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Unit 1A


Unit 1A About water use and supply – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1A

Unit 1A
  • About water use and supply

Homework review
  • 1. With reference to the United Kingdom and the
    Mediterranean, explain what water deficit and
    water surplus mean.
  • 2. What of the worlds available water is fresh
    water? And of that, what is easily accessible
    for drinking?
  • 3. What is potable water? How many people are
    without it?
  • 4. List 4 factors that are likely to imply that
    particular groups are likely to be without
    potable water?
  • 5. Access to sanitation is important to ensure
    safe drinking water. Explain why this is so.
  • 6. Over 80 of the available water in LEDCs is
    used in agricultural production. Give a named
    example of how the amount of water that is lost
    in agriculture can be reduced.
  • Named example where? what is the problem?

So its a good idea
  • To fill in the class notes as we go
  • Ask if you are stuck or need a bit more time
  • Use the PowerPoint to do the home work (until the
    textbooks are printed)

What are all the different uses of water you can
think of?
Here are some of the uses of waterAgriculture
What is going on here?
And we mentioned drip irrigation last week. Where
did we see an example of that? What were they
growing? What were the advantages?
Do you know what this called?
What is going on here?
Here is the general picture
India is similar to other low/middle income
  • Why do you think India still uses so much water
    in agriculture?
  • As India becomes more industrialized, industries
    needs will rise
  • What industries use most of the water at the

Industrial use in India
And as India industrializes more More water will
be needed
Indian Industry
  • Thermal power
  • that is it burns things mainly coal which it
    has quite a lot of
  • engineering
  • textiles
  • paper
  • All use a lot of water and soon more will be
  • According to the World Bank, the water demand for
    industrial uses and energy production will grow
    at a rate of 4.2 per cent per year, rising from
    67 billion cubic meter in 1999 to 228 billion
    cubic meter by 2025.

Not only industry will need more
  • What are 2 issues shown here that say that India
    will need more water in future?

So we have a neat little case study here
  • Example of growing water usage in a country
  • Place India
  • How do they use their water at present?
  • Domestic ? Industrial? Agriculture?
  • Why will it rise?
  • Industrial use ?
  • (think which industries use most? Which will
    increase? By how much will it increase?)
  • Domestic use?
  • (Population what is happening to it figures.
    Potable water mention that have done well but
    still need?)

Ways to improve things
  • In rural areas, dig wells which you then line and
    cover to prevent them becoming corrupted.
  • On a large scale, build dams to collect water
    that can then be distributed to irrigate
    agricultural land and take fresh water to the
  • On a smaller scale, build infrastructure in the
    poorer parts of cities

Three Gorges Dam
Yangtze River and the Three Gorges
  • The Yangtze is Chinas largest river stretching
    5,600 kms from its source in Tibet to where it
    enters the Yellow Sea near Shanghai.
  • Midway through its course the river flows through
    a 190km section known as the Three Gorges.
  • The river valley narrows here and there are steep
    limestone cliffs on either side.
  • The river is fast flowing and hidden rocks make
    it dangerous for ships.

The Scheme
  • The dam, when completed, will be the biggest in
    the world, 2kms wide and 185 metres high.
  • It will create a reservoir 600kms long behind it.
  • It was started in 1993 and estimated to be
    completed by 2009.
  • The cost will be at least 20 billion and the
    hydro-electric plant will generated 18,000
    megawatts of electricity, making it the biggest
    HEP station in the world.

