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Global Review


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Title: Global Review

Global Review
Early Civilizations
  • Hunters and Gatherers (Old Stone Age)
  • Also called nomads, or people who moved from
    place to place.
  • Social structure consisted of small groups of
    people that traveled together.
  • Made simple tools and weapons, such as digging
    sticks and spears.
  • Developed a language which allowed them to
    cooperate in a hunt.
  • Began burying dead with care- maybe believed in
  • Buried tools and weapons with their dead.
  • Invented clothing made of animal skins.
  • Used fire for warmth and for cooking food.

  • Nomad
  • A member of a group that has no permanent home,
    wandering from place to place in search of food
    and water.
  • Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on
    hunting animals and collecting plant foods are
    called hunter-gatherers.
  • These people increased their food supply by
    inventing tools such as spears and knives.
  • The nomadic lifestyle eventually lead to the
    domesticated way of life, where crops were
    planted and animals were raised for food.
  • In present day, nomads still exist in places such
    as the Kalahari Desert and the BaMbuti rainforest.

  • Neolithic
  • Neolithic revolution was around 10,000 B.C.
  • Environmental changes caused an end to the stone
    age because people could farm and domesticate
  • People no longer had to wander to search for food
    but could raise their own food and live in
    permanent settlements.
  • This new age was called the Neolithic period
  • The new discoveries called the Neolithic
    Revolution or the Agricultural Revolution because
    the new farming discoveries changed the way
    people lived.

  • Cultural Diffusion (The old stone age)
  • The exchange of ideas, customs, and goods among
  • Migration, during the old stone age people
    migrated into North America and other migrated to
    the islands in the Pacific, led to cultural
  • Cultural diffusion also occurred through trade
    and warfare.
  • An example is the Sumerians, as their population
    and trade increased the Sumerians started coming
    in contact with other people. New cities were
    arising all over the Fertile Crescent. The
    Sumerians absorbed ideas such as religious
    beliefs from neighboring cultures.

  • Civilization
  • Defined as a complex culture with five
    characteristics (1)advanced cities,
    (2)specilized workers, (3)complex institutions,
    (4) record keeping, and (5) advanced technology
  • Advanced cities center for trade
  • Specialized workers not everyone had to farm
    people could specialize in other areas like
    traders or artisans.
  • Complex institutions like government need to be
    a lasting pattern of organization in a community
  • Record keeping all civilizations have a system
    of writing to keep track of taxes and laws
  • advanced technology new tools and techniques
    that are needed to solve the problems.

  • Pharaoh
  • The King of ancient Egypt
  • The Pharaoh was considered a god as well as a
  • This type of government was a theocracy because
    Pharaoh was a divine figure and at the head of
  • The Egyptians believed that Pharaoh was in charge
    of the kingdom's well-being
  • He caused the sun to rise and the crops to grow
  • The pharaoh also was responsible for the court
    system and promoting truth and justice
  • Egyptians also believed that their kings ruled
    even after they had died
  • Pyramids were built for the pharaohs because it
    was believed that their eternal spirit reigned

  • Fertile Crescent
  • The Fertile Crescent is an area of land that lies
    between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean
    Sea in Southwest Asia.
  • The Fertile Crescent is also known as
  • The people of which were the first to settle in
    this area around 4500 B.C, were the Sumerians.
  • The Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, which lie
    within the crescent, flow southeastward to the
    Persian Gulf. Once a year, they flood the
    Crescent, and it leaves a thick layer of silt, a
    thick mud, which keeps the land so moist and
    fertile. In this thick layer of soil, the farmers
    can plant and harvest enormous quantities of
    wheat barley, allowing their villages to grow.
  • The good soil was what attracted people to
    Mesopotamia, but this type of environment had
    three disadvantages to it
  • The flooding of the rivers was unpredictable,
    they could come as early as April, and as late as
    June. The floods would recede, the hot sun would
    dry them up, no rain would fall, and the land
    would become dry and desert-like.
  • The region was small, about the size of
    Massachusetts, and villages were in small
    clusters and were almost defenseless.
  • Natural resources were extremely limited, they
    didnt have much to use for tools and buildings.

  • Sumerian Civilization (4000b.c- 500a.d)
  • Sumerians lived 5000 years ago in Sumer,
  • The Sumerians lived by the Tigris and Euphrates
  • Government
  • Each Sumerian state had a hereditary ruler who
    was seen as chief servant to the gods.
  • Religion
  • Each Sumerian state was believed in many powerful
    gods or the were polytheistic.
  • Most of the gods were compared to the forces of
  • The largest buildings were temples called
  • Economy
  • Their economy was based on trading.
  • Contributions
  • The Sumerians developed a form of writing called
  • They also developed algebra and geometry.
  • Sumerians built the worlds first wheeled vehicle
    and had irrigation systems, dikes, and canals.

  • Middle Kingdom (1650 B.C.)
  • The Middle Kingdom was the early kingdom of
  • The geography in the region isolated the Chinese
    people, more so than other civilizations.
  • Because they had little contact with other
    cultures, the Chinese people believed their
    culture was the center of the world, so they
    named it the Middle Kingdom.
  • Most people of this region lived along the coast
    and in the river valleys.
  • Though the country had a king, clans, or large
    family groups, controlled the land.
  • The king in Shang China set up the first dynasty
    in China.
  • Social Structure
  • Noble Warriors owned land
  • Merchants and Craftsmen earned a living in the
  • Peasants largest amount of people, lived in
    farming villages

Bantu Migration(2,000 years ago)
  • The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic
    groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa,
    united by a common language family, the Bantu
    languages, and in many cases common customs.
  • About 2,000 years ago, small groups of Bantu
    speakers began spreading south and east.
  • They shared their skills with people they met on
    their journey, adapted their methods to suit
    their new environment, and learned new ways.
  • Moving eastward toward the savannas they adapted
    their skills for herding goats and sheep to
    raising cattle.
  • Passing through what is now Kenya and Tanzania,
    they learned to cultivate new crops.
  • This expanded their food supply
  • They followed the Congo river through the rain
    forests, there they farmed the riverbanks.
  • 1,500 years Bantu speakers reached the southern
    tip of
  • Africa
  • They believe the Bantu migrated because their was
  • explosion of food supply, which increased
    the population.
  • With this increase, their was a need for
    food and land, so
  • people went to search these out resulting
    in the migration.

