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Session Outcomes


Session Outcomes Identify the basis and rationale for using evidence-based practice in the design of learning experiences (e.g., teaching) Analyse the importance of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Session Outcomes

Session Outcomes
  • Identify the basis and rationale for using
    evidence-based practice in the design of learning
    experiences (e.g., teaching)
  • Analyse the importance of Effect Size in choosing
    and using teaching methods
  • Derive core principles of learning from an
    analysis of Effect Sizes
  • Analyse Instructional strategies
  • in terms of Russian Dolls
  • Design highly effective (and efficient) learning
    experiences across different platforms (e.g.,
    face-to- face, online, blended) using
    Evidence-based practice
  • Teach Creatively

Teaching Quality is the Big Factor in Student
  • The effect of the teacher far overshadows
    classroom variables, such as previous achievement
    level of students, class sizeheterogeneity of
    students, and the ethnic and socio-economic
    makeup of the classroom.
  • (Rivers Sanders, 2002, p.17)
  • On the basis of our findings to date it could be
    argued that
  • effective schools are only effective to the
    extent that they have effective teachers
  • (Rowe Rowe, 1993, p.15)
  • Good teachers touch peoples lives for ever. If
    you teach well, some of your students will only
    succeed because of your excellent teaching

  • (Geoff Petty in Introduction to Evidence-based

Education has been a Creature of Fashion
For those of us who have been around education
for a few decades or so you may remember
Traditional (3 RRRs) - Progressive Education
- Back to Basics (Traditional) More recently
Student-centred inquiry-based learning,
challenge-based learning, studio thinking
whats next? The teacher is no more the Sage on
the Stage, but the Guide on the Side

Is there an Educational Jurassic Park?
Moving out of Educational Jurassic Park
Contrary to common belief, people dont have
different learning styles. They do, however,
have different personalities. The distinction is
important, because we need to be clear that
everybody learns in the same way
(Schank. R., 1999, p.48)
While our lives and our problems are very
different, our brains work in similar ways

(Goulston, 2009,
p.3) What any person in the world can learn,
almost all persons can learn if provided with
appropriate prior and current conditions of
learning (Benjamin Bloom)
Evidence-based practice- what does this mean to
Evidence-based Practice
It is hard to conceive of a less scientific
enterprise among human endeavours.
Virtually anything that could be thought up for
treatment was tried out at one time or another,
and, once tried, lasted decades or even centuries
before being given up. It was, in retrospect, the
most frivolous and irresponsible kind of
experimentation, based on nothing but trial and
error, and usually resulting in precisely that
sequence (p.159) The medical profession before
the drive for evidence-based practice (Thomas,
1979, p.159) The key question is whether
teaching can shift from an immature to a mature
profession, from opinions to evidence, from
subjective judgements and personal contact to
critique of judgements (Hattie, 2009, p.259)
Is Evidence-based practice possible for Teaching?
over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough
research and theory about learning to derive a
truly research based-model of Instruction

(Marzano, 1992, p.2) There are systematic and
principled aspects of effective teaching, and
there is a base of verifiable evidence of
knowledge that supports that work in the sense
that it is like engineering or medicine
Bransford, 2006, p.12) We have a rich
educational research base, but rarely is it used
by teachers, and rarely does it lead to policy
changes that affect the nature of teaching
(Hattie, 2009, p.2)
The Challenge for Evidence-based teachingMoving
Teaching from Mystery to Heuristics
Heuristics represent an incomplete yet
distinctly advanced understanding of what was
previously a mystery. But that understanding is
unequally distributed. Some people remain stuck
in the world of mystery, while others master its
heuristics. The beauty of heuristics is that they
guide us toward a solution by way of organized
exploration of possibilities. (Martin, R, 2009,
The Design of Business, p.12) Another sneaky
question for you Where are you now?
Some Pioneers in the Field
  • Bransford, J. et al., (1999), Brain, Mind,
    Experience School. National Academy Press
    Washington, DC.
  • Marzano, R. (2007), The Art and Science of
    Teaching A Comprehensive Framework for Effective
    Instruction. ASCD.
  • Mayer, R.E. Alexander, P. A., (2010), Handbook
    of Research on Learning and Instruction.
    Routledge London.
  • Petty, G., (2009), Evidence-Based Teaching A
    Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes Cheltenham.
  • Hattie, J., (2009), Visible Learning. Routledge
    New York.
  • Hattie, J., (2012), Visible Learning For
    Teachers Maximizing Impact On Learning.
    Routledge London.
  • Hattie, J. Yates, G. C. R., (2014), Visible
    learning and the Science of How we Learn.
    Routledge New York.

