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  • PACE Series on Workplace Ethics
  • The Academy of Irving ISD

  • Ultimately the ethical effectiveness of an
    organization rests on the decisions and actions
    of those in a leadership role. Leader behavior
    becomes the model for what the organization
    requires and expects from the total employee

Ethics in the Classroom by Dr. Shirley A.
Mixon, East Central University, 2004
  • Effective listening
  • Good organizational skills
  • Good communications skills
  • Being friendly

We read, write, speak, listen, and think in
words. The words we know touch everything we do.
Increase your learning power by discovering new
Select Agendas, 2004
COMMUNICATION Skills Assessment
What type of communicator are you? Next to each
skill listed, rate yourself from 1 to 3 (1
rarely, 2 sometimes, 3 always). _____When
Im speaking to someone face-to-face, I maintain
eye contact. _____When Im listening to someone
else speak, I maintain eye contact. _____When Im
having face-to-face conversation, my body
language is friendly and relaxed. _____Im
careful not to interrupt when others are
speaking. _____I take accurate phone messages
when others are not home to receive their
calls. _____When I answer the phone, I say hello
and let the caller know to whom theyre
talking. _____I know how to read others body
language. _____In class, I raise my hand before I
answer a question. _____In school, Im careful to
keep my voice down when other students are
studying nearby. _____Im respectful when I speak
to my instructors and the school staff. _____When
a lot of people are talking at once, I dont
raise my voice but wait quietly until its my
turn to speak. _____When Im introduced to
someone new, I smile and give him or her a firm
handshake. _____I stand straight and tall when I
enter a room. _____If I walk into a gathering in
which I dont know anybody, I walk up to someone
who looks friendly and introduce
myself. _____People tell me Im a good
listener. _____I enjoy talking to other
people. _____I know how to argue without getting
angry or abusive.
CommunicationHas Work Ethics Changed?
Managers and employees complain that many workers
no longer have the work ethic of the past,
especially younger workers who have been given
the label of the me generation.
  • Give work to someone only to be disappointed with
    their lack of initiative and motivation, a
    situation experienced by a majority of business
    people, both managers and employees.

CommunicationHas Work Ethics Changed?
Employee motivation is contrary to the obvious
fact that people generally want to be successful
and perform work tasks to the satisfaction of
their employers.
  • The lack of motivation of others at work is an
    example of our own behavior.

CommunicationHas Work Ethics Changed?
Employee motivation is contrary to the obvious
fact that people generally want to be successful
and perform work tasks to the satisfaction of
their employers. Supervisors describe the job as
they want it to be performed and the workers
describe the job as they understand it should be
performed. The description of the job to be done
varies from 25-50 percent between the supervisor
and worker.
  • A sender expresses an emotion or a feeling,
    creates an idea, or senses the need to
  • Process is triggered when the sender makes a
    conscious or an unconscious decision to share the
    message with another personthe receiver.

  • Based on something that conveys meaning the
  • verbal (spoken or written)
  • nonverbal (body language, physical appearance, or
    vocal tone)
  • contextor place and timeof the communication
  • makes a big impact on how it will be received

  • Message sent and received through one of five
  • Seen
  • Heard
  • Touched
  • Tasted
  • Smelled

  • Communication channels
  • Work setting
  • seen through body movement, letters, memos,
    newsletters, bulletin board notices, signs,
    emails, etc.
  • heard come through conversations, interviews,
    presentations, telephones, radios, and other
    audio media
  • sight and sound are the two most frequently used
    in our society
  • Receiver gives feedback (return message)
    unconsciously or consciously
  • Process is on-going

  • Senders worst assumption message received as
  • Assume that something will go wrong
  • Take steps to prevent that occurrence
  • Barriers to good communications
  • Always present
  • Language itself can be a barrierunclear wording,
    slang, jargon, the tone
  • Failure of the sender to realize that his or her
    body language might contradict the spoken message
  • Channel used to convey the message might be wrong
  • Poor listening skills

