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Disaster Preparedness


Disaster Preparedness & Mitigation in Health System Disaster Preparedness Definition: Activities designed to minimize loss of life and damage, to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Disaster Preparedness

Disaster Preparedness Mitigationin Health
Disaster Preparedness
  • Definition
  • Activities designed to minimize
    loss of life and damage, to organize the
    temporary removal of people and property from a
    threatened location facilitate ,timely
    effective rescue, relief rehabilitation

Disaster Preparedness contd
  • National International agencies conduct
    activities like planning, organization ,training
    communicating ,educating the people to provide
    prompt and appropriate responses to prevent
    reduce adverse effects.
  • Ongoing ,multisectoral activity
  • Integral part of national system responsibility
  • Difference in developed and developing countries
    (infrastructure, resources, management capacity,
    communication logistic problem)

  • To prevent excess mortality by impact, rescue,
    relief , appropriate health care disruption .
  • To provide appropriate timely health care for
    casualities,malnutrition comm. Diseases.
  • To prevent exposure to adverse climatic
    environmental conditions.
  • To prevent long term short term disaster
    related morbidities.
  • Reestablishment of health services to or above
    the pre- disaster level.

General model of disaster preparedness plan
  1. Identify the hazards and estimate their effects.
  2. Assess the likely needs preliminary list, local
    capacity, quantify the needs, consider basic
  3. Discuss the needs teams involved in planning
  4. Determine operational procedure review
    existing priorities. --- provide frame work,
    hazard prioritization, fundamental policy set
    out, goals approve by higher authority,
    delegation of responsibility.

General model of disaster preparedness plan
  • 5. Assign the responsibility.
  • Make an inventory of local capacity available
  • 7 Review steps 2 5
  • 8. Identify critical areas-----strengthening
    monitoring plan
  • 9. Confirm priorities ---needs resources, time

General model of disaster preparedness plan
  • .
  • Finalize the plan ---easy to read, not rigid,
    standard layout
  • Practice the plan reg.reviewed , updated,
    responsible people, identify weakness.
  • Evaluate the plan ---lesson learned applied
  • Compile an information package demography,
    epidemiology, Geographic Information System (GIS)

Technical Health Program
  • Treatment of casualties
  • Pre hospital plan - search rescue of
    victims, first aid at disaster site (triage)
  • Hospital plan emergency plan, training
    information safety of pts health personnel.
  • Back up system water, power, communication,

Technical Health Program contd
  • 2. Identification of bodies coordination with
    FM, protocol for identification transport.
  • 3. Epidemiological surveillance disease control
    ---simple data collection ,warning mechanism
    with list of potential illnesses ,special
    programmes for diseases
  • Basic sanitation sanitary Engineering
    collaboration with diff.departments ,contingency

Technical Health Program contd
  • 5. Health management in shelters or temporary
    settlements---control of infectious diseases,
    vaccination of children, nutrition surveillance
  • 6. Training Health personnel public health
    management ---in service training ,professional
    staff, professional curriculum, research,
    officers ongoing information
  • 7. Logistic resources---budget, networking
  • 8. Simulation exercisesdesktop, field exercise,

Technical Health Program contd
  • Evacuation temporary transfer of population from
    areas at risk to safer location.
  • Organized e.g..
  • (tropical storm air attack,military action,
    industrial accidents)
  • Spontaneous e.g..
  • (floods,drought,chemical nuclear
  • Environmental health services --short travel
    time ,clean potable water,excreta solid waste
    rest stop knowledge
  • Disaster warning simple language ,clear exact
    nature of message.
  • Restore of radio broad casting

Health policy legislation
  • Legislation to develop preparedness response
    plan, routine, simulation assign financial
  • Coordination mechanism health disaster
    coordinator -Incharge of preparedness
  • activities ,
  • - coordinating plans with
    Government ,International agencies, NGOs
  • other dept.. water, housing power
  • -communication co
    ordination with PAHO, WHO civil protection
    agencies, emergency preparedness program.

