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Fourth Grade Time Travelers!


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Title: Fourth Grade Time Travelers!

Fourth Grade Time Travelers!
  • Lets travel back in timeback to the days before
    video games, back to the days before television,
    back to the days before electricityway back to
    the days before the United States of America even
  • Lets travel back to the days when our country
    was a vast wilderness, inhabited by thousands of
    people that we now call Native Americans.
  • Lets find out just how the good ol U.S. of A.
    came to be the country we know and love today!

Native Americans
  • Native Americans were the first people to inhabit
    the land we now call America. There were
    thousands of tribes, and each tribe was
    different. But all of these tribes had something
    in common they all depended on the environment
    to provide for their basic needs of food,
    shelter, and clothing. Their ways of life were
    different, depending upon the region in which
    they lived. Lets go meet some of these native

  • The Inuit lived far to the north, in a region
    called the Arctic. They built igloos out of snow
    and ice, or they lived in shelters made of earth.
    They hunted animals such as walrus, seal, and
    polar bears. They used the animal skins for
    clothing, and they used all of the other parts of
    the animal for various purposes, including food
    and tools.

  • The Kwakiutl lived along the northwest coast.
    They built plankhouses made of cedar, and they
    made their clothing out of cedar bark. Their
    staple food was salmon. They held large parties
    called potlatches in which a chief would
    demonstrate his wealth by giving elaborate gifts
    to his guests. They built totem poles to
    represent their family history.

Nez Perce
  • The Nez Perce lived in an area known as the
    Plateau and in the Great Basin. They built
    longhouses out of wood, and they also lived in
    tepees during hunting season. They ate deer, elk,
    and other game, nuts, berries, and other plants.
    They wore clothing made of deerskin. Much later,
    the Nez Perce helped Lewis and Clark during their
    exploration of the Louisiana Purchase.

  • The Hopi lived in the Southwestern part of what
    is now the United States. They built multi-family
    homes out of adobe called pueblos. They wore
    clothing woven from cotton. They were farmers and
    their main crops were corn, beans, and squash,
    which they called the Three Sisters.

  • The Pawnee lived in the Great Plains. They were
    nomadic, which means that they traveled from
    place to place following the buffalo, which was
    their main food source. They lived in tepees made
    from buffalo skin. They also wore clothing made
    from buffalo hides. They used every part of the

  • The Seminole lived in the southeastern part of
    the United States, in the area we now call
    Florida. They wore lightweight clothing made from
    grasses and leaves. They ate deer, wild turkeys,
    rabbits, turtles, and alligator! They lived in
    huts called chickees that were made of grass
    and were elevated on stilts.

  • While the Native Americans were going about their
    daily lives in what we now call America, over in
    Europe, people were setting their sights on the
    riches of Asia! Inspired by the amazing stories
    of Marco Polo, European countries were competing
    to find a water route to the Indies! Lets learn
    a little bit about this Polo fellow, and then
    well find out more about that water route!

Marco Polo
  • Marco Polo was an Italian who traveled with his
    father and uncle to what we now call China. While
    there, they met a great ruler name Kublai Khan,
    and they traveled throughout China making many
    new discoveries. Upon returning to Italy about 20
    years later, Marco Polo was imprisoned. While he
    was in prison, he told about his amazing
    adventures. A book about his adventures inspired
    many others to travel to the Indies and to get

Christopher Columbus
  • One fellow who was inspired by the story of Marco
    Polo was another Italian named Cristoforo
    Columbo, better known as Christopher Columbus.
    Columbus believed that he could sail west in
    order to find the Indies. He convinced the King
    and Queen of Spain to sponsor his voyage. Well,
    he never made it to the Indies! Instead, he
    landed in what is now known as the Bahamas, and
    the rest, as they say, is history!

