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The Presidency


The Presidency Chief Diplomat Directs Foreign Policy. Signs Treaties, sets up trade agreements, decides what foreign aide we will distribute, etc – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Presidency

The Presidency
Terms to Know..
  • Acting President-is a person who temporarily
    fills the role of an organization's president,
    either when the real president is unavailable
    (for example ill or on vacation) or when the post
    is vacant (for example because of death, injury,
    resignation, or dismissal).
  • Amnesty-A group pardon to individuals for an
    offense against the government.

  • Appointment/removal power- The power of the
    President to give or take a persons job.
  • Bureaucrat-A person who works for one of the
    departments or agencies of the federal government.
  • Cabinet-An advisory group that helps the
    President make decisions and set governmental
  • Civil Service System-The principal and practice
    of government employment on the basis of open,
    competitive examinations and merit.

  • Deregulation-To reduce the powers of regulatory
  • Electoral College-Group of electors that chooses
    the President and Vice-President.
  • Executive Agreement-an agreement, usually
    pertaining to administrative matters and less
    formal than an international treaty, made between
    chiefs of state without senatorial approval.
  • Executive Order-A rule issued by the President
    that has the force of law.
  • Executive Privilege-The presidents right to
    refuse to testify before, or provide information
    to, Congress or, a court.
  • Government corporation- A business the Federal
    Government runs.
  • Hatch Act-regulating expenditures, contributions,
    and procedures in political campaigns.

  • Impoundment- The Presidents refusal to spend
    money Congress has voted to fund a program.
  • Inauguration- Ceremony where the President is
    officially sworn in.
  • Item Veto- The power to reject a particular
    section or item in a piece of legislation without
    vetoing the entire law.
  • Pardon- Release from legal punishment.
  • Popular Vote- the vote for a U.S. presidential
    candidate made by the qualified voters, as
    opposed to that made by the electoral college.
  • Presidential Succession- The order in which
    officials fill the office of President in case of
    a vacancy.

  • Recognition- Any individual, family, or group can
    receive Presidential recognition for annual and
    lifelong commitment to volunteer service at home
    or abroad. The following are example.
  • Presidents Volunteer Service Award
  • Presidential Volunteer Service Award
  • Bronze Level
  • Presidential Volunteer Service Award
  • Silver Level.
  • Presidential Volunteer Service Award
  • Gold Level.
  • Presidents Call to Service Award
  • Presidential Volunteer Service Award
  • All Ages4,000 hours or more of volunteer service

  • Reprieve- The postponement of a legal punishment.
  • Spoils System- The practice of victorious
    politicians rewarding their followers with
    government jobs.
  • State of the Union Message- an annual message to
    Congress in which the President reports on the
    state of the nation and outlines a legislative
    program required by the Constitution (Article
    II, Section 3).

  • War Powers-was a United States Congress joint
    resolution providing that the President can send
    U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by
    authorization of Congress or if the United States
    is already under attack or serious threat. The
    War Powers Resolution requires the president to
    notify Congress within 48 hours of committing
    armed forces to military action and forbids armed
    forces from remaining for more than 60 days, with
    a further 30 day withdrawal period, without an
    authorization of the use of military force or a
    declaration of war. The resolution was passed by
    two-thirds of Congress, overriding a presidential
  • Treaty- A formal agreement between the
    governments of two or more nations.

The Presidential Amendments
  • Amendment 12- The Electoral College consists of
    the popularly elected representatives (electors)
    who formally elect the President and Vice
    President of the United States. Since 1964, there
    have been 538 electors in each presidential
    election.1 Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of
    the Constitution specifies how many electors each
    state is entitled to have and that each state's
    legislature decides how its electors are to be
    chosen U.S. territories are not represented in
    the Electoral College. The Electoral College is
    an example of an indirect election.
  • Rather than directly voting for the President and
    Vice President, United States citizens vote for
    electors. Electors are technically free to vote
    for anyone eligible to be President, but in
    practice pledge to vote for specific
    candidates2 and voters cast ballots for favored
    presidential and vice presidential candidates by
    voting for correspondingly pledged electors.3
  • The Twelfth Amendment provides for each elector
    to cast one vote for President and one vote for
    Vice President. It also specifies how a President
    and Vice President are elected.