Classical Civilizations
  • Zhou Dynasty
  • Around 1027 B.C., the Zhou overthrew the Shang
    and brought new ideas such as the Mandate of
    Heaven into Chinese culture.
  • Controlled vast amounts of land, so the
    government established the system known as
    Feudalism, in which nobles are given use of the
    lands that the king legally owns, in exchange for
    the nobles loyalty and military service to the
  • The Chinese people gradually accepted the Zhou
  • The Zhou improved trade by introducing coined
    money to China, and also made advancements such
    as using iron in weapons and agricultural tools.
  • The Zhou dynasty rule ended in 256 B.C.

  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Used by the ancient Chinese dynasties
  • The belief that the right to rule is granted
    from Heaven
  • There is only one Heaven therefore there can
    be only one ruler.
  • The right to rule is based on the virtue of the
  • The right to rule is not limited to
    one dynasty.

  • Han Dynasty
  • The founding of the Han Dynasty
  • Liu Bang fought for the power of the dynasty
    against Xiang Xu, an aristocratic general
  • Liu Bang established a centralized government in
    which a central authority controls the running of
    a state
  • Started civil service jobs, government jobs that
    civilians could obtain by taking examinations to
    work for the bureaucracy that helped the rulers.
    They would test the civilians on Confucianism
  • Han Technology
  • Paper was invented and before this books were
    written on silk but paper was cheaper so it made
    books more able to spread Chinese education
  • Everyone began to think agriculture was the most
    important so everyone began to practice it
  • Overthrow by Wang Mang
  • He was a Confucian scholar and member of the
    court he overthrew the infant leader and the Han

  • Polis
  • A Greek city-state the fundamental political
    unit of ancient Greece after about 750 B.C.
  • After the sea of peoples invaded mainland Greece
    around 1200 B.C., the Dorians moved in the area.
    Greek civilization experienced a decline during
    this time. By 750 B.C. the Greeks saw the rise of
    powerful city-states.
  • Made up of a city and its surrounding
    countryside, which included numerous villages.
  • Most city-states controlled between 50 and 500
    square miles of territory.
  • In some city-states there were monarchies,
    however in time most adopted aristocracy. These
    very rich ruling families often gained political
    power after working in a kings military cavalry.
  • As trade expanded, a new class of wealthy
    merchants and artisans emerged in some cities.
    When these groups became dissatisfied with
    aristocratic rule, they either took power or
    shared it with the nobility. They formed an
  • Athens and Sparta are famous city states.

  • Direct Democracy
  • Direct democracy is a select group of people who
    have all the say in the government.
  • The people get the chance o vote for who they
    want those select individuals to be.
  • If the people chose the wrong people for the job
    then they would not be able to change it.
  • The only way to overthrow them would be to kill

  • Hellenistic
  • Hellenistic is a Greek culture blended with
    Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences.
  • Koine is the most popular spoken language.
  • This Greek culture was spread by Alexander the
    Great as he conqueror places like Egypt, and
  • Alexander the Great

  • Roman Empire
  • The Roman Empire was founded in 753 B.C.
  • This republic slowly became one of the worlds
    most powerful empire.
  • Around 50 B.C. Julius Caesar took control of
  • Caesar soon became the absolute ruler of the
    Roman Empire.
  • Caesars biggest goal for Rome was to make it the
    biggest empire ever, so he would constantly
    invade countries to enlarge his territory.
  • Caesar was assassinated and his grandnephew takes
    over his name Caesar Augustus and brought the
    republic to and end thus starting the age of the
    roman empire this two-hundred year peace was
    called the Pax Romania.

  • Pax Romana 27 B.C to 180 A.D.
  • The Pax Romana
  • The period of peace and prosperity in Rome. Also
    known as Roman Peace.
  • The population increased during this period.
  • Cultural and intellectual achievements of Rome
  • Achievements
  • The laws of twelve tables-set of laws such as a
    person is considered innocent until proven
  • Aqueducts- bridge like structures used to carry
    water to long distances.
  • The use of archs and domes for the Pantheon.
  • Greek and roman culture spread throughout

Belief Systems
  • Animism
  • An ancient religion that centralizes its beliefs
    around the belief that human-like spirits are
    present in animals, plants, and all other natural
  • The spirits are believed to be the souls of dead
  • Spirits possess living and non-living things
  • Often combined with other religions to extend


  • Monotheistic
  • Definition a belief in a single god
  • Greek words mono meaning one and theism
    meaning god-worship
  • The Hebrews (Jews) were the first religions to
    become monotheistic. They believed in one god
    for protection who they called Yahweh. Yahweh
    had power over everyone, not just the Jews and
  • God was not a physical being, and no physical
    images were to be made of him.
  • According to the Torah the treason Yahweh looked
    after the Hebrews was because Abraham promised to
    obey him, not because of ceremonies or
    sacrifices as seen in polytheism.