A Revolution in Teaching
  • Teaching is about to embark on a revolution, and
    like medicine, abandon both
  • custom and practice, and fashions and fads, to
    become evidence-based
  • Half a million experiments in real classrooms
    have uncovered the teaching methods
  • that work best. These can improve students
    attainment by two grades compared
  • to conventional practice.
  • The fifty or more methods some old, some new
  • can each raise pass rates by 20 to 30
  • are creative, challenging, and greatly enjoyed by
  • require the learner to do more in class . and
    the teacher less!
  • equip students for progression, by teaching
  • (Geoff Petty,
    Evidence-based Teaching)

Big Method effects on Student Attainment from
Hatties meta-analysis (1)
No. Influence Mean effect size
2 Feedback Students getting feedback on their work from the teacher or from themselves (self-assessment or from peers or some other sources. Note some feedback has more effect than others. For example, peer assessment is 0.63 and self-assessment is 0.54 0.81
3 Whole-class interactive teaching (direct instruction) A specific approach to active learning in class, which is highly teacher led, but very active for students. This involves summaries reviews and a range of active learning methods, including questioning 0.81
4 Strategy training Explicit teaching of subject-specific and general study and thinking skills, integrated into the curriculum 0.80
11 Cooperative learning Specific teaching methods such as jigsaw that give students responsibility for learning and teaching each other 0.59
12 Challenging goals for students Giving students a summary in advance and a purpose for the learning 0.59
Big Method effects on Student Attainment from
Hatties meta-analysis (2)
No. Influence Mean effect size
14 Mastery learning Students must work (tested and re-tested) until they achieve the pass mark 0.55
16 Creativity Programmes Teaching creative thinking 0.52
20 Study Skills Teaching students useful study skills without integrating it into the curriculum 0.49
27 Advance Organizers Giving students a summary in advance and a purpose for the learning 0.46
28 Concept Mapping 0.45
67 Problem-based learning Giving students a problem to solve that requires them to teach themselves 0.06
What does an Effect Size look likein terms of
student attainment?
  • As a baseline an effect size of 1.0 standard
    deviation is massive and is typically associated
  • Advancing the learners achievement by one year
  • Improving the rate of learning by 50
  • A two grade leap in GCSE grades
  • Effect size is a way to measuring the
    effectiveness of a particular intervention to
    ascertain a measure of both the improvement
    (gain) in learner achievement for a group of
    learners AND the variation of student
    performances expressed on a standardised scale.
    By taking into account both improvement and
    variation it provides information about which
    interventions are worth having
  • NOTE For students moving from one year to the
    next, the average effect size
  • across all students is 0.40. Hence, effect sizes
    above 4.0 are of particular interest.

Some important considerations about Effect Sizes
  • As Hattie notes
  • some effect sizes are Russian dolls
    containing more than one strategy. For example,
    Feedback requires that the student has been
    given a goal, and completed an activity for
    which the feedback is to be given whole-class
    interactive teaching is a strategy that includes
    advance organisers and feedback and reviews
  • It is also important to balance effect size with
    level of difficulty of interventions. For
    example, providing advance organizers, which
    are summaries in advance of the teaching, has an
    effect size of 0.46, which is pretty average.
    However, they only take 3 minutes at the
    beginning of the lesson, and potentially offer
    almost a grade improvement in terms of students
  • Furthermore, the effect size depends on how
    effectively you implement the strategy, as you
    would expect

Hattie and Beyond Essential Questions
  • How do effective methods produce positive impacts
    on the learning process?
  • What are the key factors and core principles of
    learning that impact learner attainment (Model of
  • How might teaching professionals use this
    knowledge thoughtfully in their practice (e.g.,
    designing effective instructional strategies) to
    enhance student learning and attainment?
  • What are the implications for the professional
    development of teachers?