  • People telegraph intentions and feelings whether
    aware of it or not
  • Unintentional senders
  • Whatever goes on inside shows outside
  • Conveyed messages go far beyond words spoken
  • Tone of voice
  • Body language
  • Comes particularly from the face, eyes, body,
    clothing, gestures, and touch

  • Be careful to interpret signals correctly
  • Crossed arms might be expressing defiance, but
    might also just be feeling cold
  • Check out facial expressions and other nonverbal
    signs to determine correct reading
  • Depend on reading of facial expressions to judge
  • Depend on face as most trustworthy indicator of
    emotions such as happiness, surprise, fear,
    anger, joy, sadness, disgust, contempt, interest,
    concern, and embarrassment

  • Look at face for insight into persons character
    (for example, an open, honest face, a strong
    chin, or beady eyes)
  • Moustache, beard, or long hair might suggest
    conformity or nonconformity, depending on time
    and context
  • Grooming of hair says much about persons
  • Narrowed lips or jutted-out chin might mean a
    person is angry or defiant

  • Eyes convey much meaning
  • eye contactor a lack of itmight tell about
    persons confidence, friendliness, honesty, or
    desire to dominate
  • narrowed eyes suggest anger, irritation, or doubt
  • pupils signify interest or disinterest
  • pupils dilate when person is interested or
    excited grow smaller when person is bored or
  • brow area and narrowing of eyes tell receiver
  • frowns, scowls, and raised eyebrows indicate
    displeasure or intensity

  • Body is another rich source of nonverbal
    confirmation or denial of our verbal message
  • Draw conclusions about people before words
    exchanged based on sex, posture, height, weight,
    and skin color
  • People stereotype others by thinking that tall
    people make good leaders, overweight people are
    jolly, and women are too emotional
  • Notice how senders of messages hold their bodies

  • Crossed arms a sign of defensiveness, defiance,
    or withdrawal
  • Hands on hips signal goal oriented or ready and
    able to take something on
  • Leaning back in chair with hands clasped behind
    the head interpreted as sign of superiority,
    smugness, or authority
  • A slouched posture means humiliation, defeat, or

  • Using arms, bodies, and legs to block sign of
    territorial feelings
  • Turning shoulder or body slightly away sign of
  • Appearance discloses pieces of information
  • Dressing immaculately careful and detailed
  • Old-fashioned dress conservative opinions and
  • Excessive jewelry materialistic

  • Clothing during working hours tell what we do for
    a living
  • Blue-collar clothes designed to help or protect
  • White-collar clothes are formal, little
  • Most common form of social physical contactthe
  • Indication of welcome, liking, acceptance, and
  • Considered extremely rude not to accept an
    offered hand

  • Method of shaking hands
  • Bone-crushing grip seen as desire to dominate
  • Limp grasp sign of insecurity or negative outlook
    on life
  • Mechanical pumping up and down in series of
    convulsive jerks suggests mental rigidity, strong
    will, and inflexibility
  • Be very careful with touching others at work
    because of harassment issues

  • Nonverbal message readers
  • Look at totality of cues rather than isolated
    ones (remember the crossed arms?)
  • Take context (time and place) of message into
  • Compensate for own biases and prejudices

  • Successful communicators
  • Full responsibility for success in process
  • Take responsibility for ensuring whats heard is
  • Recognize barriers to good communications exist
  • Speak in simple, grammatical, and understandable
  • Give examples, ask for feedback, rephrase, and
    make it easy to get true intent of communications

  • Without proper listening, communication does not
  • Effective listening is
  • Active participation in a conversation
  • Helps speaker become understood
  • Must hear and not assume what is said

  • Listeners
  • Passive listener
  • Attentive
  • Does not assist speaker
  • Active listener
  • Sit or stand alertly
  • Maintain eye contact with speaker
  • Concentrate on speakers words
  • Make verbal responses
  • Summarize parts for clarification
  • Difference in speed speak vs. listen time lag
    in conversations

  • Good listeners
  • Do not daydream during lag
  • Use time to organize what is being said and
    relate to message
  • Guards against distractions to message
  • Speakers mannerisms, accent, dress or grooming,
    language style, or delivery
  • Distracting if not tuned out
  • Avoid letting first impressions of speaker hinder
    ability to hear message
  • Dont interrupt to interject own thoughts

