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Welcome to the HKUST MBA Program!

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Welcome to the HKUST MBA Program! RESIDENTIAL COURSE: MGTO 521 MANAGERIAL PROBLEM SOLVING MGTO 521: Managerial Problem Solving Steve DeKrey Stephen Nason & Katherine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome to the HKUST MBA Program!


1
Welcome to the HKUST MBA Program!
  • RESIDENTIAL COURSE MGTO 521
  • MANAGERIAL PROBLEM SOLVING

2
MGTO 521 Managerial Problem Solving
  • Steve DeKrey
  • Stephen Nason Katherine Xin
  • Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  • sjdekrey_at_ust.hk
  • mnsnason_at_ust.hk
  • mnkxin_at_ust.hk

3
MGTO 521 Managerial Problem Solving
  • Teaching Assistants
  • Anindita Banerjee
  • Ann Fok
  • Cubie Lau
  • Michelle To
  • Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

4
Course Objectives
  • To understand the basic modes of decision making
  • To experience decision making in groups and
    examine the dynamics
  • To practice problem solving skills which includes
    spotting problems, framing them correctly, and
    implementing appropriate solutions
  • To receive feedback on your own style from the
    group

5
Today! Day 1
  • Why this course???
  • Lets get acquainted
  • Desert survival Exercise
  • Decision making/Problem Solving
  • Teams a preliminary look
  • Minicase SIA Tanglin Polymers
  • Learning with Cases (Mauffette-Leenders, Erskine,
    Leenders)

6
Why This Course??? Introductions Expectations
  • Why managerial problem solving??
  • Problem solving, decision making the essence of
    management
  • Is there a difference between decision making
    and problem solving?
  • A key role of LEADERS the art of PROBLEM FINDING

7
- From Smart Thinking for Crazy Times by Ian
Mitroff
  • Where is the true competitive edge that will
    separate successful individuals, organizations,
    societies from the also-rans?

8
Focus on PROCESS,Not SOLUTIONS
  • Spot the right problems
  • Frame them correctly
  • Implement appropriate solutions

9
An Experiential Learning Exercise
  • Participate
  • Observe
  • Reflect, Learn, and have fun

10
Lets Get Acquainted!!
11
The Process
  • Meet with your group members in the designated
    breakout areas
  • Introduce yourselves
  • Learn something about each member
  • Introduce an interesting fact/trait
  • What do you want to accomplish this week?
  • Please take 45 minutes for this process

12
The Presentation
  • Establish a team identity - a name, a symbol
  • Introduce team members in a memorable way
  • What are the team objectives and goals for this
    class?
  • Each team has 5 minutes!!!

13
What Is an Organization?
  • Definition Social entities, goal directed,
    deliberately structured activity systems, linked
    to external environment

14
Organizations as Systems
  • Open systems
  • Organization subsystems
  • boundary spanning
  • production
  • maintenance
  • adaptive
  • management

15
Structural Dimensions of Organizations
  • Formalization
  • Specialization
  • Standardization
  • Hierarchy of authority
  • Complexity
  • Centralization
  • Professionalism
  • Personnel ratios

16
Levels of Analysis
  • Organization
  • Departments
  • Groups and teams
  • Individuals

17
The External Environment
  • Task environment
  • Industry sector
  • Market sector
  • Human resource sector
  • International sector
  • General environment
  • Government and political
  • Economic and financial
  • Technological
  • Socio-demographic

18
Organic versus Mechanistic
  • Low specialization
  • More teamwork
  • More participation
  • Less hierarchy
  • Less formalization
  • More decentralization
  • Horizontal communication
  • High specialization
  • Rigid defined areas
  • More authority
  • More hierarchy
  • More formalized
  • Centralized decision-making
  • Vertical communication

19
Decision Making Processes
20
What Is Decision Making?
  • The process by which members of an organization
    choose a specific course of action to respond to
    both problems and opportunities.

21
Types of Decisions
  • Programmed Decisions
  • decisions made in response to recurring problems
    and opportunities
  • Non-programmed Decisions
  • decisions made in response to novel problems and
    opportunities

22
Decision-Making Process
  • Rational Model of decision making
  • Boundedly Rational Model of Decision Making
    (March and Simon)
  • Intuition

23
Rational Model of Decision Making
  • Based on assumption that decision maker has all
    necessary information and will choose the best
    possible solution.

24
The Rational Model
  • Define the problem
  • Identify criteria
  • Weight the criteria
  • Generate alternatives
  • Rate alternatives on each criterion
  • Compute the optimal decision

25
How managers actually make decisions (March
Simon)
  • People making decisions subject to
  • Incomplete information,
  • Psychological and sociological processes,
  • Limited cognitive abilities
  • Which affect decision making such that decision
    makers
  • make boudedly rational decisions and
  • choose satisfactory, not optimal, solutions.

