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The Solar Dodecahedron


The Solar Dodecahedron Scaling up the Solar Decathlon to Industrial Size Paul Westbrook, Texas Instruments – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Solar Dodecahedron

The Solar Dodecahedron
  • Scaling up the Solar Decathlon to Industrial Size

Paul Westbrook, Texas Instruments
  • Solar Decathlon Efficiency Sustainability
  • Buildings
  • Start small - house
  • Scaling up - Texas Instruments RFAB
  • Semiconductor - the other silicon industry
  • What is a fab and what are the opportunities
  • Project features
  • Supplying silicon for solar and sustainability
  • Biomemetics nature as a mentor

Efficiency First
  • Which one requires more power to operate?

right sized
Sustainable Development
  • The Balance of People, Profit, and the Planet

Environmental Sustainability Ecosystem
Integrity Carrying Capacity Biodiversity
Social Sustainability Cultural Identity Empowermen
t Accessibility Stability Equity
Economic Sustainability Growth Development Product
Human Well Being
Why Buildings Matter
  • Buildings consume
  • 12 of the potable water
  • 40 of the raw materials
  • 39 of all primary energy used in the US
  • 70 of all U.S. electricity

And buildings are responsible for 48 of all U.S.
carbon emissions
Source 2006 DOE Buildings Energy Data Book and
Start Small - The House
  • Westbrook House - built in 1996
  • Design Goals
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Low Maintenance
  • Low Environmental Impact (Sustainable)
  • REDUCE - Reduce the need for power, water, and
  • REUSE - Make use of waste for other purposes.
  • RECYCLE - Use recycled products where possible
    to help close the loop.
  • Affordable / Cost-Effective

Design Methodology
  • Site Selection/House Placement Orientation
  • Structure Size/Shape/Material
  • Window Door Selection / Location
  • Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC)
  • Water Heating / Water Efficiency
  • Roof Material
  • All the Little Things

Site Selection/House Placement Orientation
  • Good southern exposure / evergreen trees to the
    north and west
  • Preferably an east-west street (front / back of
    the house N / S)
  • Long axis of the house running east-west
  • maximizes southern solar exposure
  • minimizes east and west solar exposure

Shape Matters
  • The shape and orientation of the house can affect
    energy use by up to 30

Structural Size/Shape/Material
  • A 2-story rectangle is a space efficient and
    practical plan
  • Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) for the walls
    and roof offer several advantages
  • Very little air infiltration
  • Good, consistent insulation value
  • Thermal bridging is underestimated in stick built
  • 6 SIP wallR26 8 SIP roofR33
  • Very cost effective

Pre-fabricated in large sections off site,
minimizing on-site erection time, waste, and
construction crew size
SIP Thermal Performance
  • These are infrared pictured of a SIP house and a
    standard construction house

Westbrook House - South Wall
Westbrook House - North Wall
Outside Temp 43 deg F
Standard Construction House
Standard Construction House
Window Door Selection/Location/Placement
  • Use double-pane, argon-filled, low-E units.
  • I selected vinyl for the low-maintenance and
    thermal performance.
  • The majority of the windows should be on the
    south (60), the next most on the north, with as
    few as possible on the EW.
  • Placement and overhang size are critical.

Low Winter Sun enters window
High Summer Sun does not enter window
Window Placement Overhang Sizing
  • Summer Shade

Winter Sun
Passive Solar - taking advantage of the earths
Window Science
  • Double pane provides an insulating air space
  • Argon is denser than air (38 more), and does not
    conduct heat as readily (19 reduction)
  • Low-E coatings block infrared (long wave)
    radiation and contribute to the comfort level of
    the home
  • Radiation can account for a large percentage of
    the unwanted losses or gains by a window

Sunlight passes through
Metal film low-E coating
Long wave (infrared) radiation is blocked
Argon filled space
HVAC - Load Calculation
  • Oversizing an HVAC system increases the initial
    cost and decreases the comfort. A short cycling
    unit does not fully dehumidify.
  • Two-speed units meet the variable loads more
  • Zoned duct is helpful in a two story home.
  • Good design choices can greatly minimize the HVAC
    system size. The Westbrook House only needs 2
    1/2 tons of cooling (2713 SF) in the hot climate
    near Dallas, TX.

Heat Rejection
Heat Absorption
Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP)
  • The GSHP uses the relatively constant temperature
    of the earth as a heat sink or source.
  • A GSHP can also be used as an efficient method of
    water heating.
  • An efficient unit has an SEER of 12. The
    Westbrook House GSHP has an SEER of 22.
  • There is no noisy outdoor fan unit and we dont
    reject heat to the already overheated air.