Advantages of the Scheme
  • During the 20th Century there were 3 catastrophic
    floods, plus many smaller ones. Over 300,000
    people have been drowned. The dam will prevent
    flooding, thereby saving thousands of lives.
  • The dam will provide 10 of Chinas present
    electricity requirements. It will be a clean
    fuel, reducing Chinas SO2 emissions and helping
    to reduce global warming gases.
  • All year round navigation will be possible by
    ocean going vessels as far as Chongqing at the
    far end of the reservoir.
  • Over 20,000 medium term jobs have been provided
    in the construction industry. This will create a
    positive multiplier effect to the local economy

Disadvantages of the Scheme
  • 1.2 million people will be relocated. This will
    include 13 cities, 140 towns, and 4500 villages.
    In addition 1600 industrial enterprises will have
    to be relocated.
  • 23,000 hectares of fertile farmland and 7000
    hectares of forest will be drowned.
  • Fertile soil will be lost to farms downstream
    from the dam. This is likely to lead to an
    increase in the use of chemical fertilisers.

Disadvantages of the Scheme
  • Sediment will build up behind the dam over time
    leading to a squeezing out of the reservoir.
  • Pollution in the form of sewage and toxic metals
    from industry will collect and build up the
  • The reservoir will create much deeper, colder
    water thereby changing the environment including
    types and numbers of fish.
  • The dam lies near an earthquake fault line.
  • Although the government says they have taken this
    into account, any major earthquake could create a
    disaster on an unprecedented world scale, with a
    death toll of several million.

What do you notice about the visibility?
Minicase study of a dam
  • Name
  • Where is it? Why is there?
  • Some idea of size not all the figures just
    something memorable
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

These objections have lead to changes
  • Up until the mid 1990s, the World bank funded
    many large dam projects.
  • According to the Manibeli Declaration these large
    dams have had "extensive negative environmental
    impacts, destroying forests, wetlands, fisheries,
    habitat for threatened and endangered species,
    and increasing the spread of waterborne
    diseases." In addition the World Bank has
    "tolerated and thus contributed to gross
    violations of human rights by governments in the
    process of implementing Bank-funded large dams,
    including arbitrary arrests, beatings, rapes, and
    shootings of peaceful demonstrators.
  • As a result of this and other criticism, they

Why did the world bank stop building large dams?
Marunda Project, Jakarta, Indonesia
Not much help! But the arrow points to the word
Marunda, which is the far NE of the city. It is
near the sea. But most of the folk there were
moved because of the building of a dock
A Rapidly Growing City
  • In 1930, the population of Jakarta was 530,000.
  • Today, Indonesia's capital city is home to an
    estimated 11 million people.
  • Like many urban centres in the developing world,
    Jakarta acts like a magnet for people seeking
    work and a better quality of life from other
    parts of the country.
  • However, Jakarta's rapid urban growth presents an
    enormous headache for city planners as they
    struggle to provide the necessary infrastructure
    and services.
  • As the city continues to swell in size, Jakarta's
    water company have only managed to provide less
    than half the population with piped water.

This what has been happennig to the population
A Rapidly Growing City
  • Meanwhile, many other people rely on water from
    wells, and the groundwater supply that lies a few
    metres below the surface.
  • This water has to be boiled for hours to kill off
    any harmful germs and bacteria.
  • In the north of the city, land is actually
    sinking as Jakarta's groundwater supply is over
    used by people.
  • Houses on low-lying land have to be re-built
    every few years to keep them above sea level.
  • Meanwhile, saltwater from the Java Sea is seeping
    into the land polluting the remaining groundwater.

Problems in Marunda
  • The problems of water supply are particularly
    difficult for the people that live in Jakarta's
    squatter settlements.
  • These poorer neighbourhoods are known as
    'kampongs', which means 'communities' in
  • Marunda is a kampong of 20,000 people that was
    forced to re-locate to a site in north-east
    Jakarta in 1984.
  • Residents were evicted from their original homes
    to make way for a new port.

Many kampongs in Jakarta are located on waste
ground along the city's polluted rivers and
canals, where 700,000 m3 of sewage is dumped each
Problems in Marunda
  • Starting the settlement again meant that Marunda
    lacked even the most basicservices, including a
    reliable, clean water supply.
  • But the Marunda's residents could not live
    without clean water. Families need water for
    laundry, for meals and for washing in the home
    and for income-generating activities such as
    their food and soft drinks businesses.
  • In the past, the women living in the kampong had
    to queue from 3 a.m. to collect water from water
    tankers, or they had to pay for the delivery from
    private street vendors.

