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The Union in Crisis Chapter 10


THE UNION IN CRISIS CHAPTER 10 How did the nation s expansion lead to the Civil War? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Union in Crisis Chapter 10

The Union in CrisisChapter 10
  • How did the nations expansion lead to the Civil

  • SSUSH 9 The student will identify key events,
    issues, and individuals relating to the causes,
    course, and consequences of the Civil War.
  • a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure
    of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John
    Browns Raid.
  • b. Describe President Lincolns efforts to
    preserve the Union as seen in his second
    inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and
    in his use of emergency powers, such as his
    decision to suspend habeas corpus.
  • c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E.
    Lee, Stonewall Jackson, William T. Sherman, and
    Jefferson Davis.
  • d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter,
    Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle
    for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these
  • Describe the significance of the Emancipation
  • f. Explain the importance of the growing economic
    disparity between the North and the South through
    an examination of population, functioning
    railroads, and industrial output.

Slavery, States Rights, and Western Expansion
  • Section 1
  • How did Congress try to resolve the dispute
    between North and South over slavery?
  • Vocabulary
  • Wilmot Proviso secede
  • Free-Soil Party Compromise of 1850
  • popular sovereignty Fugitive Slave Act

Slavery, States Rights, and Western Expansion
Slavery Divides the Nation   Main Idea From the
nations earliest days, the issue of slavery
divided Americans. As the nation expanded, the
problem became more pressing. Southerners
believed slavery should be allowed in the new
western territories many northerners believed it
should not. The Election of 1848 Main Idea In
the 1848 presidential campaign, both Democrats
and Whigs split over the question of whether to
limit the expansion of slavery. New political
factions emerged, with slavery at the center of
debate. A Compromise Avoids a Crisis Main Idea
Henry Clays Compromise of 1850 offered
concessions to both the South and the North and
suggested that popular sovereignty should decide
the slavery issue in the Utah and New Mexico
territories. Senate Adopts the Compromise of
1850 Main Idea In an attempt to ward off
division among the states, the Senate adopted the
Compromise of 1850. Though the legislation
restored calm for the moment, it carried the
seeds of new crises to come.
Two Nations
  • North and South were divided by slavery
  • North believed slavery was wrong based on
  • South believed that whites and African Americans
    were not equal and attacked uncaring northern
    industrialists who took no personal
    responsibility for their workers
  • Wilmot Proviso seeks to limit slavery in the
    territories gained in the Mexican-American War.
    Passed by the House of Representatives, but
    rejected by the Senate

Northern Views of Slavery
  • Laws in the North severely limited the rights of
    free African Americans
  • Abolitionists wanted slavery to end
  • Some white northern bankers, mill owners, and
    merchants favored slavery
  • Some northern workers feared that freed slaves
    would take their jobs

Southern Views of Slavery
  • Slavery was a part of southern life
  • Many southerners felt that slavery was good
  • Many argued that slavery was more kind than the
    northern system of free labor
  • Southerners believed that slaves were healthier
    and happier

  • Recent historians emphasize the differences
    between the regions, racial groups, and social
  • Some kind of major conflict was bound to occur
  • Question Could the politicians have avoided the
    Civil War?

Election of 1848
  • Free-Soil Party supported the Wilmot Proviso to
    keep new western territories free of slavery
  • Nominated Martin Van Buren
  • Popular sovereignty policy that voters in a
    territory would decide whether or not to allow
    slavery both the Democratic Party and the Whigs
    support popular sovereignty

Election of 1848
  • Democrats Lewis Cass
  • Whigs Zachary Taylor
  • Free Soil Party Martin Van Buren
  • Van Buren took votes away from Cass to give
    Taylor the victory
  • Taylor dies in 1850 Millard Fillmore, the Vice
    President, takes office

Compromise of 1850
  • Question What were the effects of the Missouri
    Compromise, and how did the Compromise of 1850
    try to deal with them?
  • Kept the balance between slave and free states in
    the Senate free states only north of 36º 30 N
  • Henry Clay of Kentucky proposes a compromise to
    admit California as a free state
  • John C. Calhoun of SC against compromise
  • Daniel Webster of Massachusetts for compromise

Chart Clays Compromise of 1850
Clays Compromise of 1850
Comparing Viewpoints Should the Union be saved?
Should the Union be saved?
Note Taking Reading Skill Categorize
Reading Skill Categorize
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Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 1
Progress Monitoring Transparency
A Rising Tide of Protest and Violence
Section 2
  • How did the Fugitive Slave Act and the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act increase tensions between the
    North and the South?
  • Vocabulary
  • personal liberty laws
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Underground Railroad
  • John Brown
  • Harriet Tubman
  • Bleeding Kansas
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe

A Rising Tide of Protest and Violence
Resistance Against the Fugitive Slave Act Main
Idea The Compromise of 1850 was meant to calm
the fears of Americans. But one provision, the
new Fugitive Slave Act, had the opposite effect.
Black Americans and abolitionists despised the
law and organized to try to help enslaved people
to freedom through the Underground Railroad. The
Kansas-Nebraska Act Undoes the Missouri
Compromise Main Idea Although Congress meant
well, its repeated attempts to resolve the
question of slavery resulted in a jumble of
contradictory, and often unenforceable,
policies. A Battle Rages in Bleeding Kansas
Main Idea Kansas attracted not only farmers
but settlers with political motives. Violence
erupted between abolitionists and proslavery
settlers and eventually spread to the
Note Taking Reading Skill Understand Effects
Reading Skill Understand Effects
Underground Railroad
  • Known as the Black Moses
  • Guided hundreds of slaves to freedom
  • Large reward on her head, but never captured

Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 2
Progress Monitoring Transparency
Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Stephen Douglas of Illinois wanted to run for
  • Act supported popular sovereignty for area
  • Passed but made North angry in effect, Congress
    repealed the Missouri Compromise since Kansas and
    Nebraska were above the 36º 30 N latitude

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Note Taking Reading Skill Understand Effects
Reading Skill Understand Effects
Violence Begins
  • Free soilers 1,200 New Englanders sent to Kansas
    to fight against slavery
  • Proslavery settlers opposed them
  • Kansas had an antislavery capital at Topeka and a
    proslavery capital at Lecompton
  • 1856, open violence erupted
  • Bleeding Kansas

Transparency Bleeding Kansas
Bleeding Kansas
Bleeding Kansas
  • John Brown Following a raid in Lawrence by a
    proslavery group, he and his followers killed
    five proslavery men along the Pottawatomie Creek
  • Summer of murder and raids

Lecompton Constitution
  • Proslavery group wrote a proslavery constitution
    for Kansas called the Lecompton constitution
  • Buchanan accepted it, but Congress returned it.
  • Defeated by Kansas people the second time

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Senate Violence
  • Senator Charles Sumner, a Republican, gave a
    speech that attacked Southerners for forcing
    slavery on Kansas and insulted Senator Andrew
    Butler of SC
  • Preston Brooks, a member of the House beat him
    with his cane
  • Sumner lived but never recovered added to hatred

Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • Uncle Toms Cabin Eliza Harris, a slave, escapes
    when her child is to be sold
  • As Eliza heads north, she eludes the slave
  • Uncle Tom is sold and is killed by his brutal
    master, Simon Legree, a Northerner
  • Book had a powerful effect North became
    convinced that slavery would ruin the U.S. South
    believed it was a book of insulting lies.

Transparency The Slavery Issue
The Slavery Issue
Political Realignment Deepens the Crisis Section
  • What developments deepened the divisions between
    North and South?
  • Vocabulary
  • Know-Nothings Abraham Lincoln
  • Republican Party Stephen A. Douglas
  • Dred Scott Harpers Ferry
  • Roger B. Taney

Political Realignment Deepens the Crisis
The Shifting Political Scene   Main Idea
Traditionally, American political parties
extended across sectional lines. But starting in
the 1840s, American politics increasingly
reflected regional tensions, especially over the
issue of slavery. Sectional Divisions
Intensify Main Idea For many years, the North
and South tried to ignore or patch over their
differences. But by the mid-1850s, the dispute
over slavery caused sectional differences to
intensify. The Lincoln-Douglas Debate Main
Idea In 1858, Stephen Douglas and Abraham
Lincoln held a series of seven debates while
competing for a seat in the U.S. Senate.
Thousands of Americans attended the
Lincoln-Douglas debates and listened intently as
the two candidates presented opposing views of
slavery and its role in America. John Browns
Raid Main Idea Abolitionist John Brown
concluded that violence was the best way to reach
his goal of avenging the evil of slavery. In
1859, he and 21 followers seized the federal
arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. However,
federal troops ended the attack, and Brown was
eventually executed.
Shifting Political Scene
  • Whig Party disintegrates divided over the
    issues nominated Winfield Scott in 1852
  • Know-Nothings nativists will become American
    Party divided over issues

Republican Party
  • 1854, dedicated to stopping Slave Power
  • Declared slavery a great moral evil
  • Demanded repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and
    Fugitive Slave Act
  • Comprised of antislavery Democrats, Whigs, and
    Free Soilers from North
  • Farmers, professionals, small business owners,
    craftworkers joined

Election of 1856
  • Democrats nominated James Buchanan
  • Republicans nominated John C. Frémont
  • Know-Nothings chose Millard Fillmore
  • Buchanan won the election
  • He hoped that the Supreme Court would resolve the
    slavery issue

Scott v. Sandford
  • The Dred Scott Decision 1857
  • Scott v. Sandford
  • Scott sued his owner
  • Said that he and his wife were taken to states
    and territories where slavery was illegal and
    therefore should be free