Activity Select one of Hatties high effect size
methods and explain how it works in terms of how
humans learns
A Simplified Model of Learning MUDD
  • Expert
  • Independent
  • Confident
  • High performance


  • Novice
  • Dependent
  • Uncertain
  • Erratic and poor
  • performance

Effective Teaching and Learning - requires Good
  Its biologically impossible to learn anything
that youre not paying attention to the
attentional mechanism drives the whole learning
and memory process (Sylwester, 1998,
p.6)    The shape and content of life depends on
how attention has been used. Attention is the
most important tool in the task of improving the
quality of experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990,
Ask Michelle Pfeiffer  
Interest and perceived value initiate and drive
the learning process
There can be no mental development without
interest. Interest is the sine qua non for
attention and apprehension. You may endeavour to
excite interest by means of birch rods, or you
may coax it by the incitement of pleasurable
activity. But without interest there will be no
progress (Whitehead, 1967, p.37)
Importance of challenge
  • Succeeding at something that you thought was
    difficult is the surest way in which to enhance
    self-efficacy and self-concept as a learner
  • (Hattie, 2012, p.58)
  • Educating students to have high, challenging,
    appropriate expectations is among the most
    powerful influence in enhancing student
  • (Hattie, 2012, p.60)

Beliefs can positively (or negatively) influence
the learning process
I belief, through effort, a top grade is possible
Im not smart and its all blur, lah, and Ill
If you think you can or think you cant, youre
right (Henry Ford) We forget that beliefs are
no more than perceptions, usually with a limited
sell by date, yet we act as though they were
concrete realities (Adler, 1996, p.145)
Attribution Theory MindsetsCarol Dweck)
  • Fixed Mindset
  • (Intelligence is static )
  • Growth Mindset
  • (Intelligence can be developed)
  • Leads to a desire to look smart and therefore a
    tendency to
  • Avoid challenges
  • Get defensive and give up when faced with
  • See effort as something less able people need,
    and not for the smart
  • Ignore useful negative feedback
  • Feel threatened by the success of others
  • Leads to a desire to learn and therefore a
    tendency to
  • Embrace challenges
  • Persist in the face of setbacks
  • See effort as the path to mastery
  • Learn from criticism
  • Find Lessons and inspiration in the success of

As a result, they may plateau early and achieve
less than their full potential
As a result, they reach ever-higher levels of
There are differences in attainment gains
relating to whether teachers believe that
achievement is difficult to change because it is
fixed and innate, compared to teachers who
believe that attainment is changeable (the
latter leading to higher gains) (Hattie, 2012,
Impact of Motivation Beliefs on learning
  • Marzano (1988) categorized teaching strategies
    and other interventions depending on whether
    they activated in the student
  • The self-system A set of beliefs the student
    holds about his or her capabilities, the meaning
    and value of what they have been asked to do,
    along with the likelihood of success
  • The meta-cognitive system Students setting
    themselves goals, monitoring their progress
    towards these goals and adapting t difficulties
  • The cognitive system This is the system that
    reasons, and thinks in other ways with the
    information at its disposal, to achieve the
    desired goals.
  • He found that activating the self-system had
    greatest effect, the metacognitive system the
    next most effect, and the cognitive system least,
    though it is still substantial. Interestingly, he
    argued it is the self-system that activates the
    meta-cognitive system, which actives the
    cognitive system, which creates learning.
  • (Marzano A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of
    Research on Instruction)

Implications of Marzanos research
  • Highlights the importance of the teachers role in
    motivating students by encouraging them to see
    the value of what they are about to learn, and to
    believe in their own capacity to learn it.
  • ..if something can be learned, it can be learned
  • a motivating manner
  • (p.23)
  • ..every instructional plan also needs to be a
    motivational plan (p.24)
  • (Wlodkowski, R. J., 1999, Enhancing Adult
    Motivation to Learn)