Mitigation and prevention
  • Definition
  • These are actions aimed at
    reducing or eliminating the impact of future
    hazard events by avoiding hazard or strengthening
    resistance to it.

  • Reduce vulnerability of the system
  • e.g. improving enforcing building codes
  • Reduce magnitude of hazard.
  • e.g. diverting flow of river

Vulnerability and capacity assessment
  • Definition
  • It is the degree to which population,
    individual, or organization is unable to
    anticipate, cope with resist recover from the
    impact of disaster .(Blaikie 1994)
  • Risk ,threat assessment
  • To identify hazard their possible effects,
    capacity to prevent respond
  • Develop strategies
  • Emergency prevention mitigation preparedness
  • Rapid, relevant emergency response
  • Gaps in resources

Vulnerability reduction
Steps in VCA
  1. Determine aim, objectives, scope context of VCA
  2. Formation of planning group .
  3. Hazard identification description.
  4. A community environmental description
  5. Determining effects community vulnerability
  6. Hazard prioritization
  7. Recommendation for action
  8. Documentation of results decision

Mitigation Programme
  • Identify areas exposed to natural hazards with
    help of specialists.
  • Coordinate the work of multidisplinary teams in
    developing design building codes.
  • Include disaster mitigation in health sector
  • Identify the priority hospitals critical
    health facilities -----current building standards

Mitigation Programme
  • Ensure disaster mitigation measures in maintains
    plan, structural modification functional
  • Inform sensitize train those personnel
    involved in planning, administration, operation,
    maintenance .
  • Include disaster mitigation in the curricula of
    professional training institution related to
    construction, maintenance, administration,
    financing planning health facility

Disaster Mitigation
  • Health facilities loss of life, hospital
  • Structural
  • Non- structural
  • Administrative /organizational
  • 2.Drinking water supply ,sewage system.
  • 3. Mitigation to reduce community vulnerability.

Disaster mitigation in health system
  • Structural vulnerability part of building
    required for support (foundation, columns, beams,
    diaphragm supporting walls )
  • Non-structural vulnerability
  • Joined to building structure e.g. window,
    door, roof
  • Building functionality e. g. plumbing,
    air-conditioning, power, water, communication.
  • Items located with in building e.g. medical,
    furniture, mechanical equipments

Disaster mitigation in health system contd
  • 3.Administrative organizational vulnerability
  • Physical design external site, internal ,
    distribution of space, access route.
  • Physical functional relationship with diff.
    sectors e.g. hiring, maintenance, supply.
  • Administrative operational facility disaster
    management, simulation exercises

Mitigation measures
  1. Start with low cost measures e.g. Non structural
  2. Implement mitigation at National, local level
    discussion with all parties (client, owner,
    finance officer technical personnel)
  3. Measures 4-8 of total hospital costfailure of

Disaster mitigation in water supply sewage
  • Water supply sewage system vulnerable
  • Outbreak of communicable disease sanitation
    deteriorates. e.g. Mexico city in1985
  • Strategies to quickly effectively restore
  • Hazard analysis by team focus on operation
    maintenance, administration impact on service.
  • Mitigation measures in master plan.
  • Measures retrofitting ,replacement, repair,
  • Back up equipments relocation of components
    (rigid joints, flexible pipes).

Mitigation to reduce to community vulnerability
  1. Reduce risk of communicable diseases.
  2. Improve general health status of population
  3. Water sanitation projects organized by self
    help basis e.g. community based organization
  4. Local emergency planning in disaster
  5. Public education
  6. Discussion with water vendors
  7. Intervention by Government municipal
    authorities in industrial plant contamination

  1. Natural disasters protecting public health WHO
  2. Principals of disaster mitigation in health
    facility PAHO publication.
  3. Environmental health in emergencies disaster.
  4. Text book of PARK
  5. Indian journal of public health Jan-march 1992

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