Marunda residents used to rely on these handcarts
to carry water. Collecting water took a lot of
valuable time and money.
Problems in Marunda
  • Street vendors gathered water from standpipes and
    then carried the water in 20 litre containers
    placed on long handcarts that can navigate the
    narrow alleyways in the kampong.
  • This service could cost more than 30 times the
    price of piped water.
  • For the poorest families, these costs could be
  • Without running water, Marunda residents also
    faced serious health risks as sewage and other
    domestic waste was not flushed away.
  • Across Jakarta, diarrhoea caused by drinking
    polluted water is responsible for 20 of the
    deaths of children under five

Water and Health
  • Water-related diseases are the single largest
    cause of human sickness and death. There are four
    main types that affect the poorest people-
  • Faeco-oral infections that are spread by poor
    hygiene and dirty water. These include diarrhoea,
    cholera, typhoid and dysentery. With a clean
    water supply, the risk of catching one of these
    diseases is significantly reduced.
  • Poor hygiene can spread skin and eye infections
    including trachoma, an important cause of
  • People can catch various worm infections,
    particularly bilharzias, by wading in water
    contaminated with excreta and the snails that
    carry the parasitic larva. These larva burrow
    into the soles of people's feet.
  • Diseases spread by insects that breed in standing
    water, such as mosquitoes. Malaria is a disease
    carried by mosquitoes that kills one million
    people a year worldwide.

Investment from Abroad
  • As part of the 'kampong improvement programme',
    the Jakarta city authorities have been trying to
    provide the city's kampongs with the services
    that local people have found difficult to
    establish on their own.
  • By 1996, more than 5 million people in the
    Jakarta region had improved basic services as a
    result of the programme.
  • The lack of funds available to keep up with the
    demand for water has meant that the city
    authorities have had to contract out projects to
    private companies.

Laying the water pipes in Marunda was a joint
partnership between Thames Water and local
Investment from Abroad
  • In April 1999, Thames Water Pam Jaya owned by
    Thames Water in the UK, began a 60,000 project
    to bring piped water to the people of Marunda.
  • From the outset, Thames Water Pam Jaya has
    understood the need to involve local people in
    the construction and maintenance of the project.
  • This way, the project could be better suited to
    the needs of Marunda and could gain the trust and
    support of its residents.
  • As a result, 2,000 local people have been working
    on the project alongside 10 staff from Thames
    Water UK.

A Pipe Dream Come True?
  • By July 2000, the project was finished and 1,600
    houses in Marunda were connected to Jakarta's
    main water supply.
  • This enabled 12,000 residents to have water piped
    directly into their homes.
  • In addition, the cost of the piped water is
  • Residents can now receive water at a third of the
    price that they used to pay to private street
  • Savings on water enables families to spend more
    money on other basic needs such as clothes and
  • Improved sanitation through piped water has also
    brought immediate health benefits to the people
    of Marunda as it reduces the risk of catching
    diseases from contaminated water.
  • In view of the extent of Jakarta's lingering
    problems with water supply, the success of the
    Marunda project may seem small.

A Pipe Dream Come True?
  • Nevertheless, the project shows the positive
    contribution that private companies like Thames
    Water, working in partnership with city
    authorities and local communities, can make in
    improving the lives of the urban poor.
  • This is what people said
  • "Street vendors with their carts no longer sell
    their water to us. They now work in a factory and
    their carts are kept as a souvenir for their old
    age and will become a story to be told to their
    grandchildren." Marunda resident, May 2000."The
    water, clear and cool like crystal, is now
    flowing from every tap. Now what we hoped for has
    been fulfilled washing, drinking, everything
    clean..." Marunda resident, May 2000.

Minicase study of a managing clean water
  • Project name
  • Where? city, country
  • Problem In general
  • For Marunda
  • Solution
  • Result
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