Core Principle 1Motivational strategies are
incorporated into the design of learning
  • Effect size 0.48. However, this is a Russian
    Doll (Meta-principle) as it runs across a range
    of method uses
  • Instructional strategies must facilitate
  • Meeting fundamental universal needs (e.g.,
    Mastery, Autonomy, Relatedness, Purpose)
  • Making learning interesting for the particular
    learner group (e.g., meaningful, sufficiently
    challenging, differentiated)
  • Reframing limiting beliefs (e.g., promote a
    Growth Mindset) where necessary
  • "People often say that motivation doesn't last.
    Well, neither does bathing - that's why we
    recommend it daily
  • (Zig Zagler)

Effective Learning needs Structure
  • students must be aware of the purpose, key points
    and principles in what they are learning
  • It is indisputable that, from the students
    perspective, clear standards and goals are a
    vitally important element of an effective
    educational experience. Lack of clarity on these
    points is almost always associated with negative
    evaluations, learning difficulties and poor
  • (Ramsden (1992, p.127)
  • Teachers are successful to the degree that they
    can move students from single to
  • multiple ideas then relate and extend these
    ideas such that learners construct and
  • reconstruct knowledge and ideas. It is not the
    knowledge or ideas, but the learners
  • construction of the knowledge and ideas that is
    critical. Increases in student learning
  • follows a reconceptualization as well as an
    acquisition of information
  • (Hattie, 2009, p.37)

Importance of Clear OutcomesThe Chim (Cheem)
  • Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to
    go from here, said Alice?
  • That depends a good deal on where you want to
    get to, said the cat
  • I dont much care where said Alice
  • Then it doesnt matter which way you go, said
    the cat.
  • (Adapted from Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll)
  • The ability to know what you want is the single
    most important skill in managing your life
  • (McDermott, 1998)

Core Principle 2 Learning goals, objectives and
proficiency expectations are clearly visible to
  • Effect Sizes Challenging Goals 0.56 (Hattie)
    Specifying Goals, 0.97 (Marzano)
  • Learning design must incorporate
  • Clearly communicating goals, objectives and
    performance standards through real world examples
  • Ensuring goals are challenging for the learner
    group (e.g., achievable with effort)
  • Explicit teaching of learning intentions and
    success criteria to ensure learners understanding
    of what they look like, sound like and feel like

Core Principle 3 Learners prior knowledge is
activated and connected to new learning
  • Effect sizes Improving student engagement
    through opportunities to respond, 0.60
    Self-verbalization/self-questioning, 0.64
    Remediation Feedback, 0.65
  • Prior knowledge is the lens through which
    students will perceive and react to new
    information provided in a learning event.
  • All new knowledge gains its form and meaning
    through its connection with pre-existing
    knowledge and its influence on the organization
    and reorganization of prior knowledge (Shulman
    1991, p.10)
  • Ausubel (1978) went as far as arguing that 
  • If I had to reduce all of educational psychology
    to just one principle, I would say this the most
    important single factor influencing learning is
    what the learner already knows. Ascertain this
    and teach him (sic) accordingly(p.163)

Core principle 4 Learning is enhanced through
multiple methods and presentation modes that
engage the range of senses
  • Another Russian Doll principle as it runs across
    a range of method uses
  • it is desirable to have multiple ways of
    teaching and there is no need to classify
    students into different intelligences
  • (Hattie, 2012, p.91)
  • Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do
    not learn much just by sitting in class listening
    to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments,
    and spitting out answers. They must talk about
    what they are learning, write about it, relate it
    to past experiences, apply it to their daily
    lives. They must make what they learn part of
  • (Chickering Gamson, 1987, p.3)

Another bit of Educational Jurassic Park
finally put to bed
  • One of the more fruitless pursuits is labelling
    students with learning styles. This modern fad
    for learning styles, not to be confused with the
    more worthwhile notion of multiple learning
    strategies, assumes that different students have
    differing preferences for particular ways of
    learning (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork,
    2009 Riener Willingham, 2010).
  • Often, the claim is that when teaching is aligned
    with the preferred or dominant learning style
    (for example, auditory, visual, tactile, or
    kinesthetic) then achievement is enhanced. While
    there can be many advantages by teaching content
    using many different methods (visual, spoken,
    movement), this must not be confused with
    thinking that students have differential
    strengths in thinking in these styles (p89)