Efficient Lighting
  • Passive solar design usually results in good
    natural lighting, decreasing the need for daytime
    artificial lighting
  • Clerestory windows can bring in daylight without
    the heat gain, and can be operable for
  • Use of compact fluorescent lighting reduces
    electrical usage by 75 vs. incandescent bulbs.
  • Incandescent bulbs and halogen lights convert
    almost all of the electric energy to heat, which
    increases your A/C load.
  • Compact fluorescent lights last significantly
    longer than incandescent bulbs - each CF has a
    higher initial price, but the energy savings and
    long life makes each bulb a net 50 (or more)

Water Heating
  • Water heating can account for up to 30 of the
    electric use in a home.
  • Solar Flat Plate water heating is very cost
    effective in the Dallas area.
  • A side benefit of ground source heat pumps is the
    hot water recovery option which provides free hot
    water during the summer.
  • R-25 polybutylene water heater / storage tank
    provides for long storage and long tank life.

Outdoor Water Efficiency
  • Rain water collection from the roof can be used
  • provide water for outdoor use.
  • reduce urban runoff.
  • significantly lower your water bill.
  • The first approach should be a native,
    low-maintenance lawn to reduce need.
  • Rain water can also be used for human
  • Our aerobic septic system uses our waste water
    to water the lawn.

1600 gallon rain water storage tank
  • In hot climates, exterior colors should be light
    for reflectivity.
  • The roof material is a major heat absorber and
    should be light colored. Look for a roof
    material with high reflectance and high
  • A Galvalume metal roof reflects heat, provides a
    clean surface for rain collection, and reduces
    homeowners insurance rates (hail resistance). It
    also has a 50 year life.
  • A metal roof with a light colored coating is even
    better because the coating improves the

All the Little Things
  • Insulated hot water lines in the walls.
  • Consolidated all plumbing to one area - low line
  • Earth bermed the west wall of the attached garage
    and insulated it - lowest garage winter
    temperature 51 degrees F.
  • Installed enthalpy wheel air to air heat
    exchanger for fresh air and humidity control.
  • Used 100 recycled polypropylene carpet from
  • Installed motorized operators on clerestory
    windows for ventilation.
  • Used efficient indoor appliances (refrigerator,
    etc.) for reduce load.
  • Installed glass doors and outside air intake for
    fireplace combustion.
  • Installed horizontal axis washing machine for
    efficient water use.
  • Insulated the concrete slab foundation perimeter.
  • Installed ceiling fans in almost every room.
  • Compact fluorescent bulbs in almost every light
  • Wall wart transformers on plug strips so they
    can be turned off when not in use.

Utility Usage Comparison
Annual Utility Costs
Westbrook House Annual Utility Data Westbrook House Annual Utility Data Westbrook House Annual Utility Data Westbrook House Annual Utility Data Westbrook House Annual Utility Data Westbrook House Annual Utility Data   2,713 sf, 3 people 2,713 sf, 3 people 2,713 sf, 3 people 2,713 sf, 3 people
Year kWh sum kWh utility kWh wind Cost/Yr Average Cost/Mo Elec Rate (/kWh) kBtu/ sf kWh/ sf/yr kWh/ Degree Day Water Use/Yr (gallons)
1997 8,952 8,952 0 739 61.55 0.083 11.3 3.3 1.8 34,700
1998 10,195 10,195 0 781 65.09 0.077 12.8 3.8 1.9 27,900
1999 9,309 9,309 0 644 53.63 0.069 11.7 3.4 2.0 45,500
2000 9,966 9,966 0 684 56.99 0.069 12.5 3.7 2.0 38,400
2001 9,875 9,875 0 753 62.79 0.076 12.4 3.6 2.1 36,000
2002 10,404 10,404 0 893 74.45 0.086 13.1 3.8 2.1 28,000
2003 10,257 10,257 0 934 77.87 0.091 12.9 3.8 2.1 38,000
2004 10,624 10,624 0 988 82.37 0.093 13.4 3.9 2.4 25,000
2005 11,205 11,205 0 1,177 98.08 0.105 14.1 4.1 2.3 37,000
2006 10,633 10,555 78 1,443 120.28 0.137 13.4 3.9 2.2 35,000
Sums and Averages kWh sum kWh util kWh wind Cost/Yr Cost/Mo Elec Rate (/kWh) kBtu/ sf kWh/ sf/yr kWh/ Degree Day Water Use (gallons)
Totalgt 101,420 101,342 78 9,037           310,500
Annualgt 10,142 10,134   904   0.083 12.8 3.7 2.1 34,500
Monthlygt 845 845   75.31           2,875
Efficiency Can Be Beautiful
Efficiency First . . . Then Generation
  • Since I have driven the consumption down I
    recently installed a wind turbine to generate
  • My Skystream 3.7 from Southwest Windpower went on
    line on September 6th, 2006.