  • Started with Nomads in the Indus Valley in 1500
  • Brahmah one unifying spirit
  • Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, Shiva
    the Destroyer
  • Goal of life is to unite with Brahman (through
  • Reincarnation rebirth of the soul in a new
    body, get closer to Brahman with every rebirth
  • Karma deeds of ones life that effect his or her
    next life
  • Dharma moral and religious duties that are
    expected from an individual
  • Caste system social class system
  • Vedas one of the books of Hinduism, filled with
    sacred teachings

  • Karma (750 B.C.)
  • Hindus share a common world-view.
  • They see religion as a way of liberating the soul
    from the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes
    of everyday existence.
  • Sometime between 750 B.C. and 550 B.C., Hindu
    teachers tried to interpret and explain the
    hidden meaning of the Vedic hymns.
  • As they meditated on the Vedas, they asked
  • What is the nature of reality?
  • What is morality?
  • Is there eternal life?
  • What is the soul?
  • A belief in reincarnation, or rebirth of the soul
    in another body after death, forms the basis of
    Hinduism and underlies the entire cast system.
  • A persons cast is their reward or punishment for
    karma, deeds committed in a previous life.
  • Karma influences specific life circumstances,
    such as the cast one is born into, ones state of
    health, wealth or poverty, and so on.

  • Reincarnation
  • Reincarnation is a central teaching of the Hindu
  • When one is born they are given life by Brahma,
    as they pass through life they are preserved by
    Vishnu, until Shiva claims you in death.
  • Than the cycle is repeated over and over again
    until one finally achieves Moksha.
  • Rivers are used to symbolize reincarnation
    because they have a constant flow, yet follow the
    same course.

  • Buddhism
  • Originated in India, by Siddhartha Guatama
  • Four Noble truths-
  • All life is suffering
  • Suffering is caused by desire for things that re
  • The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate
  • Following the Eightfold Path will help people
    overcome desire
  • Sacred text-
  • Tripitaka- Three baskets of wisdom
  • Ultimate goal Nirvana- union with the universe
    and release from the cycle of death and rebirth

  • Four Noble Truths
  • The Four Noble Truths were a part of Siddhartha
    Gautamas Buddhism.
  • These truths were what was understood by
    Siddhartha in his enlightenment.
  • They were ideas that were supposed to be followed
    to seek enlightenment, or wisdom.
  • The First Noble Truth- Everything in life is
    suffering and sorrow.
  • The Second Noble Truth- The cause of all
    suffering is peoples selfish desire for the
    temporary pleasures of this world.
  • The Third Noble Truth- The way to end all
    suffering is to end all desires.
  • The Fourth Noble Truth- The way to overcome such
    desires and to attain enlightenment is to follow
    the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle
    Way between desires and self-denial.

  • Nirvana- 250 B.C.
  • Belief of the Buddhist religion.
  • Defined as union with the universe. It is also a
    release from the cycle of death and rebirth.
  • It is also a release from selfishness and pain.
  • Buddha stressed that each individual person could
    reach a peace state called nirvana.
  • You have to follow the Eightfold Path in order to
    reach nirvana.
  • To achieve Nirvana, you would have to reject the
    sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline.

  • Confucianism
  • Confucianism started in China during the Zhou
  • Confucianism was the guide to the nature of
    government and the structure to society
  • Men were thought to be superior to women
  • Confucius wrote The Analects
  • Confucius believed in order to establish social
    order, harmony and a good government he needed to
    use the
  • Five key relationships 1. friend to friend,
    2.father to son, 3. ruler to subject, 4. husband
    to wife, 5. older brother to younger brother
  • Confucius stressed that children should practice
    filial piety or respect for their elders
  • There was also an influence on the Japanese

  • Taoism (or Daoism) bout 500 B.C.
  • Founder Laozi
  • Live in harmony with nature
  • Contemplate Tao, or the way
  • Yielding and acceptance are important virtues
  • Followers rejected the world and human
    government, they often became hermits, mystics or
  • Balance of yin and yang
  • Yin earth, darkness, female forces
  • Yang heaven, light, and male forces
  • Collected works The Way of Virtue and zhuang-zi

  • Islam(1600s 2005)
  • Islam is a religion that came about in the early
  • The first follower was a merchant named Muhammad
  • He claimed that one night the voice of Allah
    (God) spoke to him, and thus he began the
  • To be a Muslim (a submitted one) or a follower of
    Islam, followers must obey the five pillars or
    five duties to Allah.
  • The first of the five pillars is faith the
    follower must proclaimed that Allah is the one
    true God and Muhammad is the messenger of God.
  • The second of the five pillars is prayer five
    times a day the Muslims must face toward Mecca
    (the holy city) and pray.
  • The third of the five pillars is alms Muslims
    all have a responsibility to support the poor,
    which they do by giving religious tax, in money.
  • The fourth pillar of Islam is fasting During
    the Muslims holy month called Ramadan the
    Muslims will eat nothing from dawn to sunset, and
    then only a simple meal to remind themselves that
    they should have greater priorities than bread.
  • The fifth pillar of Islam is pilgrimage All
    Muslims who can afford it are supposed to make a
    pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • If a Muslim follows the five pillars of Mecca
    then they go to Heaven, if they dont then they
    go to Hell.

  • Allah

  • Muhammad
  • Muhammad was born into a clan of a powerful
    Mecca Family
  • Muhammad took great interest in religion. When
    he was alone he mostly prayed and meditated.
  • When he was 40 a voice called to him while he
    was meditating. The voice was believed to say
    that Muhammad was a messenger of god.
  • In 622 Muhammad left Mecca. He went 200 miles
    north of Mecca too a town called Yathrib. This
    journey by Muhammad was known as the Hijrah.
  • Muhammad returned to Mecca in 630 with his
  • Mecca surrendered and Muhammad became leader.
    Most people in Mecca converted to Islam to
    pledge their loyalty to Muhammad.
  • Muhammad dies two years later at the age of 62.

  • Five Pillars
  • This applies to the Islamic religion.
  • Faith
  • To become muslin, you need to testify to the
    statement of faith there is no god but allah,
    Muhammad is the messenger of allah.
  • Prayer
  • Muslims must face Mecca and pray five times a
  • Alms
  • Muslims have been taught to support the less
  • Fasting
  • During the Muslim month of Ramadan, Muslims fast.
    Fasting is eating and drinking nothing from sun
    up to sun down.
  • Pilgrimage
  • Muslims must go on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least
    once in their lifetime.