John Cabot
  • After Columbus discovered the New World, other
    European explorers decided to try to find a
    western route to the Indies. England hired John
    Cabot to find a Northwest Passage to the
    Indies. He landed off of the coast of Canada and
    claimed it for England. Sadly, on a return
    voyage, he disappeared and was never heard from

Vasco Nunez de Balboa
  • Meanwhile, Spain decided that it wanted to claim
    lots of land in the New World. They sent many
    conquistadors to conquer the New World for
    God, gold, and glory! One such Spaniard was
    Vasco Nunez de Balboa. Balboa snuck aboard a ship
    headed for Panama, where he crossed the isthmus
    and became the first European to see the Pacific
    Ocean! (Balboa stuck his toa in the Pacific

Juan Ponce de Leon
  • Another Spaniard was Juan Ponce de Leon. While he
    was governor of Puerto Rico, he heard about a
    magical spring of water called the Fountain of
    Youth. During his search for this magical
    fountain, he discovered present-day Florida,
    which he claimed for Spain. Sadly, he was killed
    by natives who apparently werent too happy about
    his visit!

Jacques Cartier
  • Meanwhile, England and France were still looking
    for a northwest passage to Asia. France hired
    Jacques Cartier to look for this waterway.
    Although he didnt find the northwest passage
    (probably because it didnt exist!), he did sail
    down the St. Lawrence River and claimed land in
    the New World for France.

Henry Hudson
  • Many years after John Cabots tragic voyage,
    England decided once again to search for the
    Northwest Passage. They hired an experienced
    explorer named Henry Hudson. Hudson sailed
    around Hudson Bay, looking for an opening that
    would lead to the northwest passage. His crew
    became frustrated and discouraged, and they
    finally mutinied, setting Hudson and his son
    adrift in a small rowboat. He was never seen

  • By the end of the Age of Exploration, several
    countries had claimed land in the new world,
    including Spain, France, the Netherlands, and
    England. Because the English knew that they were
    at risk of losing their claims if no settlers
    lived there, they started establishing colonies
    in America. Their first colony, Roanoke,
    completely disappeared! Their next attempt,
    Jamestown, almost failed, but was saved by the
    discovery that tobacco could be grown there
    successfully. Eventually, there were 13 English

New England
  • The New England colonies were Massachusetts,
    Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. The
    climate in New England was harsh with long, cold
    winters. It was not a good place for farming
    because of the rocky soil. The main industries
    were logging, whaling, shipbuilding, and trading.
    New England colonists had very strict religious
    beliefs and lived in towns built around a meeting
    house and a common.

Middle Colonies
  • The Middle Colonies were New York, New Jersey,
    Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The Middle Colonies
    had a mild climate and very fertile soil. They
    were known as the Bread Colonies because they
    grew much of the grain used throughout the
    colonies. The Middle Colonies were very diverse
    people from many countries and many religions
    were welcome there.

Southern Colonies
  • The Southern Colonies were Virginia, Maryland,
    North South Carolina, and Georgia. In the
    south, there were large plantations where cash
    crops such as tobacco, cotton, rice, and indigo
    were grown. Much of the work on the plantations
    was done by slaves brought over from Africa. The
    climate was hot and humid with a long growing

Colonial People
  • Indentured servants agreed to work for 7 years in
    exchange for ship passage to America.
  • Slaves were captured in Africa and were forced to
    work in America.
  • Artisans specialized in a certain trade, such as
    blacksmiths, tailors, silversmiths, cobblers,
  • Women were responsible for managing the household
    and raising children.

James Oglethorpe Georgia
  • James Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia as
    a refuge for people who had been in debtors
    prison in England. It was known as a buffer
    colony between Spanish-owned Florida and the rest
    of the colonies. Savannah was one of Georgias
    first settlements it later became a major port

American Revolution!
  • As the colonies grew and became more successful,
    they began to want more independence. Over a
    number of years, several events occurred that led
    to a war with Mother England! Lets travel down
    the road to revolution!

French Indian War/Proclamation of 1763
  • In 1754, war broke out in the colonies as a
    result of disputes over the Ohio River Valley.
    The British and Americans fought against the
    French, who were supported by Native American
    allies. In 1763, the British won the war, and
    they gained all of the land east of the
    Mississippi River. However, in the Proclamation
    of 1763, King George decreed that the new
    territory was forbidden to colonists and that it
    was reserved for Native Americans only. This
    decree didnt make the colonists very happy!