Core Principal 5 Content is organized around key
concepts and principles that are fundamental to
understanding the structure of a subject
  • Effect sizes Direct instruction, 0.59 Concept
    mapping, 0.60 Advanced organizers, 0.46
  • Understanding involves making personal meaning
    seeing relations between constructs and building
    new learning on old moving from concrete to
    abstract reliant on both acquiring knowledge
    bases and organizing them through good thinking

Knowledge is increasing exponentially and we
may be living in a rapidly changing volatile
world but our brains are the same as 10,000
years ago. Managing cognitive load is now
becoming a so-called 21ist century skill.
Core Principle 6 Good thinking promotes the
building of understanding
Effect size Metacognitive strategies 0.69
Creativity programmes, 0.65 Questioning, 4.1
Teaching learning strategies, 0.62 Teaching
learning strategies,0.63 The best thing we can
do, from the point of view of the brain and
learning, is to teach our learners how to think
1996, p.163)
Thought is the key to knowledge. Knowledge is
discovered by thinking, analyzed by thinking,
organized by thinking, transformed by thinking,
assessed by thinking, and, most importantly,
acquired by thinking (Paul, 1993
Thinking is the cognitive process that builds
Metacognitive Strategies enhance learning
  • Metacognition refers to the awareness of, and
    ability to monitor and control, ones cognitive
    and affective processing in order to enhance
  • Metacognition plays a central role in learning by
    helping to guide the learners cognitive
    processing of the to-be-learned material
  • Good metacognitive capability is the basis of
    becoming a self-regulated learner, which is a
    major goal of education
  • Explicitly teaching students to be more
    metacognitive in their problem-solving enhances
    their performance and success rates (e.g.,
    Bransford, Hattie)
  • Note Learning strategies can involve physical
    tools such as mind-mapping, etc., but its the
    internal cognitive processes inside our heads
    covert strategies that really makes the
    difference in terms of quality of learning

Core Principle 7 Learning Design utilizes the
working of memory systems
Sensory Memory Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste
WorkingMemory ExecutiveOrganizingFunction Limit
ed Capacity5-9 bits ofinformation
Integrating Conscious, Subconscious Unconscio
Long TermMemory
Infinite Capacity
Another Russian Doll principle Our Memory
Systems are fundamental to all learning how
these are managed affects the rate and quality of
Working Memory
  • While human brains have potentially unlimited
    storage capacity by means of long term memory,
    all new learning has to firstly pass through
    working memory, which has a limited capacity of
    around 7 2 bits of information. This poses
    problems of Cognitive Load for learning , but as
    Clark Lyons (2004) point out
  • it is in working memory that active mental
    work, including learning, takes place. Working
    memory is the site of conscious thought and
    processing (p.48)

Long Term Memory
  • Long term memory, once viewed as an inert dumping
    ground, is crucial for learning and the
    development of expertise. For example, Kircher et
    al (2006) point out
  • ...long term memory is now viewed as the central
    dominant structure of human cognition. Everything
    we see, hear and think about is critically
    dependent on and influenced by our long-term
    memory (pp.3-4)
  • Research clearly shows that a major factor that
    differentiates experts from novices is that
    expert problem-solvers are able to draw on the
    vast knowledge bases in their long-term memory
    and quickly select the best approach and
    procedures for solving a given problem As Kircher
    et al allude
  • We are skillful in an area because our long-term
    memory contains huge amounts of information
    concerning that area. That information permits us
    to quickly recognize the characteristics of a
    situation and indicates to us, often
    unconsciously, what to do and how to do it