  • Christianity
  • Jesus Christ was the founder of Christianity.
  • He was born around 6 to 4 B.C.
  • He began his ministry at age 30.
  • Jesus teachings included many Jewish beliefs,
    such as monotheism and the Ten Commandments. He
    stressed Gods personal relationship with each
  • Jesus followers were called disciples and
    later apostles.
  • Jesus was crucified around A.D. 29 for
    challenging the authority of the Roman
    government. Jesus disciples believed that his
    crucifixion was a triumph over death and that he
    was the Messiah. The Jewish priests of the time
    did not believe he was the Messiah and call his
    ministry blasphemy.
  • Jesus disciples continued to spread Jesus
    teachings and Christianity later became a
    prominent religion throughout the world.

  • Bible
  • Christians used the book as a way to follow their
  • The book consisted of the old and new testament.
  • The bible contains stories and messages about
    their god.
  • The old testament is their gods life as it was
    on earth and how it came to be.

  • Judaism
  • Monotheistic belief in one God who is present
    everywhere, all-knowing, all-powerful
  • Holy book Torah
  • Writings are a sacred recording of the laws and
    events in Jewish history
  • Also writings of the prophets (spiritual leaders)
  • Believe that God made a covenant (agreement) with
    Abraham and the Hebrews to protect them
  • Ten Commandments from God given to Moses laws
    that describe how people should behave towards
    God and each other
  • Believe that God chose the Hebrews as His people
  • Prophets were people who God talked to, they
    taught about moral standards and justice
  • Judaism later had a strong influence on
    Christianity and Islam

  • Diaspora
  • A Diaspora is a dispersion of a people from their
    original homeland. In global history we studied
    the Diaspora of the Jews from their homeland in
    Canaan (Israel) in 77 C.E. According to
    tradition, the Jews were given Israel by God in
    about 2000 B.C.E. In about 77 C.E., the Romans
    attacked Jerusalem and destroyed the temple.
    With Jerusalem now being controlled by the
    Romans, Jews dispersed throughout Eurasia in
    search of a place where they could practice
    freely. In 1948 A Jewish state of Israel was
    crated although many Jews still live in other
    parts of the World.

Cultural Exchange
The Gupta Dynasty (300-700)
  • Known as Indias Golden Age
  • After being invaded and defeated India needed a
    new leader
  • The Gupta family came to rule, and managed to
    defeat the foreigners
  • The Gupta's reign would last 300 years from 329
    to 650 A.D
  • ChandraGupta I
  • The first Gupta who turned around India and
    fought off foreigners and expanded India.
  • The Golden Age
  • The golden age of India During the Guptas was
    architecture and Buddhist art.

  • Caste System
  • This is based on what place your are in society.
  • The say if you are up there in the caste system,
    that means that you have good Karma Which means
    that you where good in your past life.
  • In the caste system it is good to be a male,
    wealthy, and a warrior.
  • Sometimes the caste system is bad, like if you
    did something really bad then you are shun and no
    one can talk to them.
  • Untouchables lowest form of the Caste System.

rich to poor
  • Urbanization
  • Urbanization was the building of cities and the
    movement of people to the cities.
  • Some cities such as London and Berlin tripled or
    even quadrupled in size.

  • The Byzantium Empire
  • In 395, the empire officially divided into two.
  • Western roman empire was outrun by Germanic
  • The new Rome
  • Constantinople, the new capital or the empire.
  • In 527, Justinian I becomes emperor.
  • High ranking Byzantine nobleman
  • Ruled with absolute power
  • Won Italy and Spain
  • He ruled almost all the territory all Rome had
    ever had
  • Made Justinian's code, set of laws, severed the
    empire for 900 years
  • In 671, Greek fire was invented.
  • In 1054, Christian church divides
  • Eastern orthodox
  • Roman catholic
  • In 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks.

Justinian Code
  • To regulate a complex society, Justinian set up a
    panel of ten experts.
  • The panels task was to create a single, uniform
    code for Justinians New Rome.
  • The result of the panels work was a body of
    civil law known as the Justinian Code.
  • After its completion the code consisted of four
  • 1. The Code contained about 5,000 Roman laws.
  • 2. The Digest quoted and summarized the opinions
    of Romes greatest legal thinkers about the laws.
    This work was ran to a total of 50 volumes.
  • 3. The Institutes was a textbook that told law
    students how to use the laws.
  • 4. The Novellae (New Laws) presented legislation
    passed after 534.
  • The Justinian Code decided legal questions that
    regulated whole areas of Byzantine life.

  • Islams Golden Age
  • Islam Civilization -
  • Islam began in the Arabian peninsula in the early
    7th century.
  • It spread from the Middle East to Africa , Spain
    and Sicily. Then to India and SE Asia.
  • Islams Success -
  • The strength of the Arab armies brought Islam
    its power.
  • Arab armies conquered much territory.
  • Abbassid Dynasty -
  • (750 - 1258) The ruling family of the Islamic
  • Responsible for many achievements.
  • The Islamic culture became a mixture of Arab,
    Persian, Egyptian, and European traditions.
  • The Golden Age became an era of stunning
    intellectual and cultural achievements. (art,
    literature, religion etc.)

  • Shiites
  • The 2nd largest branch of the Islamic religion.
  • Shiites account for 10-15 of all Muslims.
  • The central belief for Shiites is of the 12th
  • The 12th Imam is considered to be the only
    legitimate ruler, and the Shiites believe that
    the Muslim state can not be successful without
    this ruler in charge.
  • Khomeini served as the one who brought activism
    back into the Shiite mainstream.
  • During the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the Shiite
    activists tried to press their ideology onto the
  • They believe Islam should live as a tool to
    empower the oppressed.