New Taxes
  • In addition to the Proclamation of 1763, King
    George passed several new taxes in order to pay
    his debts from the French and Indian War. The
    colonists were furious! They felt that they had
    paid for the war with their lives! They were also
    angry that they couldnt move to the new
    territory that they had won.

Boston Massacre
  • Things were heating up in the colonies! The
    colonists, who were mad about the Proclamation of
    1763 and new taxes, began protesting the presence
    of British soldiers. One night in Boston, a
    snowball fight turned into a riot. Several
    colonists were killed, including Crispus Attucks,
    a former slave. A silversmith named Paul Revere
    printed an engraving of the riot, calling it a

Boston Tea Party
  • Eventually, King George decided to repeal all of
    the taxes except for the one on tea. This wasnt
    enough for the colonists, who declared, No
    taxation without representation! When 3 British
    ships full of tea sailed into Boston Harbor,
    colonists disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the
    ships and dumped the tea into the harbor! This
    event was planned by a secret group of Patriots
    known as the Sons of Liberty!

The Intolerable Acts
  • When King George heard about the Boston Tea
    Party, he was FURIOUS!!! To punish the colonists,
    he passed a series of new laws which the
    colonists referred to as the Intolerable Acts.
    These laws included
  • Closing Boston Harbor until the colonists paid
    for the tea.
  • Soldiers could take over colonists homes
    (Quartering Act).
  • Colonists could no longer meet together in
  • British soldiers accused of a crime would go on
    trial in England.

The Intolerable Acts
  • When King George heard about the Boston Tea
    Party, he was FURIOUS!!! To punish the colonists,
    he passed a series of new laws which the
    colonists referred to as the Intolerable Acts.
    These laws included
  • Closing Boston Harbor until the colonists paid
    for the tea.
  • Soldiers could take over colonists homes
    (Quartering Act).
  • Colonists could no longer meet together in
  • British soldiers accused of a crime would go on
    trial in England.

Lexington Concord
  • The British knew that the colonists were storing
    up weapons in Concord, Massachusetts. They
    planned a march to Concord to seize the supplies.
    Paul Revere (with help from William Dawes and
    Samuel Prescott) made a midnight ride to warn the
    colonists that the Regulars were coming! The
    following morning, when the British and colonists
    met in Lexington, the shot heard round the
    world was fired. This was the first shot of the
    American Revolution! War had begun!

Battle of Bunker Hill
  • Colonial leaders met in Philadelphia to decide
    what to do about the problems with Britain. They
    decided to write a letter to King George to ask
    for some changes. Before their letter was
    answered, another battle broke out at Bunker Hill
    (it really took place on Breeds Hill!). The
    colonists were low on ammunition, so their leader
    told them to Hold your fire until you see the
    whites of their eyes! The colonists drove the
    British back twice, but then ran out of
    ammunition and had to retreat.

Declaration of Independence
  • When King George refused to make any changes,
    colonial leaders decided that it was time to
    officially declare their independence from
    Britain. Thomas Jefferson was selected to draft
    this document. He stated that all men are
    created equal and that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable rights
    life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
    The Declaration was adopted on July 4, 1776.
    Happy birthday, America!

Crossing the Delaware/Battle of Trenton
  • The next few months were difficult for the
    Patriot army. They were untrained and had few
    supplies. General George Washington knew his
    troops needed a victory. He planned a secret
    attack for Christmas night, December 25, 1776.
    The Patriot army crossed the Delaware River and
    surprised the Hessian soldiers stationed at
    Trenton, New Jersey. It was a much-needed victory
    for the Patriots!

Battle of Saratoga
  • The war continued for several years. Once again,
    the Patriot army was discouraged. The Battle of
    Saratoga was a turning point in the war. Through
    the brave efforts of General Benedict Arnold, the
    Americans were able to defeat the British. This
    victory convinced France to give their support to
    the American troops. They agreed to send over
    ships, soldiers, and supplies to help the
    Patriots in their cause. Merci beaucoup! ?