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Silicon Based Industries
  • Two silicon based industries
  • Semiconductor Manufacturing and Photovoltaics (PV)

What is a Wafer Fab
A very large, clean facility . . .
Total space 1,100,000 gsf (102,000 m2) Clean
room space 220,000 sf (20,400 m2)
. . . that fabricates very small chips on large
silicon wafers
Hair 80,000 nm dia
2 mm
2 mm
300 mm diameter 1500-5000 chips ea 30,000
wafers/mo 1 billion chips/yr
Gate 39 nm dia
DNA 2 nm dia
Atom 0.1 nm dia
The Opportunity
  • Very tight temperature and humidity requirements
    . . .
  • 70F/-2 (21C/-1) and 45 RH /- 3
  • Combined with a large amount of exhaust and
    subsequent make up air . . .
  • 650,000 cfm (307 m3/sec) 41 Macys Snoopy
    balloons a minute
  • Combined with the need to recirculate a large
    volume of air through the filters for cleanliness
    . . .
  • 4,400,000 cfm (2077 m3/sec) 22 Goodyear blimps
    a minute
  • Combined with hundreds of process tools with
    vacuum pumps, RF generators, and support
    equipment . . .
  • Combined with extensive use of deionized (DI)
    water to rinse the wafers during processing . . .

Could lead to annual power consumption of 170,000
mWh (10,000 homes worth) and water consumption
of 3 million gallons/day (6,000 homes worth)
Annual utility bills could total 20M - 25M
TI Path to Sustainability
  • Strategy Team - Fabscape
  • 4 strategy teams were formed in advance of
  • Request made to add a 5th team - sustainability
  • Generated early white papers on a number of ideas
  • Tour (Westbrook House
  • Invited 3 VPs to tour active/passive solar home
  • Low utility bills for normal house spurred
  • Design Charrette
  • Teamed up with Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI)
  • Held 3-day design charrette to brainstorm ideas
  • Generated 15 Big Honkin Ideas to carry forward
    along with a large list of other good ideas
  • Made a first pass at LEED score sheet

What is LEED?
  • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
  • The LEED Green Building Rating System is a
    voluntary, consensus-based national standard for
    developing high-performance, sustainable
    buildings. There are 5 broad categories that
    force an emphasis on a holistic approach to
  • Sustainable Sites
  • Water Efficiency
  • Energy Atmosphere
  • Materials Resources
  • Indoor Environmental Quality

Site Layout
TI RFAB 92 acre site
Sustainable Sites
lt Areas were restored to native prairie grass to
minimize irrigation and provide biodiversity.
Compost tubes
Pond collects runoff from most of the 92 acres.
2.7 million gallon base 2 million gallon
buffer. The pond meters runoff and settles
sediment. Pond water is used for all site
Windmill drives an air compressor to aerate the
Sustainable Sites
Typical silt fence
Reflective roof saves energy and reduces the
urban heat island effect. Concrete, instead of
asphalt, also reduces heat buildup.
lt Solar bollards guide the way and full cutoff
downlights preserve dark skies
Covered parking for bicycled and showers /
lockers encourage alternate transportation. gt
Water Efficiency
Each water free urinal saves about 40,000 gallons
/ year
A small water turbine recharges the batteries for
the automatic sensors on the sinks
Energy and Atmosphere
Cooling load
Energy and Atmosphere
Sematech (14 fabs) and TI Fab Data
Newer 300mm fabs are moving closer to a 50 / 50
Process Tools 41
Process Breakout
Facilities Systems 59
Electric Power Use
Facilities Breakout
Cooling Load Breakout
Energy Savings Shell and Admin
  • Passive solar orientation with exterior shading
  • Energy and Daylight modeling
  • Optimized glazing (high VLT, low SHGC, low U
  • Reflective roof (high reflectivity, high
  • Natural daylighting with light shelves
  • High efficiency lighting (motion daylight
  • Demand controlled ventilation (control on CO2)
  • Attention to detail on insulation and
  • Solar water heating