  • Sunnis
  • In 661, a family called the Umayyad came to
    power, and set up a hereditary system of
    succession in Syria
  • They moved the Muslim capital from Mecca to
    Damascus to make ruling conquered territories
  • They abandoned a life of simplicity to surround
    themselves with wealth
  • The movement of the capital, along with their
    drift from Muslim beliefs, caused a fundamental
    divide in the Muslim community
  • A small group called the Shia openly resisted
    Umayyad rule
  • Those who did not openly resist, but disagreed
    with Umayyad rule were called Sunnis, meaning
    followers of Muhammads example
  • They believed the Umayyad had become too worldly
    and lost their religious faith

  • Caliph
  • Caliph means successor or Deputy
  • A caliph is a supreme political and religious
  • Some famous caliphs are Abu-Bakr the first
    caliph, Umayyads was elected, and Abbasides who
    took control

  • Charlemagne
  • During the 800s, Charlemagne, a Frankish king,
    built an empire (modern-day France, Germany, and
    part of Italy)
  • Cooperation with the Church
  • Charlemagne helped Pope Leo III defeat rebellious
    Roman nobles.
  • In return, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne
    Emperor of the Romans
  • Charlemagne wanted a united Christian Europe and
    helped spread Christianity
  • Government
  • Appointed nobles to rule local areas (He gave
    them land, they help defend the empire)
  • Sent off officials called missi Domenici to check
    on conditions throughout the empire
  • Learning
  • Encouraged learning
  • Set up school to educate government officials and
    established libraries where scholars copied
    ancient texts.
  • End of Charlemagnes Reign
  • Died in 1814- empire fell apart as heirs battled
    for control
  • 843- Charlemagnes grandsons signed Treaty of
    Verdun- divided Charlemagnes empire into 3
    separate kingdoms (one for each grandson).
  • Charlemagnes strong government was a model for
    future medieval rulers

  • Feudalism
  • A system of government in which local lords
    control their own lands but owe military service
    and support to a greater lord.
  • The land was divided into estates.
  • The lesser lords were called vassals.
  • Local lords owned serfs who would work the land
  • The serfs were able to live on the land in

  • Manorialism
  • Self-Sufficiency
  • Manors were the basic economic arrangement during
    the Middle Ages
  • The lord provided serfs with protection, housing,
    and strips of farmland
  • The serfs worked for the lord and maintained the
  • Peasants rarely traveled from their manor
  • Nearly everything they needed was produced
    crops, fuel, cloth, lumber, and leather goods
  • The manor contained a church, mill, blacksmith,
    water, fields, anything that was needed
  • Troubles of Manor Life
  • Serfs had to pay taxes for grain, marriage, and
    10 of their income as a tithe, or church tax
  • Serfs lived in crowded cottages, with dirt floors
    and straw beds
  • The peasants believed that God determined their
    place in society

  • Gothic
  • A style of church architecture that developed in
    medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults,
    stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed
    arches, and tall spires.
  • Developed in the 1100s, replacing the old
    Romanesque style of churches.
  • Gothic cathedrals, unlike the grave and ominous
    Romanesque buildings, stood very tall, as if
    reaching toward heaven.
  • Cathedrals started off in Germany and quickly
    spread throughout medieval Europe.
  • Soon, they were found in Paris, Chartres, Reims,
    Amiens, and Beauvais.
  • Nearly 500 Gothic cathedrals were built between
    1170 and 1270.
  • Other forms of art centered around the Gothic
    style, such as sculpture, woodcarvings, and
    stained-glass windows.

  • Cultural Exchanges The Crusades
  • Crusades
  • During the Middle Ages, Europeans had only one
    significant unifying aspect of life.  The
    Catholic Church permeated every aspect of
  • For about 200 years, Western Europe under the
    sway of the Catholic church attempted to retake
    the Holy Land away from the Muslims.  The largest
    target was the holy city of Jerusalem, however,
    other areas were fought over, such as the city of
  • Although the crusades were considered there were
    some positive effects. Europeans began to gain an
    expanded view of the world. Trade increased
    drastically. Crusaders brought home new fabrics,
    spices, and perfumes.

  • Saladin
  • Respected Muslim Leader
  • Saladin united the Muslim world in the late
  • He was respected by both Christians and Muslims.
  • Saladin went to Jerusalem and the Christians had
    their mind set on stopping him.
  • Taking of Jerusalem
  • There was no Christian victory when they went to
    stop Saladin.
  • Crusaders in Jerusalem surrendered, but Saladin
    would not let his soldiers kill or harm them the
    Crusaders or the people.
  • Richard the Lion-Hearted
  • King of England in 1189.
  • He wanted to take Jerusalem from Saladin.
  • Richard won a lot of victories during the Third
  • Richards forces were unable to capture the city.

  • Impact of the Crusades
  • Increased Trade
  • Before the crusades trade with the Byzantine
    empire sparked interest in goods form the east
  • Crusaders returning from Europe brought home new
    fabrics, spices, and perfume
  • Ships used to carry crusaders now became trade
  • Both Eastern and Western economies benefited from
  • Encouragement of Learning
  • As Europeans were exposed to the Byzantine and
    Muslim culture they began to take interest in
  • They were exposed to advances in math, science,
    literature, art, and geographic knowledge
  • Changes in the Church
  • The Crusades increased the power of the pope for
    a short time
  • Problems between Eastern and Western Churches
    grew after the crusaders attack on
  • Changes in the Feudal System
  • Crusades increased the power of Monarchs
  • Feudalism was weakening
  • Serfs had been to pay for land using food, but
    now Lords demanded payment in the form of money
    to finance the crusades
  • An economy based on money, not land, took over