Winter at Valley Forge
  • After the Battle of Saratoga, the Patriots
    settled in for the winter in Valley Forge,
    Pennsylvania, just outside Philadelphia. It was a
    harsh, cold winter, and many of the soldiers died
    of starvation and disease. However, during this
    time, the Patriot army also received training
    from Baron von Steuben. They left Valley Forge as
    a stronger, more disciplined army, ready to take
    on the British!

Battle of Kettle Creek
The Battle of Kettle Creek took place in
Washington, GA on the morning of February 14,
1779. After a 3-hour battle between Georgia
Patriots and Loyalists, the Loyalists fled. It
was a much-needed victory for Patriots in the
Battle of Yorktown
  • British commander Lord Cornwallis and the British
    troops headed to Yorktown to plan their next
    move. George Washington heard about their plans
    and came up with a pretty brilliant plan of his
    own! The Patriot army surrounded the British by
    land, while the French fleet (who arrived at the
    perfect time!) surrounded the British by sea.
    Cornwallis had no choice but to surrender! This
    marked the end of the American Revolution.

Treaty of Paris
  • The Americans and the British met in Paris to
    sign a treaty that would serve as the official
    end of the American Revolution. The British gave
    up all of their lands east of the Mississippi,
    and they agreed to recognize America as an
    official, independent nation. However, they
    refused to pose for the official portait!

George Washington
  • George Washington was the leader of the
    Continental Army during the American Revolution.
    He later presided over the Constitutional
    Convention, and was then elected as our first
    president. He is known as the Father of Our

Thomas Jefferson
  • Thomas Jefferson was selected to write the
    Declaration of Independence along with 4 other
    men. However, he really did most of the writing.
    He later became our 3rd president, and was
    responsible for the Louisiana Purchase.

Benedict Arnold
  • Benedict Arnold was a brilliant general who
    served during the American Revolution. However,
    he became angry because he was overlooked for a
    promotion, so he started giving secret
    information to the British. He later joined the
    British Army. He is mostly remembered as a

Patrick Henry
  • Patrick Henry was a colonial leader from
    Virginia. He gave a speech in which he said,
    Give me liberty, or give me death! He later
    refused to attend the Constitutional Convention
    because he thought that the new Constitution
    would give too much power to the federal
    government and not enough to the states.

John Adams
  • John Adams was a lawyer from Boston and a member
    of the Sons of Liberty. He was one of the signers
    of the Declaration of Independence. After the
    American Revolution, he became an ambassador to
    England. He later became the first vice
    president, and then the second president.

Marquis de Lafayette
  • The Marquis de Lafayette was a French nobleman
    who was a strong supporter of the American cause
    for liberty. He donated his own money to help the
    Patriots to buy supplies. He became good friends
    with George Washington, and helped to convince
    the French to give their support to the Americans.

Paul Revere
  • Paul Revere was a silversmith from Boston who was
    also a member of the Sons of Liberty. He made a
    famous engraving of the Boston Massacre,
    participated in the Boston Tea Party, and made a
    midnight ride to Lexington to warn the colonists
    that the Regulars were coming.

Thomas Paine
  • Thomas Paine was a British writer who wrote many
    essays in support of the American cause for
    liberty. One of his most famous essays was
    Common Sense, in which he said that it did not
    make sense for someone to be the leader of a
    country just because they had been born into that
    position. Thomas Paines writings were very
    inspiring to the Patriots.

Lord Cornwallis
  • Lord Cornwallis was one of the main commanders of
    the British troops in America. He was present at
    the Battle of Yorktown, where he surrendered to
    George Washington. (Actually, he said that he was
    sick and couldnt come out to personally
    surrender. He sent his second-in-command. So,
    George Washington also sent his second-in-command
    to receive the surrender! You go, George!)

Samuel Adams
  • Samuel Adams was one of the main leaders of the
    Sons of Liberty. He gave the signal to start the
    Boston Tea Party. He also signed the Declaration
    of Independence, as did his cousin, John Adams.

John Hancock
  • John Hancock was one of the richest men in
    Boston. He was also the president of the
    Continental Congress. When the Declaration of
    Independence was finished, he signed it first. He
    said that he signed it in large handwriting so
    that King George could read it without his
    spectacles! John Hancock is now a synonym for
    the word signature.