Minimize Forgetting through ReviewUtilizing the
working of WM LTM
Probability of recall
Recall without reviews
Recall with reviews at intervals
10 next next
next minutes day day
with continuous periodic reviews
Some Pedagogic Implications of the working of
memory Systems
  • Lessons should
  • be chunked into segments to avoid/reduce
    cognitive overload
  • Include activities to create cognitive engagement
    (Good Thinking)
  • build in review time on the Content (e.g., Key
    Concepts, Principles)
  • - to ensure effective transfer from Working
    Memory to
  • Long-term memory (Memory Systems).
    Seems like a Russian Doll
  • Tasks involving thinking help to build better
    constructs (understanding of concepts)
  • as students get more familiar with the
    material and start to chunk bits of it together
  • themselves. However, encouraging to them to
    notice the constituent parts and their
  • relations Making Thinking Visible is
  • Memory is strengthened by repetition rather than
    total time, hence recall is crucial
  • Chunked material, especially, when well
    established in LTM, takes less space in WM,
  • enabling more space to concentrate on the
    thinking process rather than memorization

Graphic Organisers and other visual
representations (effect size 1.2 to 1.3)
  • How Visual representations work
  • Diagrams cannot contain all the details so the
    learner is forced to isolate the key points and
    their relations which imposes a structure on
    the information. This helps to see the wood from
    the trees
  • Recall is almost always visually triggered hence
    visual representation acts as a cue triggering
    the full memory
  • Only structured information can go in Long term
    memory, so this helps the transmission from WM to
    LTM and subsequent recall
  • Facilitates the Whole Part Whole strategy in
    helping to make connections (e.g., relating
  • Related information is quite high up in the SOLO
    taxonomy hence fostering and building a deep
    understanding of the topic

WPW Learning Model
The basic WPW Learning Model can be depicted as
Whole Part Learning Segments
Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3 Segment
4 Segment 5
  • The first whole creates an organizational
    framework for new content
  • The supporting component elements - parts - are
    then systematically developed
  • The second whole links these parts together to
    foster understanding

SOLO Taxonomy some Key Points
SOLO models how learning develops and the
qualitative aspects of this development. When we
learn a new topic we start near the bottom of the
taxonomy (however bright we are), and as our
learning improves we climb the taxonomy, adding
detail but also relations. SOLO can be used to
specify acceptable or unacceptable levels of
performance in suitable tasks and subject
areas. Experts structure their understanding
around principles rather than around topics
Expertise is not just knowing more. Experts
structure or organise their knowledge around Deep
subject principles, and understand the conditions
when these principles apply. Their memory is
indexed so that relevant knowledge can be
retrieved. When solving a problem they look to
see what conditions apply, and so retrieve all
the information that is relevant to that task.
They dont need to search the whole of their
permanent memory. That is, they can transfer
their knowledge, which makes it fully
functional (Bransford, 2000, p.24) Hence the
importance of teaching core principles that
underpin the structure of a topic this enables
the learner to transfer their learning to
entirely new contexts.
SOLO Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome
Developmental Base with minimal age SOLO Description 1 Capacity 2 Relating Operation 3 Consistency Closure
Formal Operations (16 years) Extended Abstract Maximal cue relevant data Interrelations hypotheses Deduction and induction. Can generalize to situations not experienced Inconsistencies resolved. No felt need to give closed decisions conclusions held open, or qualified to allow Logically possible alternatives.
Concrete Generalization (13-15 years) Relational High cue Relevant data interrelations Induction. Can generalize within given or experienced context using related aspects No inconsistency within the given system, but since closure is unique so inconsistencies may occur when he goes outside the system
Middle Concrete (10-12 years) Multistructural Medium cue Isolated relevant data Can generalize only in terms of a few limited and independent aspects. Often inconsistent and variable conclusions made Can generalize only in terms of a few limited and independent aspects. Often inconsistent and variable conclusions made
Core Principle 8 The development of expertise
requires deliberate practice
  • Effect sizes Spaced and mass practice, 0.71
    Challenging goals, 0.52 Remediation feedback,
    0.65 Mastery learning, 0.50
  • Deliberate Practice is characterized by several
  • Activity specifically designed to improve
    performance, often with a teachers help
  • It can be repeated a lot (needs to be)
  • Feedback on results is continually available
  • Highly demanding mentally (whether a physical or
    mental task)
  • It isnt much fun (in the main, but may be for
  • Typically requires a teachers help one who can
    see more objectively what needs to be improved
    and how
  • Built around the principle of stretching the
    individual beyond existing performance level
    relates to challenging but achievable goals (must
    be as clearly defined as possible)
  • If the activities that lead to greatness were
    easy and fun, then everybody would do them, and
    they would not distinguish the best from the
    rest (Colvin, 2008, p.72)