  • Pay attention to tone of words and nonverbal cues
  • Effective listening
  • Concentrate so that competing external and
    internal distractions are eliminated
  • Probe and reflect by asking questions to seek
    clarification and greater understanding
  • Summarize (paraphrase) and feed back to speaker
    whats been heard

CommunicationTelephone Skills
  • Easier to be rude to someone not seen
  • Negative ways lack of telephone etiquette impacts
    work ethics
  • Anger, irritation, and frustration can be
    suggested by tone of voice
  • Ignoring calls and messages suggests that
    unconcerned about clients and customers
  • Transfer callers without trying to address
    concerns show a disinterest, apathetic attitude
  • Speak on phone with a smile in voice

CommunicationTelephone Skills
  • Voices should be clear and distinct
  • Demonstrate a service attitude by offering
  • Do not transfer calls blindly make sure
    callers problem will be resolved
  • Be discreet when using the phone
  • Think through requests for information
  • Give out information really needed by the caller

CommunicationTelephone Skills
  • Caller asks for supervisor
  • NO Mr. Jones is playing golf this afternoon.
    unnecessary information
  • YES Mr. Jones will be in the office tomorrow
    morning. May I help you or have him return your
  • Avoid slang in telephone conversations
  • Say certainly instead of yeah say
  • Say goodbye instead of bye-bye
  • YES I beg your pardon. Would you please
    repeat that? if not understood
  • NO Huh?

CommunicationTelephone Skills
  • Taking telephone messages for others
  • Do not hurry may miss necessary information
  • Incomplete messages are frustrating
  • Repeat message to caller to ensure accuracy
  • Callers placed on hold
  • Ask permission first
  • Offer to call back if unwilling to wait
  • Irritates caller to be left on hold
  • Apologize for having the caller wait when placed
    on hold

CommunicationTelephone Skills
  • Unhappy or angry customer
  • Be very careful
  • Let caller vent (spill anger)
  • Ready to listen when finished
  • Easier to solve problem
  • Express understanding/concern when appropriate
  • Nasty/foul language
  • Warn caller to refrain or will hang up
  • Do not have to listen, but warn caller

CommunicationTelephone Skills
  • Summary
  • Treat callers as you would want to be treated
  • Treat them as if they were standing in front of
  • You are the company companys sole ambassador
    during that phone conversation

CommunicationE-mail Etiquette
  • Rules of Etiquette Things to Avoid
  • Profanity
  • Use of slang or street jargon
  • Any words or tone that can be misconstrued as

CommunicationEmail Etiquette
  • Why do we need email etiquette?
  • Professionalism by using proper email language
    company will convey a professional image
  • Efficiency emails that get to the point are much
    more effective than poorly worded emails
  • Protection from liability employee awareness of
    email risks will protect company from costly law

What are the email etiquette rules?
Be concise and to the point Answer all questions,
and pre-empt further questions Use proper
spelling, grammar punctuation Make it
personal Use templates for frequently used
responses Answer swiftly Do not attach
unnecessary files Use proper structure
layout Do not overuse the high priority option Do
not write in CAPITALS Don't leave out the message
thread Add disclaimers to your emails Read the
email before you send it Do not overuse Reply to
All Mailings gt use the bcc field or do a mail
merge Take care with abbreviations and
emoticons Be careful with formatting Take care
with rich text and HTML messages
Do not forward chain letters Do not request
delivery and read receipts Do not ask to recall a
message Do not copy a message or attachment
without permission Do not use email to discuss
confidential information Use a meaningful
subject Use active instead of passive Avoid using
URGENT and IMPORTANT Avoid long sentences Don't
send or forward emails containing libelous,
defamatory, offensive, racist or obscene
remarks Don't forward virus hoaxes and chain
letters Keep your language gender neutral Don't
reply to spam Use cc field sparingly Be concise
and to the point Dont make an e-mail longer than
needs to be
CommunicationBusiness Etiquette
  • What are the tips for properly handling of an
    incoming call?
  • All incoming calls should be answered in a timely
  • Business phones should be answered with a phrase
    like, "Good morning, ABC Company, Carol speaking,
    may I help you?" In an office that answers the
    phone hundreds of times daily, this particular
    phrase may be too much to say. It can be
    shortened but the company name needs to be
    stated as soon as the phone is answered along
    with the person's name who answered the phone.
    This lets caller know that they have reached the
    right business to whom they are speaking.