Articles of Confederation
  • Now that America was a free country, they had
    some things to take care of! First, they needed
    to come up with a better government plan! They
    had been using the Articles of Confederation as
    their plan, but it was WEAK! It gave the Congress
    no power at all, which was causing major problems
    between the states! Something needed to be fixed
    or our new country was going to fall apart!

Constitutional Convention
  • Once again, representatives from all 13 states
    (no longer colonies!) were invited to meet in
    Philadelphia. Every state sent representatives
    except for Rhode Island. This was known as the
    Constitutional Convention. The delegates soon
    realized that the Articles of Confederation
    couldnt be fixed, and that they would have to
    start from scratch. After several long, hot
    months, we had a brand new Constitution!

James Madison
  • James Madison is known as the Father of the
    Constitution. He attended almost every meeting
    during the Constitutional Convention and took
    notes the whole time. He was then selected to
    turn his notes into a first draft of the new
    Constitution. He later became our 4th president,
    and was the president during the War of 1812. He
    was also our shortest president!

  • The introduction to the Constitution is known as
    the Preamble. It explains the purpose of the
    Constitution. It says, We the people of the
    United States, in order to form a more perfect
    union, establish justice, insure domestic
    tranquility, provide for the common defense,
    promote the general welfare, and secure the
    blessings of liberty, to ourselves and our
    posterity, do ordain and establish this
    Constitution for the United States of America.

Three Branches of Government
  • The Constitution set up three branches of
    government so that no one person would have too
    much power. The Executive Branch includes the
    President and has the power to approve laws. The
    Legislative Branch includes the Congress and has
    the power to make laws. The Judicial Branch
    includes the Supreme Court and decides whether or
    not laws are constitutional. Power is controlled
    through a system of checks and balances.

Great Compromise
  • One of the hardest decisions at the
    Constitutional Convention was how each state
    should be represented in Congress. It was decided
    that there would be 2 houses of Congress. In the
    Senate, every state would have 2 representatives.
    In the House of Representatives, representation
    would be based on population. This was known as
    the Great Compromise!

Three-Fifths Compromise
  • Another disagreement occurred over how slaves
    should be represented in a states population.
    The northern states (who had fewer slaves) didnt
    want the southern states to be able to count
    their slaves as part of their population, because
    that would give them more votes in Congress. It
    was decided that every slave would count as
    three-fifths of a person. What do you think about

Bill of Rights
  • After the Constitution was finished, there were a
    lot of people who didnt want to approve it
    because it didnt include anything about the
    peoples rights it was just a list of what the
    government could do. So, a Bill of Rights was
    added. It was a set of ten amendments (additions)
    listing specific rights of the people, such as
    the right to bear arms and the right to a fair

First Amendment
  • The First Amendment is all about freedom of
    expression and includes five freedoms freedom of
    speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the
    press, freedom of petition, and freedom of
    assembly. With these freedoms, however, comes
    responsibility! For example, you cant spread
    lies about someone or yell FIRE! in a crowded
    place if theres no fire! You have to make good
    choices about what you say!

  • The United States government is a federalist
    system, which means that the federal (national)
    government and state governments share power.
    There are some powers given to just the federal
    government (like printing money) or the state
    governments (like laws about marriage and
    divorce), but some powers are shared like the
    power to collect taxes! Boo! (Just kidding kind

Growth and Expansion
  • Now that we had a working government in place,
    our country was ready to grow and boy, did it
    ever grow! Did you ever wonder how we went from
    being 13 states to the 50 states that we have
    today? Well, lets hit the trail and find out
    about some of the events that helped the U.S.A.
    to grow and expand!

Louisiana Purchase
  • By 1803 (time flies when youre having fun),
    Thomas Jefferson was president. He was offered
    one of the best land deals of all time the
    Louisiana Purchase! Napoleon, the leader of
    France, was ready to sell the French-owned
    Louisiana Territory land for next to nothing! In
    fact, the land cost about 3 cents per acre!!!
    This purchase doubled the size of our country
    overnight! What a bargain!

Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • Thomas Jefferson selected Meriwether Lewis and
    William Clark to explore the new territory. They
    began their journey near St. Louis, Missouri, on
    May 14, 1804. During their journey, they met a
    Native American woman named Sacagawea. She became
    their guide for the rest of the journey. They
    reached the Pacific Ocean in November 1805. After
    the winter, they returned to St. Louis on Sept.
    3, 1806. They had traveled a total of 9,000 miles!

War of 1812
The British did not take the loss of the American
colonies very well. They did not want the new
country to be successful. In the early 1800s,
they began capturing American ships and
kidnapping American sailors. This led to another
war between America and Great Britain called the
War of 1812. During this war, the British invaded
Washington D.C. and burned the White House. The
Star-Spangled Banner was also written during
this war. The Americans won the war in 1814, and
the British never challenged us again!
The Alamo
During the 1820s, many Americans began moving to
Texas so that they could have more land. At that
time, Texas was owned by Mexico. The leader of
Mexico, General Santa Ana, did not want any
Americans to move to Texas. He sent soldiers into
Texas and a war began. A small group of Americans
held out against the Mexican army for almost 2
weeks at an old mission called the Alamo.
However, at the end of the attack, almost all of
the Americans had been killed, including a famous
frontiersman, Davy Crockett. Later, the Texas
army, led by Sam Houston, defeated Santa Ana,
crying Remember the Alamo! Texas became an
independent republic, and it later became one of
the United States.
California Gold Rush
California became part of the United States in
1848. That year, James Marshall discovered gold
in California while working at Sutters Mill.
Word of this discovery spread, and this led to a
gold rush! During the next year, about 90,000
people came to California in search of gold!
Because they arrived in 1849, they were known as
forty-niners. People who did not find gold
stayed and became farmers or ranchers or started
other businesses. By the end of 1849,
Californias population had grown to more than
100,000. California became the 31st state in
Oregon Trail
In the 1840s, many Americans began to move west
for more land and new opportunities. Many of
these pioneers traveled along the Oregon Trail to
Oregon Country. The Oregon Trail began in
Independence, Missouri. Most pioneers traveled in
covered wagons. They often traveled in groups
called wagon trains. The trip to Oregon was
very long and difficult. Many people died of
starvation or disease along the trail. The trip
was about 2,000 miles long and took about six
months. When pioneers reached Oregon, they often
lived in their wagons until their homes were
New Inventions
During the 1800s, many new inventions made
transportation and communication easier and more
effective. Canals, or man-made waterways, made it
easier to ship goods by boat. One such canal was
the Erie Canal in New York. The invention of the
steamboat also made transportation easier because
steamboats made it possible to travel upstream
for the first time. The steam locomotive led to
huge growth of the railroads, and trains became
the main form of shipping goods and traveling
long distances. The telegraph improved
communication by making it possible to send
messages over electric wires using a system of
dots and dashes called the Morse Code. These
improvements helped the U.S. to grow and expand.
Abolition and Slavery
As the United States continued to grow and
develop, women and African Americans became more
and more frustrated because they were not treated
equally. Women began to organize conventions to
speak out for womens suffrage, or womens right
to vote. Elizabeth Cady Stanton spoke at the
Seneca Falls Convention in New York. Sojourner
Truth, a former slave, gave her famous Aint I a
Woman? speech at a convention in Ohio. Others
spoke out in favor of abolition, or the end of
slavery. Many slaves escaped by way of the
Underground Railroad, a network of secret routes
leading to freedom. Harriet Tubman, a former
slave, traveled along the Underground Railroad
about 19 times and helped about 300 slaves to
escape. Eventually, slavery was abolished, and
African-Americans and women were given the right
to vote!
Proud to be an American!!
  • Its been a long and sometimes a hard process,
    but the United States has grown into a strong and
    successful country! I wonder if the Jamestown
    settlers would have ever dreamed of the America
    we know today! Lets all do our best to keep our
    country strong by using our freedoms wisely and
    by being good citizens! Remember our countrys
    future depends on We the People!
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