Chiller Plant
70F (21C)CHWR
  • Make-up air pre-cool
  • Cleanroom recirc. air
  • PC Water
  • Plant Vacuum
  • Cooling for DIW
  • Misc. AHU

8000 tons 54F (12.2C) with heat recovery
4560 tons 40F (4.4C)
  • MUA dehumidification

Energy Savings Hot Water
65F (18C) HRWR
  • MUA pre-heat/re-heat
  • Raw water heating for DIW

54F heat recovery bundles
HDIW boilers
140F HWR
100F (38C) HRWS
25 HP
HDIW heating
180F HWS
25 HP
Boiler back-up
500 HP
Cooling Towers
Materials and Resources
  • Recycled 89.3 of all construction waste
  • Reached 50 for recycled content of purchased
  • Fly ash in concrete and steel are two large
  • 75 of the materials were manufactured within 500

Indoor Environmental Quality
  • CO2 sensor controlled ventilation
  • Low emission materials
  • Paints
  • Carpet
  • Adhesives and sealants
  • Thermal comfort
  • Daylight and views

  • Solar Decathlon
  • Architecture
  • Engineering
  • Market Viability
  • Communications
  • Comfort Zone
  • Appliances
  • Hot Water
  • Lighting
  • Energy Balance
  • Getting Around
  • Architecture
  • Engineering
  • Competitive Advantage
  • Communications
  • Clean Room/People Comfort
  • Manufacturing Equipment
  • Hot Water
  • Lighting
  • Energy Balance
  • Employee Transportation

  • Maybe RFAB should be renamed SOLAR Fab
  • Sustainable
  • Optimized
  • Large
  • Architectural
  • Research

Cost / Benefit
  • We invested lt1 of the project cost (lt1.5M) in
    LEED related items predominately efficiency
    improvements that we would consider regardless of
  • The overall project cost 30 LESS than our
    previous 300mm fab.
  • The first full year we should recover 1M in
    operating savings
  • At full build out we will save gt4.0M per year in
    operating costs
  • 20 energy reduction
  • 35 water use reduction
  • 50 emissions reduction

Silicon for Solar and Sustainability
  • TI supplies thousands of scrap and pilot wafers
    per year to solar PV manufacturers
  • Since 2000 those wafers have been used to
  • 1.4 million square feet of PV
  • (equivalent to 107,500 160W panels or over 17.2MW
    of power)

Silicon for Solar and Sustainability
  • Semiconductor products
  • DLP TV lowest power use per square inch of
    picture (CNET test)

Power Management is Key
  • Power management products can stack energy phases
    to create power trains that provide stable energy
    for plugged in products with minimum power waste.
  • Power factor correction technology adapts power
    supply according to how much power a device
    needs, minimizing waste and reducing energy
  • Green mode controller technology senses if a
    device is plugged into a wall adaptor and adjusts
    the power supply accordingly to save over 58
    billion kilowatt-hours of wasted energy per year
    equal to the output of 10 large power plants!
  • Boost Technology elevates or reduces voltage
    based on specific requirements. For example, it
    elevates the peak voltage of a solar or fuel cell
    to a usable voltage level needed to power a
    portable application.
  • Battery Gas Gauge operates within 1 accuracy so
    consumers use almost all energy stored in the
    battery of a notebook PC or other portable
    handheld device.

Efficient Use of Power
  • Electronic meters that reduce wasted energy by up
    to 30 percent
  • Motion and video sensors that control lights and
    HVAC based on movement within a room or building
  • Battery-powered, portable devices that run off a
    single battery for over ten years
  • HDTVs and other electronics that achieve up to
    90 energy efficiency
  • Hybrid and plug-in electric cars and motorcycles
    with motor/battery management to improve mileage
    and battery life
  • Industrial applications and home appliances that
    improve efficiency by up to 88 and 30 percent,
    respectively, due to more efficient motor control
    and power management

Motors make a difference 2/3 of the worlds
industrial electricity runs electric motors. Only
5 of these use variable speed drives, which
consume 1/8 of the energy as a constant speed
drive. The 5 of efficient motors save the energy
produced by 10 power plants and annually prevent
the emission of 68 million tons of greenhouse
Silicon for Inverters
  • Solar and Wind output in DC (direct current)
  • Inverters are used to turn DC power into AC
    (alternating current) power and synchronize with
    the electric grid
  • Digital Signal Processing enables the
    transformation and synchronization

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