CommunicationBusiness Etiquette
  • What are the tips for properly handling of an
    incoming call?
  • Never put a caller on hold however, if you do,
    check back every minute or so and ask if they
    would like to continue to hold.
  • Speak clearly and slowly when you answer a
    business phone. Do not slur or mumble your words.
    Speak with confidence so person on other end has
    the feeling that you know what you are doing.
    Remember your manners too.
  • Never be rude to a caller, no matter how nasty
    they are. Remember to handle self in a
    professional, business-like manner, handling
    situation in a calm, cool manner.

CommunicationBusiness Etiquette
  • What are the tips for properly handling of an
    outgoing call?
  • Speak clearly and slowly when making a business
    call. Time may be money, but if other party
    cannot understand what is said, might as well
    have saved breath and not made the call at all.
  • All customers expect to work with a professional
    organization. First sign is how they are treated
    by the employees.
  • When calling a business, proper etiquette is to
    give your name and the company's name you work
    for to whomever answers the telephone. Do not
    make them guess who it is or make them pry it out
    of you.

CommunicationBusiness Etiquette
  • What are the tips for properly handling of an
    outgoing call?
  • If you get the wrong number, apologize to the
    person who answers the phone -- do not just hang
    up. This is especially important nowadays when
    people have Caller ID's on their phone lines. All
    they have to do is to check their device to find
    out who just rudely hung up on them.
  • When leaving a phone message always state your
    name, company, phone number and reason for
    calling. Do not stammer or stutter and use up an
    unreasonable amount of time.

Appearance Educational Netiquette
by Sharon Wilson
  • One of the major problems that I have encountered
    in administering web courses is that of email
    communication. It has become such an issue that I
    did a little research myself to find out what is
    wrong and what is right. Sending an email message
    to an instructor is not quite the same as the
    informal messages you send to your friends.
    Educational email should be slightly more
    professional. I know I personally take special
    care to show respect in my emails to students and
    have grown to expect the same thing from them.
    Dont labor over your emails too long but please
    proofread and be certain you are conveying the
    content and emotion appropriate to the situation.
  • According to Kaitlin Sherwood at, by
    1998 about 30 of adults in the US and Canada
    used email. Because of its speed and
    broadcasting ability, email is different from
    paper-based communication. Email also tends to
    be more conversational. In a paper document it
    is essential to be clear and concise because your
    audience cant ask about it. With email however,
    the recipient can ask questions immediately. Thus
    email may tend to be sloppier like a personal
    conversation. You need to be aware that the
    recipient will not have certain cues such as
    dress, diction, and dialect. You have to decide
    when to be sloppy and when to be professional.
    Email cannot convey emotions like face-to-face or
    telephone conversations. It lacks vocal
    inflection, gestures, and a shared environment.
    Your recipient may have difficulty deciding if
    you are serious or kidding, happy or sad,
    frustrated or excited. Sarcasm is particularly
    dangerous to use in email.
  • Another difference between email and other media
    is that what the sender sees may not be what the
    reader sees. Your vocal cords make sound waves
    that are perceived the same by everyones ears.
    However, with email the software and hardware you
    use for composing, sending, storing, downloading,
    and reading may be completely different from what
    your correspondent uses. The messages visual
    qualities may be different by the time it reaches
    the recipient. So your email compositions should
    be different from both your paper compositions
    and your speech. 