How Deliberate Practice Works
  • Great performers possess large, highly developed,
    intricate mental models of the domain, enabling
    them to
  • Make sense of new knowledge more effectively and
    efficiently as they have vast stores of organized
    knowledge in LTM,
  • Distinguish relevant information from irrelevant
  • Predict what will happen next in a domain
    specific situation
  • The best performers observe themselves closely
    monitor what is happening in their own minds, and
    ask how its going. Researchers call this
    metacognition top performers do this more
    systematically than others do its an
    established part of their routine (p.118)
  • It enable great performers to perceive more, to
    know more and to remember more than most people.
    The effects go beyond that
  • Many years of intensive deliberate practice
    changes the body and the brain concept of

The impact of assessment in student learning
  • It is now clearly recognized that assessment is
    not simply a means to measure learning that has
    already occurred, but is a major facilitator in
    the learning process itself. As Boud (1988)
  • There have been a number of notable studies
    over the years which have
  • demonstrated that assessment methods and
    requirements probably have
  • a greater influence on how and what students
    learn than any other single
  • factor. This influence may well be of greater
    significance than the impact
  • of teaching or learning materials (p.35)

Feedback is so important in the learning process
  • There is much of merit in the learning stakes for
    clear, concise and timely feedback
  • clarifying what good performance is (e.g. goals,
    criteria, standards)
  • identifying gaps in performance and specific
    learning needs
  • closing the gap between current and desired
  • positive beliefs and self-esteem
  • the development of self-assessment in learning
  • appropriate modification of instructional
  • all students should be educated in ways that
    develop their capability to assess their own

  • (Hattie, 2012, p.141)

Core Principle 9 Assessment is integrated into
the learning design to provide quality feedback
  • Effect sizes Feedback between teachers and
    students, 0.75
  • Peer assessment, 0.63 Self-assessment, 0.54
    Providing formative evaluation
  • to teachers, 0.90
  • Assessment is not separate from the instructional
  • process but an integral part of it.
  • As Perkins (1992) suggests, once considered
  • Teaching, learning, and assessment merge
  • into one seamless enterprise (p.176)

Core principle 10 A Psychological Climate is
created which is success orientated and fun
  • Effect sizes Teacher-student relationships,
    0.72 Class environment, 0.56.
  • Also, this is a Russian Doll, as it fosters the
    building of Rapport.
  • Rapport is the ultimate tool for getting results
    with other people
  • (Robbins, 2001, p.231)
  • The importance of fostering the psychological
    climate has been fully documented by Jensen
  • Learners in positive, joyful environments are
    likely to experience better learning, memory and
    feelings of self-esteem (p.98)
  • Far from limiting the learning experience, humour
    is now seen to have many positive impacts, such
  • Refreshing the brain
  • Creating mental images that retain learning
  • Reinforcing desired behaviour and makes classroom
    management easier
  • Developing positive attitudes
  • Promoting creativity
  • Contributing to the enjoyment of teaching

How to Build Good Rapport with students
  • Frederickson (1980) suggested that Positive
    Emotions, in addition to making people feel good
    and improving their subjective life experiences,
    have the potential to broaden peoples way of
    thinking and help them build physical,
    intellectual and social resources. There are many
    specific ways to promote this
  • looking directly at students, showing empathic
    listening, good observation of whats going on
    (sensory acuity), using smile when appropriate,
    supporting encouraging language and calibrated
    body language, etc.
  • Asking students questions about their interests,
    concerns with learning and acting on the
    information received over time
  • Having a sense of humour and encouraging it from
    students seeing the funny side in situations
    of adversity on occasions, but keeping them
    moving to productive outcomes
  • Praising effort and a can do attitude, being
    up-beat about whats going on in the classroom
  • It is our behaviour that directly connects to
    results, even though our
  • thinking may be responsible for generating the
  • (Molden, 2001, p.59)