Lame Duck- an elected official who is approaching
the end of his or her tenure, and especially an
official whose successor has already been
  • Amendment 20- Section 1. The terms of the
    President and Vice President shall end at noon on
    the 20th day of January, and the terms of
    Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d
    day of January, of the years in which such terms
    would have ended if this article had not been
    ratified and the terms of their successors shall
    then begin. Section 2. The Congress shall
    assemble at least once in every year, and such
    meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of
    January, unless they shall by law appoint a
    different day.
  • Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the
    beginning of the term of the President, the
    President elect shall have died, the Vice
    President elect shall become President. If a
    President shall not have been chosen before the
    time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if
    the President elect shall have failed to qualify,
    then the Vice President elect shall act as
    President until a President shall have qualified
    and the Congress may by law provide for the case
    wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice
    President elect shall have qualified, declaring
    who shall then act as President, or the manner in
    which one who is to act shall be selected, and
    such person shall act accordingly until a
    President or Vice President shall have qualified.
  • Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for
    the case of the death of any of the persons from
    whom the House of Representatives may choose a
    President whenever the right of choice shall have
    devolved upon them, and for the case of the death
    of any of the persons from whom the Senate may
    choose a Vice President whenever the right of
    choice shall have devolved upon them.
  • Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on
    the 15th day of October following the
    ratification of this article.
  • Section 6. This article shall be inoperative
    unless it shall have been ratified as an
    amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures
    of three-fourths of the several States within
    seven years from the date of its submission.

  • Amendment 22- Limits the president to two terms.
  • Amendment 23- Representation of Washington, D.C.
    in the Electoral College. Given 3 Electors.

  • Amendment 25- In case of the removal of the
    President from office or of his death or
    resignation, the Vice President shall become
  • Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the
    Vice President, the President shall nominate a
    Vice President who shall take office upon
    confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of
  • Whenever the President transmits to the
    President pro tempore of the Senate and the
    Speaker of the House of Representatives his
    written declaration that he is unable to
    discharge the powers and duties of his office,
    and until he transmits to them a written
    declaration to the contrary, such powers and
    duties shall be discharged by the Vice President
    as Acting President.
  • Whenever the Vice President and a majority of
    either the principal officers of the executive
    departments or of such other body as Congress may
    by law provide, transmit to the President pro
    tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the
    House of Representatives their written
    declaration that the President is unable to
    discharge the powers and duties of his office,
    the Vice President shall immediately assume the
    powers and duties of the office as Acting

  • Thereafter, when the President transmits to the
    President pro tempore of the Senate and the
    Speaker of the House of Representatives his
    written declaration that no inability exists, he
    shall resume the powers and duties of his office
    unless the Vice President and a majority of
    either the principal officers of the executive
    department or of such other body as Congress may
    by law provide, transmit within four days to the
    President pro tempore of the Senate and the
    Speaker of the House of Representatives their
    written declaration that the President is unable
    to discharge the powers and duties of his office.
    Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue,
    assembling within forty eight hours for that
    purpose if not in session. If the Congress,
    within twenty one days after receipt of the
    latter written declaration, or, if Congress is
    not in session, within twenty one days after
    Congress is required to assemble, determines by
    two thirds vote of both Houses that the President
    is unable to discharge the powers and duties of
    his office, the Vice President shall continue to
    discharge the same as Acting President
    otherwise, the President shall resume the powers
    and duties of his office.

Presidential Qualifications
  • -35 years old
  • -4 year term (2 terms max.)
  • -14 years in U.S. Natural Citizen
  • -President is replaced by the Vice-President

  • The President earns 400,000 a year.
  • Along with a 50,000 annual expense account, a
    100,000 non-taxable travel account and 19,000
    for entertainment.

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  • The White House in Washington, D.C. serves as the
    official place of residence for the president he
    is entitled to use its staff and facilities,
    including medical care, recreation, housekeeping,
    and security services. Naval Support Facility
    Thurmont, popularly known as Camp David, is a
    mountain based military camp in Frederick County,
    Maryland used as a country retreat and for high
    alert protection of the president and his guests.
    Blair House, located adjacent to the Old
    Executive Office Building at the White House
    Complex and Lafayette Park, is a complex of four
    connected townhouses exceeding 70,000 square feet
    of floor space which serves as the president's
    official guest house and as a secondary residence
    for the president if needed.