Appearance Educational Netiquette
by Sharon Wilson
  • Know when email should be informal or
    professional. When the message is of a
    professional nature you should use punctuation
    and capitalize the word I as you would in a
  • Write descriptive subject lines so people can
    prioritize mail.
  • Do not use chat English in any of type of
  • Be sure and identify yourself in each email.
  • Dont type in all caps. It is perceived as
    shouting. You dont want to shout!
  • Do not send flames (rude emails) in a
    professional setting. Do not send email when you
    are angry. Wait until you have calmed down.
  • Consider carefully what you write. Proofread and
    realize what emotion you may evoke in the
  • Dont attach large files (50K or more) without
    getting permission from the recipient.
  • When sending a web address be sure to include
    http// in the address.
  • Dont use acronyms when sending professional
  • Read over your email before sending. Emails to
    professionals are not as informal as messages to
  • Use your spell-check. Your email may be devalued
    because of misspelled words.
  • Be careful with punctuation. When you use
    several exclamation marks or questions marks it
    makes you appear angry.
  • A basic rule for professional/educational
    netiquette is to treat the person at the other
    end of the message the same way you want to be
    treated. Just because you cannot see them is no
    excuse for rudeness.

Why are good communication skills important?
  • Allows you to express your feelings or emotions
    about a situation
  • Allows you to get the appropriate feedback from
    the listener
  • To make sure that the message that you want to
    send is received properly.

Non-Verbal Communication
  • Received through your tone of voice
  • Through your body language
  • Through your eye contact, facial expression and
  • Even through the way your dress

Oral Communications
  • You must be a successful communicator for your
    message to be received as intended
  • You should be grammatically correct when you
  • Try to have an extended vocabulary, reading can
    help you to develop one.

Listening Skills
  • Be an active listener, participate in the
    conversation that you are having.
  • Give verbal responses to let the speaker know
    that you are listening.
  • Use eye contact and maybe gestures if they apply
    to the situation.
  • Let the speaker finish their own sentences

Telephone skills
  • When placing a call, introduce yourself when
    phone is answered.
  • Speak clearly
  • Use good grammar and an extended vocabulary
  • Always be respectful to callers and answer the
    person as clearly and accurately as possible
  • Treat callers the way that you would want to be

Telephone Etiquette
  • The person who answers the phone for a company
    gives the customer his first impression of the
  • The receptionist is the ambassador for the
  • You must be a professional at all times

Telephone Etiquette Techniques
  • Answer the phone AS SOON AS it rings
  • Always remember that the person at the other end
    is a humantalk to them as if they are standing
    in front of you
  • You must rely on your voice (pleasant tone and
    medium speed) and what you say
  • Always answer the phone with a smilethis will
    convey a smile in your voice
  • Be natural

Telephone Etiquette Techniques
  • Be attentive
  • If a caller is angry, do not interrupt
  • Most angry callers are easier to handle once they
    have vented
  • Interrupting will only make the caller madder
  • Do not hang up on the caller unless he is
    physically threatening you
  • Get your supervisors help if needed
  • Respond to what the caller wants (if possible)
  • Transfer the caller to a person that can help him
    if you cant

Telephone Etiquette Techniques
  • Be discreet
  • Be helpful, but not specific
  • Correct Mrs. Smith is unavailable at the
    moment can I take a message?
  • Incorrect Mrs. Smith is using the bathroom.
  • Never give any personal information like
    addresses, work schedules, home telephone numbers
    to anyone!

Telephone Etiquette Techniques
  • Avoid slang words
  • Take messages carefully
  • Always repeat numbers
  • Ask for the correct spelling of names
  • Ask questions tactfullynot bluntly
  • Correct May I tell Mrs. Smith the purpose of
    the call?
  • Incorrect Why are you calling?