26
How managers actually make decisions
  • Satisficing Searching for and choosing an
    acceptable response or solution, not necessarily
    the best possible one.
  • Bounded Rationality An ability to reason that
    is constrained by the limitations of the human
    mind itself.

27
Intuitive Model
  • Decisions result from an unconscious process
    based on intuition.
  • Intuition is often based on accumulated
    experiences which allow one to recognize patterns
    so not necessarily illogical
  • Problems with the intuitive model
  • criteria not open to examination
  • often intuition influenced by perceptual biases.

28
When the World Changes . . .
  • Creativity decision-making process that
    produces novel and useful ideas
  • Innovation successful implementation of
    creative ideas

29
Desert Survival Exercise
30
Desert Survival What Did We Learn?
  • Group decision making Slower but better
  • Takes longer! MUCH longer
  • On average, more input, more information, thus
    better decisions
  • But always some who are WORSE off in groups
  • Why does group not hear these people?
  • How can groups improve?

31
Advantages of Group Decision Making
  • Wide range of knowledge and experience
  • Enhanced memory about facts
  • Acceptance is high by participants
  • Understanding by participants is high

32
Disadvantages of Group Decision Making
  • Social pressure may create conformity
  • Groups tend towards riskier decisions
  • Time consuming
  • Premature closure

33
Other Consequences of Group Decision Making
  • Diffusion of Responsibility
  • Group Polarization
  • Potential for Conflict

34
Is it a Group Decision?
  • Type of problem or task
  • Is acceptance essential?
  • Is quality of decision important?
  • Personalities and capabilities
  • Climate (cooperative or competitive)
  • Time available

35
The Nature of High Performing Teams
36
What Are the Properties of Effectively
Functioning Teams?
  • Results are consistent
  • People in effective teams KNOW the answer
  • But this is tacit knowledge
  • We must make it explicit

37
Key Success Factors for Teams
  • A clear elevating goal
  • Results driven structure
  • Competent team members
  • Unified commitment
  • Collaborative climate
  • Standards of excellence
  • External support and recognition
  • Principled leadership

38
A Clear and Elevating Goal
  • What does this mean?
  • What is a goal?
  • Clarity focused and non-political
  • Elevating worth doing and personally challenging

39
A Results Driven Structure
  • What types of results
  • Problem resolution team
  • Creativity team
  • Tactical team
  • What kind of team are you?
  • Team structure
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • Effective communication
  • Methods for monitoring and feedback
  • Emphasis on fact-based judgments

40
Competent Team Members
  • Right people for the task
  • Technical competencies
  • Personal competencies
  • Best matches
  • Problem solving teams intelligent, savvy, people
    sensitive, high integrity
  • Creative teams cerebral, independent, tenacious
  • Tactical teams loyal, committed, action oriented

41
Unified Commitment
  • What does this mean?
  • Spirit
  • Loss of self
  • Unity
  • How to get it?
  • Involvement
  • Balancing
  • Expectations
  • Group task and maintenance behavior only

42
Collaborative Climate
  • Meaning?
  • Teamwork, whole gt sum of parts, working well
    together
  • Four elements
  • Honesty, openness, consistency, respect
  • Total trust through involvement and autonomy

43
Standards of Excellence
  • Standards matter
  • Standards are hard work
  • Standards are easy to ignore
  • No resting on past performance
  • Standards in this class???

44
External Support and Recognition
  • What is this?
  • Why is it important?
  • Why is tangible support needed?

45
Principled Leadership
  • Consistency
  • Courage
  • Standards
  • Communication skills
  • Promotes the other 7 factors
  • Leaders create leaders

46
Learning with Cases
47
Singapore Airlines Tanglin Polymers
  • Discuss in your groups
  • Prepare a 5-minute presentation
  • One key finding the right problem
  • You choose. possible topics follow

48
Singapore Airlines Continuing Service
Improvement?
  • You may wish to consider the following questions
  • How would you answer Paul Denvers letter?
  • What should SIA say or do about the staff at
    Denpasar?
  • What should SIA say or do about the staff at
    Changi?
  • What suggestion would you give SIA in terms of
    continuing customer service improvement?

49
Tanglin Polymers Case
  • You may wish to consider the following questions
  • Is there a problem?
  • If so, what is the problem?
  • Whos problem is it?
  • How would you solve the problem?