Camp David
Blair House
For ground travel, the president uses the
presidential state car, which is an armored
limousine built on a heavily modified
Cadillac-based chassis
One of two identical Boeing VC-25 aircraft, which
are extensively modified versions of Boeing
747-200B airliners, serve as long distance travel
for the president, and are referred to as Air
Force One while the president is on board. The
president also uses a United States Marine Corps
helicopter, designated Marine One when the
president is aboard.
Air Force One
Marine One
Responsibilities of the Vice President
  • Follows the President if he cannot serve.
  • Salary 230,700 and 10,000 Expense Account.
  • Breaks ties in the Senate.
  • Mostly ceremonial. Attends meetings and helps to
    gather support for the President and his agenda.
  • Some VPs have been more involved than others.

Presidential ElectionsHistory
  • Early on President and V.P ran on separate
    ballotsMost votes President and 2nd most is V.P
  • No popular Vote!
  • Problems that led to change
  • 1796-Adams and Jefferson from different parties.
    Did not like each other!
  • 1800- Jefferson and Burr Tie (same of votes)
    Goes to the House which was controlled by
    Federalist. After Debate Jefferson wins.
  • This leads to the 12th Amendment- Separate
    Ballots for President and V.P.

Electoral College Today
  • Structure 538 votes Candidate needs 270 to win.
  • Vote on The 1st Tuesday after the first Monday in

Problems and Suggested Reforms
  • Winner-take-all system
  • 3rd Party Candidates can mess up the processNo
    real winner
  • Election by the House may not meet with popular
  • We could choose Electors based on Congressional
    DistrictsWhichever candidate wins the most votes
    in each of your states Congressional District
    would win that District, Plus the 2 statewide
    Electoral Votes.

  • State Popular Vote Percentages- A Candidate would
    receive the same of a States Electoral Votes as
    they get in of the states Popular Vote. (60 of
    the Popular Vote get you get 60 of our 18
    Electoral College Votes)
  • Direct Election- President Elected through
    popular voteWould Undermine Federalism!

Presidential Leadership
  • Head of State
  • Chief Executive
  • Chief Legislator
  • Economic Planner
  • Chief Diplomat
  • Commander in Chief
  • Party Leader

Head of State
  • Ceremonial Dutiesmeet with foreign leaders at
    Dinners, Ribbon Cutting, Sports Teams, Those who
    accomplish major goals, etc

Chief Executive
  • Enforces the laws. It is the Presidents job to
    ensure that laws that have been passed get
    carried out. Without him those who did not agree
    with Congress would simply do as they pleased.

Chief Legislator
  • Proposes Laws. While the President does not pass
    laws, he can propose laws to Congress. He has
    goals and he uses this power to help him to
    accomplish his Presidential Agenda.

Economic Planner
  • He writes the Federal Budget. He then presents
    this Budget proposal to the Congress. He can
    also indirectly effect the direction of the
    Economy with this power and the fact that he
    appoints the Federal Reserve Chairman.

Chief Diplomat
  • Directs Foreign Policy. Signs Treaties, sets up
    trade agreements, decides what foreign aide we
    will distribute, etc

Commander in Chief
  • He runs the Armed Forces, CIA, FBI, and other
    government enforcement agencies.

Party Leader
  • Helps to set the path for his Political Party.
    As the President he is the Face of his party.

Presidential Powers
  • These are the actions that the President is
    required to perform by law. Where as duties are
    simply part of the job.

Executive Orders
  • Are Rules that have the force of law behind them.
  • Examples
  • 900 - Executive Order 13518 - Employment of
    Veterans in the Federal Government November 9,
  • 1027 - Executive Order 13527 - Establishing
    Federal Capability for the Timely Provision of
    Medical Countermeasures Following a Biological
    Attack December 30, 2009

  • Stop the spending of .
  • Examples
  • President Thomas Jefferson's first use of the
    power involved refusal to spend 50,000 in funds
    appropriated for the acquisition of gunboats for
    the United States Navy. He said in 1803 that
    "the sum of fifty thousand dollars appropriated
    by Congress for providing gun boats remains
    unexpended. The favorable and peaceable turn of
    affairs on the Mississippi rendered an immediate
    execution of that law unnecessary. In keeping
    with his efforts to reduce the size of the debt,
    he left the funds for the ships unspent for over
    a year.