Telephone Etiquette Techniques
  • Speak distinctly and clearly
  • Use words to identify letters when spelling out a
    name or something enunciate numerals carefully
  • Do not chew gum or eat while on the phone
  • Use correct posture
  • Speak loud enough to be heard, but not loud
    enough to bust an eardrum
  • Avoid gender biasdo not assume that all
    executives are men

Read (or listen to) Martin Luther Kings I Have
A Dream speech. Identify the oral delivery,
the symbolism, and the vision he was
I am happy to join with you today in what will go
down in history as the greatest demonstration for
freedom in the history of our nation. Five score
years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic
shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation
Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a
great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro
slaves, who had been seared in the flames of
withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak
to end the long night of their captivity. But
one hundred years later, the Negro still is not
free. One hundred years later, the life of the
Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of
segregation and the chains of discrimination. One
hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely
island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of
material prosperity. One hundred years later, the
Negro is still languished in the corners of
American society and finds himself an exile in
his own land. And so we've come here today to
dramatize a shameful condition. In a sense we
have come to our nation's capital to cash a
check. When the architects of our republic wrote
the magnificent words of the Constitution and the
Declaration of Independence, they were signing a
promissory note to which every American was to
fall heir. This note was a promise that all men,
yes, black men as well as white men, would be
guaranteed the unalienable rights of life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is
obvious today that America has defaulted on this
promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color
are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred
obligation, America has given the Negro people a
bad check, a check which has come back marked
"insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe
that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse
to believe that there are insufficient funds in
the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.
And so we have come to cash this check, a check
that will give us upon demand the riches of
freedom and the security of justice. We have
also come to this hallowed spot to remind America
of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to
engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take
the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the
time to make real the promises of democracy. Now
is the time to rise from the dark and desolate
valley of segregation to the sunlit path of
racial justice. Now is the time to lift our
nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to
the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time
to make justice a reality for all of God's
children. It would be fatal for the nation to
overlook the urgency of the moment. This
sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate
discontent will not pass until there is an
invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.
Nineteen sixty-three Is not an end but a
beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed
to blow off steam and will now be content will
have a rude awakening if  the nation returns to
business as usual. There will be neither rest nor
tranquility in America until the Negro is
granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of
revolt will continue to shake the foundations of
our nation until the bright day of justice
emerges. But there is something that I must say
to my people who stand on the warm threshold
which leads into the palace of justice. In the
process of gaining our rightful place we must not
be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to
satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from
the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must ever
conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity
and discipline. We must not allow our creative
protest to degenerate into physical violence.
Again and again we must rise to the majestic
heights of meeting physical force with soul
force. The marvelous new militancy which has
engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to
a distrust of all white people, for many of our
white brothers, as evidenced by their presence
here today, have come to realize that their
destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they
have come to realize that their freedom is
inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk
alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge
that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn
back. There are those who are asking the devotees
of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We
can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is
the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police
brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as
our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel,
cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways
and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be
satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi
cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he
has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not
satisfied and we will not be satisfied until
justice rolls down like waters and righteousness
like a mighty stream. I am not unmindful that
some of you have come here out of great trials
and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh
from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come
from areas where your quest for freedom left you
battered by the storms of persecutions and
staggered by the winds of police brutality. You
have been the veterans of creative suffering.
Continue to work with the faith that unearned
suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi,
go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go
back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to
the slums and ghettos of our northern cities,
knowing that somehow this situation can and will
be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of
despair, I say to you today, my friends. And so
even though we face the difficulties of today and
tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream
deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a
dream that one day this nation will rise up and
live out the true meaning of its creed We hold