50
What Is a Case?
  • A description of an actual situation, commonly
    involving a decision, a challenge, an
    opportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a
    person (or persons) in an organization.
  • Allows you to step figuratively into the position
    of a particular decision maker.
  • Field-based with the visit of an organization and
    collection of data.
  • The product of a carefully thought-out process.

51
Why Do We Do Cases?
  • Examine real life situations
  • Practice our analytical tools
  • Engage in discussion of issues/answers
  • Develop professional attitudes

52
Cases are frustrating!
  • Never enough information
  • But you are typically told dont go beyond
    case, dont use web, dont go to library
  • And what is the answer? NO ONE ANSWER!

53
Inventory of Skills Developed by the Case Method
  • Analytical skills
  • Decision making skills
  • Application skills
  • Oral communication skills
  • Time management skills
  • Interpersonal or social skills
  • Creative skills
  • Written communication skills

54
Analyzing the Case - 7 Steps
  • Defining the issue
  • Analyzing case data with focus on causes and
    effects as well as constraints and opportunities
  • Generating alternatives
  • Selecting decision criteria
  • Analyzing and evaluating alternatives
  • Selecting the preferred alternative
  • Developing an action and implementation plan

55
Deliverables
  • Issue identification
  • Analysis and alternatives
  • Recommendations for action
  • Implementation plans

56
Defining the Issues
  • Produce a clear and comprehensive statement of
    the issue(s) involved in the case.
  • Clearly identify key concern(s), problem(s),
    decision(s), challenge(s) or opportunity(ies).
  • 3 things to be considered
  • Immediate and basic issues
  • Importance
  • Urgency

57
Analyzing Case Data
  • Look at facts, numbers
  • Look at causes and causes of causes
  • Recognize challenges
  • Identify and insert opportunities

58
Generating Alternatives
  • Be creative and think widely
  • Consider constraints and opportunities
  • Be realistic and plausible

59
Selecting Decision Criteria
  • Provide the basis for evaluation or assessment
    measures
  • Common decision criteria
  • Quantitative
  • profit, cost, return on investment, market share,
    capacity, delivery time, risk, cash flow,
    inventory turnover, productivity, staff turnover,
    time to complete, growth rate, quantity
  • Qualitative
  • competitive advantage, customer satisfaction,
    employee morale, corporate image, ease of
    implementation, synergy, ethics, flexibility,
    safety, visual appeal, obsolescence, cultural
    sensitivity, motivation, goodwill

60
Analyzing and Evaluating Alternatives
  • List the key advantages and disadvantages of each
    alternative.
  • Compare and contrast each alternative against the
    selected criteria by Alternative Analysis Matrix.
  • Short vs long term
  • Predicting outcomes
  • Quantitative vs qualitative analysis

61
Make a Decision
  • Dont be timid or weak. Decide
  • Explain your rationale
  • Be ready to argue against alternatives you didn't
    select

62
Developing an Action and Implementation Plan
  • Be specific
  • Focus to produce the advantages and minimize the
    disadvantages
  • Planning the implementation
  • Provide a schedule and milestones for the action
    plan
  • Provide measures or signals for progress

63
SMART Action Plan
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Action-oriented (not statement)
  • Realistic
  • Time-anchored

64
Airline Industry
  • Mistakes in this industry can lead to business
    failure
  • Some of yesterdays leaders are GONE
  • Think strategically and tactically
  • Many models can help analysis, but . . .
  • Problem finding part science, part art
  • Possible leading questions

65
Cathay Pacific Service Straight From the Heart
  • What were the most important forces promoting
    change for Cathay ISD during Buecklings term?
  • What were the most important forces promoting
    change for Cathay ISD during Wrights term?
  • What forces impeded these changes?
  • What worked well? Less well? Why?
  • What is the one most important thing Wright
    should do in the next 24 months?
  • (Note Do not answer all of these. In fact, you
    may ask an entirely different question)

66
Cathay Pacific A View from the Top
  • What internal problems has Cathay faced in the
    past?
  • Might these old internal problems cause problems
    in the future?
  • What external problems has Cathay faced in the
    past?
  • What external problems might impact Cathays
    future?
  • As Phillip Chen asks, what should Cathay be ten
    years in the future?

(Note Do not answer all of these. In fact, you
may ask an entirely different question)
67
Format for Presentations
  • Each team has 10 minutes including QA
  • Be concise, be precise
  • Not every group member needs to talk
  • Use PowerPoint

68
Technical Issues
  • If you save your presentation on USB memory,
    check tonight to insure it works on our computer!
  • Tonight, have one team member learn all the
    presentation technology (visualizer, computer,
    microphones, etc.)

69
Will this be a lot of work?
  • No pain, no gain!
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