  • Feudal JapanSamurai
  • Rival lords in Japan surrounded themselves with
    body guards called Samurai.
  • They lived according the demanding code, Bushido.
  • They were expected to show reckless courage,
    reverence for the gods, fairness, and generosity
    toward those who are weaker than themselves.
  • Dying an honorable death was more important than
    living a long life. Kamakura Shogun
  • The shogun had the power of a military dictator
    over Officials, judges, taxes, armies, roads-
    all were under his authority.
  • Although tradition was the Emperor still reigned,
    even though the Shogun had the real power.
  • The emperor became more of a puppet head than a
    political influence.
  • The Kamakura Shoguns were strong enough to turn
    back the two naval invasions by the Mongols.
  • Although this drained the Shoguns treasury and
    loyal samurais werent getting paid.
  • Samurais became attached more closely to their
    local lords and soon local lords were fighting
    each other as fiercely as they fought the

  • Shinto
  • What is Shinto?
  • It was a Japanese religion in which each clan in
    Japan worshipped their own Nature Gods and
  • It was varied because of different customs and
  • Shinto meant way of the Gods
  • It had no rituals or philosophy, but instead
    based on respect for the forces of nature.
  • Worshipers believed in kami or divine spirits in
  • An abnormal tree, rock, waterfall, mountain could
    be home to kami

  • Tokugawa Shogun
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu
  • United Japan in 1600
  • Held landowners (Daimyo) families hostage in the
    capital of Edo to ensure obedience
  • Founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, which continued
    until 1867
  • Society under the Tokugawa Shogun
  • Japan enjoyed over 200 years under the new Shogun
  • Merchant class and rich prospered
  • Rich and poor benefited from a growing Japanese

  • Rise of Mongols
  • Who and where?
  • In the 1200s, a ferocious group of horsemen from
    central Asia fought their way into Russia. These
    nomads were Mongols.
  • They exploded onto the scene under the leadership
    of Genghis Khan, one of the most feared military
    leaders of all time.
  • When Genghis Khan died in 1227 his successors
    continued the conquering that he had begun.
  • Mongols In Russia
  • Under Mongol rule the Russians could follow all
    their usual customs as long as the made no sign
    of rebellion. The Mongols tolerated all the
    religions in their realms, and the Church acted
    as a mediator between the people and the Mongols.
  • The Mongols demanded two things from the
    Russians Extreme Obedience, and massive amounts
    of tribute.
  • Mongol Rule Serves Russian Interests
  • The Mongol rule in some ways helped unite Russia.
    They viewed Russia as their unified Empire. The
    rise of the city of Moscow also began under
    Mongol rule.

  • Genghis Khan
  • In the middle 1200s, a ferocious group of
    horsemen from central Asia slashed their way into
  • These nomads were the Mongols.
  • They had exploded onto the world scene at the
    beginning of the 1200s under Genghis Khan.
  • He was one of the most feared warriors of all
  • When Genghis Khan died in 1227, his successors
    continued the conquering that he had begun.
  • At the fullest extent, the Mongol Empire
    stretched from the Yellow Sea to the Baltic Sea
    and from the Himalayas to northern Russia.
  • After the death of Genghis Khan, the Mongolian
    Empire slowly began to fall apart.

  • Golden Horde
  • During the time of Genghis Khan the Mongols
    invaded Eastern Europe
  • After his time they attacked Russia, Hungary, and
  • His grandson, Batu, led Mongol armies into Russia
    and other lands of Eastern Europe between 1236
    and 1241
  • This group was known as the Golden Horde because
    of the color of there tents
  • They conquered many Russian cities
  • They ruled from a capital on the Volga River for
    240 years
  • The Golden Horde were fierce warriors but
    relatively tolerant rulers

  • Mongol Dynasty
  • Kublai Khan-
  • Khan was another grandson of Genghis Khan,
    completed the job of conquering China. He did so
    by dominating the south, he did not only rule
    China, but also Korea, Tibet, and some of
  • Yuan dynasty-
  • Kublai Khan adopted the Chinese name of the Yuan
    dynasty for his dynasty because he did not want
    the Mongols to become involved with Chinese
  • However, Khan gave his best government jobs to
    Mongol workers and only allowed Mongols to serve
    in the army.
  • But, Chinese officials still governed the

Kublai Khan
Mongol Impact
  • Reached its greatest extent in 1300.
  • Stretched into Russia, Europe, Asia, and China
  • Destruction and Conquest
  • Most of the leaders ruled with tolerance
  • Genghis Khan allowed art and education in his
    conquered countries
  • They ruled Russia for 250 years
  • They cut it off from the rest of Europe

  • Mongol Impact
  • The Mongols were nomadic herders of central Asia.
    By 1300, they controlled much of Asia and eastern
  • The Mongol influence led to increases in trade
    and cultural spread over Asia and Europe.
  • In Russia, the Mongol idea of Absolutist
    government stuck after the Mongols left, but it
    also isolated Russia from Western Europe, leaving
    it behind in arts and science.
  • Mongol rule promoted trade between Europe and
    Asia. The Mongols guaranteed safe passage along
    the Silk Road, which increased trade greatly.

  • Expansion of Chinese Trade
  • Trade in Chine bloomed in the Yuan dynasty in the
  • The Silk Road helped transport goods to Asia
    Minor, Russia, and other lands. Marco Polo used
    the Silk Road.
  • When the Ming dynasty took over China in 1368,
    economic prosperity came over the land and trade
    and cities expanded.
  • China began overseas expansion and in 1404, Zheng
    He traveled to many different lands and promoted
    Chinese trade and culture.
  • Chinese city, Canton, became a global center of
    trade and traders were sent there from all over
    the world.