Core Principles How they work
While each principle focuses attention on a key
area relating to effective pedagogy, they are
mutually supporting, interdependent and
potentially highly synergetic. As Stigler
Hiebert (1999) highlight Teaching is a
system. It is not a loose mixture of individual
features thrown together by the teacher. It
works more like a machine, with the parts
operating together and reinforcing one another,
driving the vehicle forward (p.75)
Hatties (2009) summary of highly effective
teachers fully captures this synergy in
practice is teachers using particular
teaching methods, teachers with high expectations
for all students, and teachers who have created
positive student-teacher relationships that are
more likely to have the above average effects on
student achievement (p.126)
Good pedagogy is always situated
  • As Darling-Hammond Bransford (2005) point out
  • teachers not only need to understand basic
    principles of learning but must also know how to
    use them judiciously to meet diverse learning
    goals in contexts where students differ in their
    needs (p.78)
  • Bruner (2006) captures this most fully, when he
    asserts that
  • The challenge is always to situate our knowledge
    in the living context that poses the presenting
    problem And that living context, where
    education is concerned, is the schoolroom the
    schoolroom situated in the broader culture
  • Which is why Bransford (1999) is so right when he
    points out
  • Asking which teaching method/technique is best
    is analogous to asking what tool is best a
    hammer, a screwdriver, a knife, or pliers. In
    teaching, as in carpentry, the selection of tools
    depends on the task at hand and the materials one
    is working with (p.22)

Using Core Principles Thoughtfully- The Fly
Fishing Analogy
  • Key situated factors involve
  • The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of
    facts, conceptual
  • understanding, competence)
  • Learner characteristics (e.g., maturation,
    motivational level, prior competence)
  • Learning context and resource availability
    (e.g., learning
  • environment, facilities, resources)

A frame on Teaching Expertise
Note this is a Conceptual Model, not
hierarchical in that one stage must be achieved
before the next. It is essentially
Iterative However, Competent and Creative
teachers employ a strong pedagogic literacy -
whether Explicit or Tacit)
Creative Teaching (Adaptive Expertise) Ability to
situationally create highly effective pedagogy
Competent Teaching Ability to design and
facilitate learning experiences based on a sound
pedagogic literacy
Pedagogic Literacy Understanding key knowledge
bases relating to how humans learn
Professional Developmentin developing Teacher
  • We know a good deal about the characteristics of
    successful professional
  • development it focuses on concrete classroom
    applications of general ideas
  • it exposes teachers to actual practice rather
    than descriptions of practice
  • it offers opportunity for observation, critique
    and reflection it provides
  • opportunity for group support and collaboration
    and it involves deliberate
  • evaluation and feedback by skilled practitioners
    with expertise about
  • good thinking
  • (Elmore and Burney, 1999, p.263)

Professional development A complimentary frame
  • Darling-Hammond Bransford (2005) who summarize
  • Emerging evidence suggests that teachers benefit
    from participating in the culture of teaching
    by working with the materials and tools of
    teaching practice examining teaching plans and
    student learning while immersed in theory about
    learning, development and subject matter. They
    also benefit from participating in practice as
    they observe teaching, work closely with
    experienced teachers, and work with students to
    use what they are learning
  • (Darling-Hammond Bransford , 2005, p.404)

Supported Experiments
  • Identify tough topics or concepts that student
    find hard or boring to learn
  • Develop an instructional strategy that employs
    the methods that work best and customize them to
    the situated context ( e.g., learning outcomes,
    student characteristics, resource availability),
    based on your professional judgement
    (collaboration with colleagues helps)
  • Conduct the lessons and get feedback on the
    influence of learning (e.g., students feedback,
    performance on assessment tasks, peer
  • Review the evidence and make modifications
  • Practice the methods in a relatively short period
    of time, making improvements and refining
    practice (has similarity with Lesson Study)
  • Embed the success in Active Schemes of Work that
    are shared and subsequently used for professional
    development and continual improvement
  • (From the work of Geoff Petty)
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