Reprieve, Pardon, Amnesty
  • Postpone, release, and Group Pardon of those
    convicted of crimes.

Federal Budget
  • Annual Report. Outline of Federal Spending for
    the coming year. Must be approved by Congress.

Foreign Policy
  • Shares this power with Congress!
  • The foreign policy of the United States is the
    policy by which the United States interacts with
    foreign nations. The U.S. is highly influential
    in the world. The global reach of the United
    States is backed by a 14.3 trillion dollar
    economy, approximately a quarter of global GDP,
    and a defense budget of 711 billion, which
    accounts for approximately two-fifths of global
    military spending. The U.S. Secretary of State is
    the foreign minister and is the official charged
    with state-to-state diplomacy, although the
    president has ultimate authority over foreign
  • The officially stated goals of the foreign policy
    of the United States, as mentioned in the Foreign
    Policy Agenda of the U.S. Department of State,
    are "to create a more secure, democratic, and
    prosperous world for the benefit of the American
    people and the international community." In
    addition, the United States House Committee on
    Foreign Affairs states as some of its
    jurisdictional goals "export controls, including
    nonproliferation of nuclear technology and
    nuclear hardware measures to foster commercial
    intercourse with foreign nations and to safeguard
    American business abroad International commodity
    agreements international education and
    protection of American citizens abroad and
    expatriation." U.S. foreign policy has been the
    subject of much debate, praise and criticism both
    domestically and abroad.

Treaties and Executive Agreements
  • Are official agreements between the U.S. and
    foreign countries.
  • The only difference between the them is that a
    Treaty requires the Senate to approve it.

  • Official acknowledgement by the President of an

Commander in Chief to the Military
  • Sits in with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and makes
    important military agreements. The President has
    the final say.

Presidential Support Groups
  • The Executive Office Help the President perform
    his duties. Report directly to him. Started by
    Roosevelt because he felt Government was too big.
  • Office of Management and Budget Largest Office.
    Helps to prepare the Budget.
  • Council of Economic Advisors Know the Economy
    and how it functions.
  • National Security Council Military and Foreign
    Policy Issues.

White House Office
  • History Created to help with the running of the
    Presidential Duties.
  • Role Secretarial Staff that helps with
    organization, keeps appointments, basic
    Secretarial Office Staff.

  • Chief of Staff Head of the Staff. The
    Presidents closest advisor.
  • Press Secretary Deals with the Press.
  • White House Counsel Lawyer for the White House.

The Presidential Cabinethttp//
  • The tradition of the Cabinet dates back to the
    beginnings of the Presidency itself. Established
    in Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution,
    the Cabinet's role is to advise the President on
    any subject he may require relating to the duties
    of each member's respective office.
  • Selection Selected by the President must be
    approved by the Senate.

President Obamas Cabinethttp//www.whitehouse.g
Cabinet Offices
  • The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the
    heads of 15 executive departments the
    Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense,
    Education, Energy, Health and Human Services,
    Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development,
    Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury,
    and Veterans Affairs, as well as the Attorney

Vice President of the United StatesJoseph R.
  • Department of AgricultureSecretary Thomas J.
    Vilsackhttp// Department of
    CommerceSecretary Penny Pritzkerhttp//www.comme
  • Department of LaborSecretary Thomas E.
  • Department of Health and Human ServicesSecretary
    Kathleen Sebeliushttp//  
  • Department of StateSecretary John
  • Department of the TreasurySecretary Jack
  • Department of DefenseSecretary Chuck
  • Department of JusticeAttorney General Eric H.
    Holder, Jr.http//
  • Department of the InteriorSecretary Sally

  • Department of Housing and Urban
    DevelopmentSecretary Shaun L.S.
  • Department of TransportationSecretary Anthony
    Foxxhttp// Department of
    EnergySecretary Ernest Monizhttp//
    v Department of EducationSecretary Arne
    Duncanhttp// Department of Veterans
    AffairsSecretary Eric K. Shinsekihttp//
  • Department of Homeland SecuritySecretary Jeh
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