these truths to be self-evident that all men are
created equal. I have a dream that one day on
the red hills of Georgia the sons of former
slaves and the sons of former slave owners will
be able to sit down together at the table of
brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the
state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the
heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of
oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of
freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four
little children will one day live in a nation
where they will not be judged by the color of
their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today! I have a dream that one
day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists,
with its governor having his lips dripping with
the words of interposition and nullification one
day right down in Alabama little black boys and
black girls will be able to join hands with
little white boys and white girls as sisters and
brothers. I have a dream today! I have a dream
that one day every valley shall be exalted, and
every hill and mountain shall be made low, the
rough places will be made plain, and the crooked
places will be made straight, and the glory of
the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall
see it together. This is our hope. This is the
faith that I will go back to the South with. With
this faith we will be able to hew out of the
mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this
faith we will be able to transform the jangling
discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony
of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able
to work together, to pray together, to struggle
together, to go to jail together, to stand up for
freedom together, knowing that we will be free
one day. And this will be the day, this will be
the day when all of God's children will be able
to sing with new meaning, "My country 'tis of
thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land
where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's
pride, from every mountainside, let freedom
ring!" And if America is to be a great nation,
this must become true. And so let freedom ring --
from the prodigious hilltops of New
Hampshire. Let freedom ring -- from the mighty
mountains of New York. Let freedom ring -- from
the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let
freedom ring -- from the snow-capped Rockies of
Colorado. Let freedom ring -- from the
curvaceous slopes of California. But not only
that. Let freedom ring -- from Stone Mountain of
Georgia. Let freedom ring -- from Lookout
Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring --
from every hill and molehill of Mississippi, from
every mountainside, let freedom ring! And when
this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when
we let it ring from every village and every
hamlet, from every state and every city, we will
be able to speed up that day when all of God's
children, black men and white men, Jews and
Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able
to join hands and sing in the words of the old
Negro spiritual, "Free at last, free at
last Thank God Almighty, we are free at last."
The purpose of this survey is to determine your
susceptibility to being a source of communication
breakdown. Since no one but you will see the
results of this questionnaire, answer the
questions as honestly as possible. Respond not as
you would like to be seen as a communicator but
as you really are. Indicate how frequently you
engage in the following behaviors when
communicating with another person or persons.
Use this scale to describe your behavior. 4
I always do this. 3 I often do this. 2
I sometimes do this. 1 I seldom do this.
0 I never do this. ____ 1. When I have
something to say, I am open and honest about my
need to say it. ____ 2. I communicate with an
awareness that the words I choose may not mean
the same thing to other people that they do to
me. ____ 3. I recognize that the message I
receive may not be the same one the other person
intended to send. ____ 4. Before I communicate,
I ask myself questions about who my receiver is
and how that will affect his or her reception of
my message. ____ 5. As I communicate to someone,
I keep a watchful eye and ear out for an
indication that I am understood. ____ 6. I make
my messages as brief and to the point as
possible. ____ 7. I consciously avoid the use of
jargon with those who may not understand it. ____
8. I consciously avoid the use of slang words
and colloquialisms with those who may be put off
by them. ____ 9. I try not to use red-flag words
(words that might trigger an emotional response)
that may upset or distract the receiver of my
message. ____ 10. I recognize that how I say
something is just as important as what I
say. ____ 11. I analyze my communication style to
determine what nonverbal messages I send and how
well they conform to the meaning I desire to get
across. ____ 12. I carefully consider whether my
message would be best understood by my receiver
in a face-to-face meeting, over the telephone,
or in writing. ____ 13. I form opinions about
what others say to me based on what I hear them
saying rather than what I think of them as a
person. ____ 14. I make a genuine effort to
listen to ideas with which I don't agree. ____
15. I look for ways to improve my listening
skills. ____ TOTAL SCORE
Analyze Survey Results Find your score on the
following table. Score Interpretations
50 60 Are you sure you were honest? If so, you are an extremely effective communicator who almost never contributes to misunderstanding.
40 49 You are an effective communicator who only infrequently causes communication breakdown. The goal of these exercises is to move everyone up to this level.
30 39 You are an above average communicator with occasional lapses. You cause some misunderstandings but less than your share.
20 29 Many people (at least those who are honest) fall into this category. While things could be worse, there is much room for improvement in your communication style. The goal of these exercises is to move you to a higher category.
10 19 You are a frequent source of communication problems. Enthusiastically tackle the rest of these exercises and consider their implications for you personally.
Less Than 9 Your honesty is commendable, but it will take more than honesty to improve your communication effectiveness. Consider taking a communication course.
COMMUNICATION Netiquette Questions
  1. What is the difference between professional and
    personal email?
  2. What is a flaming email?
  3. What is the best thing to do if an email you
    read upsets you?
  4. Why is it important to proofread your email?
  5. What is a good rule to remember when sending
  • Communication
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