  • Bubonic Plague
  • Approximately two thirds of the population in
    China were wiped out by a deadly disease called
    the bubonic plague, that also destroyed
    populations of Muslim towns in Southwest Asia and
    killed about one third of Europes population.
  • It started in the 1300s.
  • The Plague began in Asia.
  • The disease became known as the Black Death.
  • It got its name from the purplish or blackish
    spots that it produced on the skin.
  • The disease was spread by black rats that carried
    fleas from one area to another. These fleas were
    infested with a bacillus called Yersinia pestis,
    and because people did not bathe and because of
    unsanitary conditions the bubonic plague spread
    very quickly.
  • Effects of the disease were high fever, chills,
    delirium, and in most cases death.

  • The Effect Of The Bubonic Plague
  • In 1347 approximately one third of Europeans
    population died of the deadly disease known as
    the bubonic plague.
  • The bubonic plague was also known as the black
    death and began in Asia.
  • The black death traveled the trade lines
    infecting Asia, the Muslim world and eventually
  • It got its name by the black spots that produced
    on the persons skin infected.
  • The plague killed almost 25 million Europeans and
    millions in Asia and North Africa.
  • The economic effects of the plague were enormous.
    Town populations fell and so did trade.
  • The church suffered a loss of prestige when its
    prayers and penances failed to stop the plague.
  • The bubonic plague and its aftermath disrupted
    medieval society, hastening changes that were in
    the making.
  • The society of the middle ages was collapsing.

  • The Han dynasty opened a trade route called the
    silk road that eventually linked china with lands
    as far west as Mesopotamia. Silk and other
    Chinese goods moved west, while products such
    as muslin, glass, and new foods came to china.
    The silk road stretched for 4000 miles. Few
    merchants traveled the entire distance. Most of
    the good that were traded were done at markets
    along the way

  • Italian City-States
  • 1300s Northern Italian cities were great places
    of industry and trade.
  • City-states that became rich and powerful
    Venice, Genoa, and Florence.
  • Venice took control of the spice trade with Asia
    due to its location.
  • Venice took up a partnership with Egypt and both
    areas became prosperous.
  • Trade from Italy went as far as Great Britain and
    the Baltic Sea.

  • Renaissance
  • 1300-1600
  • A period of great change throughout Europe that
    involved advances in everything from art to
  • The concept of humanism was developed during the
    early stages of the renaissance, this way of
    thinking focused on the present and individual
  • The artistic mentality of the renaissance was
    much like the art and sculpture of the golden
    ages of Rome and Greece. Architecture also
    returned to Greco-roman fashions.
  • Artisans were supported by rich nobles, princes
    and popes.
  • Some of the most famous artisans include
    Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci and Albrecht
  • Writing also changed during the renaissance,
    common language began to be used. Machiavelli,
    Shakespeare, and Dante were three of the most
    famous for their literary works.
  • The invention of the printing press made books
    more available to common people, literacy
  • The protestant reformation led by Martin Luther
    and John Calvin sought to make changes in the
    church, the result was two churches, Catholic and

  • Humanism
  • During the Renaissance, Europeans developed a new
    way of thinking called humanism.
  • A Renaissance intellectual movement at the heart
    of the Renaissance that focused on worldly
    subjects that the ancient Greeks and Romans had
    studied, rather that religious ones. They hoped
    to use ancient learning to increase knowledge
    about their own times.
  • Humanists influenced artists an architects to
    carry on classical traditions.
  • Philosophers and writers had wondered about life
    after death during the middle ages. Renaissance
    humanists, on the other hand, were more curious
    about life in the present.

  • Machiavelli
  • What he did?
  • Machiavelli was the a writer , One of his master
    pieces was The Prince in 1513.
  • Machiavelli said that most rules can gain power
    and keep it in spit of there enemies.
  • In the book The Prince, Machiavelli was not
    concerned with what was morally right, but with
    what was politically effective.
  • He was also a states man and a political

(No Transcript)
  • 95 Thesis
  • WHO Written by Martin Luther
  • WHAT Martin Luther posted a list of 95 Theses,
    or formal statements, that he wrote on the door
    of a castle church in Wittenberg,
  • WHERE Posted them on the door of the castle
    church in Wittenberg, became known all over
  • WHEN October 31, 1517
  • WHY he did those because he did not agree with
    how a friar named John Tetzel was raising money
    to rebuild a church in Rome. Tetzel was selling
    indulgences to people who have sinned, which
    would release them from performing the penalty.

  • Mansa Musa
  • He was an African American ruler
  • He may have been the grandnephew of Malis first
    leader, Sandiata
  • Musa was a skilled military leader and exorcised
    royal control
  • He was a devout Muslim, he went on a hajj to
    Mecca from 1324 to 1325
  • Controlled and ruled a vast empire in Africa

  • Songhai
  • The Songhai was a West African empire that
    conquered Mali and controlled trade from the
    1400s to 1591.
  • They built up an army and extended their
    territory to the Niger River near Gao, and gained
    control of all the important trade routes.
  • Until the late 1500s, civil war broke out.
    Invaders from the north defeated the forces of
    Songhai, and caused downfall of the kingdom.

The First Global Age
  • Suleimans Golden Age
  • First Came to the throne of the Ottoman Empire in
    1520 and ruled for 46 years
  • Known by his own people as Suleiman the Lawgiver
    and in the west as Suleiman the Magnificent
  • The Ottoman conquered all of the eastern
    Mediterranean under Suleimans rule.
  • Suleiman became the most powerful monarch on
  • He required a good form of government for his
    large empire and so he simplified the system of
    taxation and reduced the government bureaucracy
    in order to keep the peace and his people happy.
  • In 1571 this golden age of Suleiman ended when
    his sons fleet was destroyed by Spain and Italy

    Suleimans Mosque

  • Mercantilism
  • Definition
  • An economic policy under which nations sought to
    increase their wealth and power by obtaining
    large amounts of gold and silver and by selling
    more goods than they bought.
  • Ideas of mercantilism
  • The nations ultimate goal under mercantilism was
    to become self-sufficient, not dependent on other
    countries for goods.
  • Two ways to increase the nations wealth,
    according to mercantilism, was to gain as much
    gold and silver as they could and establish a
    favorable balance of trade, in which it sold more
    goods than they bought.

  • Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire began in the 11th century
  • There were Ottoman Turks, and after the 13th
    century there was a new group of people called
    the Ottoman Empire lead by Osman I.
  • When people were captured by the Ottoman Empire
    they were used for military purposes instead of
    killing them.
  • During the 16th century, the Ottomans gained
    control of Egypt and Syria, then also Iraq,
    Hungry, and Albania, which led to the beginning
    of a naval force in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Ottoman Empire turned into a great power of

  • Reconquista
  • This was a long effort to drive the Muslims out
    of Spain.
  • The Muslims held a little kingdom.
  • Spain attacked it and they started the crusades.
  • The Spanish drove the Muslims out of Spain

  • Middle Passage
  • The Middle Passage was the voyage that brought
    captured Africans to be used as slaves to the
    west Indies
  • Later they were brought to North and South
  • It was named the Middle Passage because it was in
    the middle leg of the transatlantic trade

  • Divine Right
  • The power for the monarch to rule comes from God
    and that the king is an agent of God.
  • Absolute monarchs used this power to justify
    their rule.
  • Divine Right allowed the monarch to control all
    aspects of the government because the people
    believed that monarch was Gods agent on earth.

  • Louis XIV(14)
  • He was the 14th king of France.
  • He was an absolute Monarch during the 17th
  • Louis XIV was the only one to totally free
    himself from the Parliament, which controlled the
  • Louis XIV coined the phrase L'état, c'est moi,
    which means I am the state.
  • Louis XIV centralized the government and made all
    the laws for France
  • Louis XIV put France into debt by spending money
    building the Palace of Versailles and fighting

  • Peter the Great
  • Peter the Great was an absolute monarch in
    Russia, he was the czar from 1682 to 1725.
  • He worked to centralize royal power
  • Reduced the power of nobility and gained control
    of the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • Peter wanted to modernize Russia. He traveled
    from Western European cities to study western
    technology and brought back the ideas to
    westernize Russia.
  • Simplified Russian Alphabet, developed mining and
  • Peter sometimes resorted to force and terror to
    achieve his goals.
  • Created the largest army in Europe in the late
    1600s and used it to expand Russian territory.

  • Westernization under Peter
  • Peter wanted a modernized Russia, went to Western
    Europe to study technology, brought back ideas,
    simplified the Russian alphabet, developed mining
    and textiles, capital at St. Petersburg served as
    symbol of new Russia, used force and terror to
    gain goal

  • Petition of Rights(1628)
  • King Charles I had to call Parliament to ask for
  • They refused to give him any until he signed the
    Petition of Rights
  • In the Petition the king agreed to
  • Not imprison subjects without due cause
  • Not levy taxes without Parliaments consent
  • Not house soldiers in private homes
  • Not impose martial law in peacetime
  • The king agreed to the Petition but after he
    ignored it
  • The petition was important because it set forth
    the idea that the law was higher even then the

  • English Civil War
  • Charles I offended the puritans by upholding
    church rituals and a former prayer book
  • Charles tried to force the Presbyterian Scots to
    accept a version of the Anglican prayer book
  • Lead to a conflict between the supporters of
    parliament and the supporters of English monarchy
    from 1642-1649

  • Oliver Cromwell
  • Was a skilled military leader who overthrew the
    British king.
  • King Charles I was put in prison and put on
    trial. He was sentenced to death by way of
    beheading. He was the first king to be executed
    by his own subjects.
  • After the kings execution Parliaments House of
    commons abolished the monarchy, the House of
    Lords, and the official Church of England.
    England became a Commonwealth.
  • Charles II the heir to the throne revolted
    against Cromwell and attacked England from
    Ireland and Scotland. Cromwell sent troops into
    Ireland and Scotland to crush the uprising.
  • Cromwell took the title of Lord Protector. At
    the time of his death in 1658 many people were
    tired of Puritan rule.

  • The Restoration
  • During the year of 1660, Parliament asked Charles
    II to become the King of England.
  • When Parliament asked Charles II to become King
    it marked the restoration of the Stuart monarchy.
  • In 1685 James II, who was Charles brother
    inherited the throne in England.
  • James II who was currently King in England, was
    unpopular to the people because of his
    Catholicism and his Absolutist policies.

  • The Glorious Revolution (1688)
  • Parliament feared Catholic dominance
  • Mary and William (Dutch) take English throne.
  • Both protestant.
  • When they arrived, James II fled.
  • Bloodless overthrow of power.

  • English Bill of Rights
  • The bill was drafted in 1689.
  • England had become a constitutional monarchy
    meaning there were laws that limited the rulers
  • The English Bill of Rights listed the things the
    leader could not do.
  • There were four laws- 2 dealt with not
    interfering with Parliament speech or laws and 2
    dealt with not taxing the citizens without the
    consent of Parliament and letting the citizens

  • Magna Carta
  • Great Charter
  • A document guaranteeing basic political rights in
    England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King
    John in A.D. 1215.
  • This charter was a form of revolt, rebelling
    against the unfair leadership of King John.
  • John failed as a military leader. He was horrible
    to his subjects and tried to squeeze money out of
    them. To finance his wars, John raised taxes to
    an all-time high.
  • The nobles wanted to guarantee certain basic
    political rights and limit the power of the king.
  • Guaranteed rights included no taxation without
    representation, a jury trial, and the protection
    of the law.

  • Limited monarchy (1660)
  • Started after the restoration
  • Passing of habeas corpus act
  • Parliament passed the bill of rights in 1689
  • No monarch could rule without parliaments consent
  • Also called a constitutional monarchy
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