  • The Court, under Chief Justice Roger B. Taney,
    ruled 7 to 2 against Scott
  • Slaves are not citizens and cannot sue in court
  • Scott not free due to being in free area
  • Missouri Compromise ruled unconstitutional.
    Slaves were considered property of their owners
    and Congress could not deprive people of their
    property without due process of law according to
    the Fifth Amendment.
  • Antislavery forces were disgusted

Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Campaigning for Senate seat from Illinois in 1858
  • Series of seven debates on the issue of slavery
    in the territories.
  • Physical contrast in the men was striking
  • Douglas wins election

Abraham Lincoln
  • Studied law and worked at various jobs
  • Served in the Congress in the 1840s
  • Believed that the majority could not deny the
    minority their rights
  • Foresaw confrontation
  • A house divided against itself cannot stand. I
    believe this government cannot endure,
    permanently half slave and half free. I do not
    expect the Union to be dissolvedI do not expect
    the house to fallbut I do expect it will cease
    to be divided. It will become all one thing, or
    all the other.

Senator Douglas
  • Short, stout known as the Little Giant
  • Believed that the majority of people could do
    anything they wished, even make slavery legal
  • Lincoln gets national attention, although Douglas
    won the Senate election

Lincoln-Douglas Debates1858 Illinois Senate Race
  • Stephen Douglas
  • Agreed with Dred Scott decision on legal grounds
  • Freeport Doctrine says people can vote slavery
    down by popular sovereignty
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Disagreed with Dred Scott decision (How can we
    have popular sovereignty if case is accepted?)
  • Believed slavery should not be allowed to spread
    to the territories

Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 3
Progress Monitoring Transparency
John Browns Raid
  • 1859, Brown and his men attacked the federal
    arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia he hoped to
    seize weapons and give them to slaves
  • Wanted a slave uprising
  • Colonel Robert E. Lee leads troops Brown is
  • Northerners saw him as a martyr his raid
    deepened the divide between the North and South

Note Taking Reading Skill Sequence
Reading Skill Sequence
Chart American Political Parties During the 1850s
American Political Parties During the 1850s
Lincoln, Secession, and WarSection 4
  • How did the Union finally collapse into a civil
  • Vocabulary
  • Jefferson Davis
  • Crittenden Compromise
  • John C. Breckinridge
  • Fort Sumter
  • Confederate States of America

Lincoln, Secession, and War
The Election of 1860 Main Idea The Election of
1860 was a turning point for the United States.
The election demonstrated that there were no
longer any national political parties. The North
and South were now effectively two political
entities, and there seemed no way to bridge the
gap. The Union Collapses Main Idea Southerners
were outraged that a President could be elected
without a single southern vote. In Southerners
perception, the South no longer had a voice in
the national government. They decided to act by
leaving the Union and forming the
Confederacy. The Civil War Begins Main Idea
The Confederates attacked Fort Sumter, hoping to
seize it from Union hands. Lincoln declared that
insurrection existed and called for 75,000
volunteers to fight against the Confederacy.
The Election of 1860
  • In April 1860, Democratic Party split into North
    and South factions
  • In Border States, the Constitutional Union party
    forms from Whigs and American party (Know

Chart The Candidates for President
The Candidates for President
  • Southern Democrats John C. Breckinrigde
  • Northern Democrats Stephen Douglas, Illinois
  • Constitutional Unionist Party John Bell,
  • Republican Party Abraham Lincoln, Illinois
  • Lincoln wins with 39 of the vote and 180
    electoral votes sectional victory

Lower South Secedes
  • Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida,
    Georgia, and South Carolina
  • Secessionists those who wanted the South to

Confederate States of America
  • South Carolina seceded December 20, 1860
  • In February 1861, the seven states created the
    Confederacy and elected Jefferson Davis as

War Starts
  • Lincoln takes office on March 4, 1861
  • Vows to enforce the laws of the U.S. and to
    preserve, protect, and defend the government

Fort Sumter
  • Fort under the command of Major Robert Anderson
  • Running out of supplies
  • April 12 General P.G.T. Beauregard fires on the
  • Anderson surrenders

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Upper South
  • Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas
    joined the Confederacy
  • Border States stay neutral
  • The Civil War begins

(No Transcript)
Political Cartoons The Nation Divided
Political Cartoons The Nation Divided
Transparency Forming the Confederacy
Forming the Confederacy
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Causes and
Reading Skill Identify Causes and Effects
Diagram Long-term Causes and Short-term Causes
Long-term Causes and Short-term Causes
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 4
Progress Monitoring Transparency
  • Proposed 28th Amendment to the United States
  • "Congress shall make no law that applies to the
    citizens of the United States that does not apply
    equally to the Senators and/or Representatives
    and, Congress shall make no law that applies to
    the Senators and/or Representatives that does not
    apply equally to the citizens of the United
    States ."  
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