30
    minutes on 3 to 4 days a week.

What the Guidelines do not include
  • In each of the 4 Guidelines, the time and
    activities that are suggested do not include the
    warm up and cool down phases for the activities.
    These will still need to be added on, especially
    a stretching routine.
  • These guidelines are to be followed in
    conjunction with a balanced, healthy diet.

Children (5 12 years) guidelines
  • Children need at least 60 minutes (and up to
    several hours) of moderate to vigorous physical
    activity every day.
  • Children should not spend more than two hours a
    day using electronic media for entertainment
    (e.g. computer games,TV, Internet), particularly
    during daylight hours.
  • A range of activities that suit skills, interest
    and abilities should be undertaken.

Youth (12 18 years) Guidelines
  • At least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous
    activity every day to keep healthy.
  • There should be a range of different activities.
  • No more than 2 hours in total using all
    electronic forms of media (eg. Internet, DVDs,
    computer games, email, etc.)

Guidelines for Older People
  • Older people still follow the National PA
    guidelines for adults.
  • Strength and balance training are recommended to
    reduce the risk of falls and to increase
  • Activities will tend to be of a more gentle
    nature (eg gardening, tai chi) but still lead to
    health benefits.

Recommendations for Overweight and Obese People
  • 55 - 60 of the population are overweight.
  • For those who are just restarting physical
    activity it is recommended that moderate
    intensity activity is accumulated over 30 minutes
    on most days of the week for achieving long-term
    behaviour change.
  • To achieve weight loss (beyond the health benefit
    mentioned above), it appears that the necessary
    amount of physical activity is 60 minutes of
    light-moderate intensity activity accumulated
    over the course of the day, on most days of the
  • Evidence shows that about 60 to 90 minutes of
    activity accumulated over the course of the day
    on most days of the week is probably best for
    effective weight maintenance once weight has been
  • In general, those activities where the body
    weight is not supported (e.g. walking) are more
    effective for weight loss than weight-supported
    activities (e.g. swimming). However, weight
    supported activities are a useful means of
    helping patients with locomotor difficulties to
    become active.

Recommendations for Overweight and Obese Children
  • More physical activity than the levels currently
    being engaged in should be prescribed to help
    manage obesity in children and adolescents. The
    more physical activity undertaken, the less
    stringent the dietary restriction needs to be to
    achieve an energy deficit.
  • Activities should be prescribed in accordance
    with the childs age.
  • There are at least four types of activity to
  • structured organised activities such as swimming
    lessons, sporting clubs, dance, scouts, youth
  • less structured activities such as family walks,
    long bike rides
  • lifestyle activities such as walking part or all
    of the way to school, using stairs, doing chores
    around the house
  • spontaneous activities such as inviting friends
    over to play, going to the pool for fun.

Recommendations for Overweight and Obese Children
  • A few hours of organised sport a week will not
    counteract hours of daily inactivity. The
    following need to be considered
  • the activity level of the family unit
  • types of activities in which the child/adolescent
    feels comfortable
  • when and where the child/adolescent is most
  • choices of activity/inactivity in free time
  • what normally occurs after school
  • how much time is spent outside
  • barriers to being physically inactive (safety,
    transport, costs, time issues)
  • knowledge and perception of neighbourhood
    facilities for physical activities.

Domains of Physical Activity
Occupational Activity
  • These are physical activities that are undertaken
    each day as part of a persons employment.
  • Eg, builder (lifting frames), courier (delivering
    parcels), clerk (typing and delivery messages.).

Household/gardening activity
  • These are physical activities that a person does
    at home outside of their work hours.
  • Activities include gardening, cleaning, painting,
    mowing the lawns.

Leisure time activity
  • These are physical activities in which a person
    chooses to participate in. The can be either
    individual, social or competitive, or a
  • Eg. golf, tennis, basketball, lawn bowls.

Active transportation activity
  • These physical activities are based on allowing a
    person to get from one place to another. They
    often are replacing modern means of
  • Eg., running, bike-riding, walking.

Physical Activity Pyramid
  • The Physical Activity Pyramid provides a
    framework for educating people about the types of
    physical activities to enhance fitness, health
    and well-being.
  • For optimal health benefits, participation in all
    levels of the pyramid is required each week.

Dimensions of Physical Activity
  • Type/behaviours of activity
  • F.I.T.
  • F Frequency (how often per week)
  • I Intensity (how vigorous the activity)
  • T Time/repetition (activity time length/ no. of
    repeated actions)

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Level 1 Lifetime physical activity
  • These are activities that can be performed at
    anytime, anywhere with minimal equipment and can
    be done either alone or with others.
  • F All or most days of the week
  • I Moderate
  • T 30 minutes

Level 2 Active Aerobic Activity and Active
Spots and Recreation
  • These activities consist of aerobic activities
    (eg bike riding, running, swimming) and active
    sport and recreational activities(eg dancing,
    tennis, basketball).
  • F 3 6 days per week
  • I Moderate to Vigorous
  • T 20 minutes

Level 3 Exercise for Flexibility, Strength and
Muscular Endurance
  • These activities are specifically focussed upon
    improving muscular strength, endurance and
  • Flexibility
  • F 3 7 days per week
  • I stretching
  • T 15 60 seconds, 1 3 sets
  • Muscular strength/endurance
  • F 2 3 days per week
  • I Muscle overload (fatigue)
  • T 8 12 reps, 1 3 sets

Level 4 Inactivity or Rest
  • These are sedentary activities where movement is
    minimal. These activities need to be kept to a
  • F Infrequent
  • I Low
  • T Short
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