Dutch Colonial Archaeology: New Netherland - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Dutch Colonial Archaeology: New Netherland


... painted by de Hooch. Above, Interior with Young ... by 1660 delft tiles decorative leaded glass ... other trade items & few military items ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dutch Colonial Archaeology: New Netherland

Dutch Colonial Archaeology New Netherland
Background to Dutch Colonial Expansion
In the 1580s, the Dutch successfully revolt
against Spanish Hapsburg rule The English helped
the Dutch to defend against the Spanish
maintain control of Zeeland (islands that
commanded greatest river entrance into
Europe) Antwerp (Belgium) was the fulcrum of
northwest European finance commerce, but was
recaptured by the Spanish Thousands of Flemish
Walloons, esp. Protestants, fled into northern
Netherlands Amsterdam soon doubled in population
became the centre for new trade In the
1590s, Dutch vessels began trading to Africa,
Brazil, the Orient
Dutch Ships
  • Flit, fluyt (flyboat)
  • Main ship for trade usually heavily armed,
    interchangeable, mass-produced parts. Large
    carrying capacity, small crew, low overhead
  • Jacht
  • smaller ship for coastal
  • trade gaff-rigged

Dutch Merchants
Became the middlemen of Europe, taking French
Iberian wine, brandy, oil, salt to the Baltic
and exchanging these for timber products, iron,
steel Dutch imported large quantities of wheat
rye from Poland Prussia for their own use
re-exported much to Southern Europe At home,
Dutch developed specialized market
agriculture In 1602, the Dutch East India
Company (VOC) formed with state assistance By
1609 competing actively along main eastern
routes Engaged Henry Hudson to search for a
westward passage through America
Dutch become primary Atlantic sea-power
Superimpose their own patterns on earlier ones
with an emphasis on commerce. Become the
principal agents of contact diffusions around
the Atlantic circuit Responsible for the spread
of Africans - Ship Africans to Virginia sell
to English in 1619 - Slaves become critical -
help build New Amsterdam Introduce more
efficient plantation marketing systems
influences from Dutch Brazil critical to
emergence of English Barbados French Martinique
as wealthy sugar colonies. These islands became
critical in the transfer of English French
planter societies to mainland
Henry Hudsons Voyages
Found two great rivers behind broad sandy shields
of coastal New Jersey Long Island, whose
estuaries had never been explored. The northern
river reached 150 miles inland clearly a
strategic portal Beginning of Dutch claim to
interest in all land between New England and
Virginia In 1621, the Dutch West India Company
(WIC) was formed specifically to gain dominance
over Atlantic trade
The Dutch West India Company
Primary focus on capture of Spanish treasure
fleets domination of sugar slave
trade Companys directors familiar with the
fervor in England for planting Therefore gave
attention to colonization projects as
well Hudson Valley Guiana were chief areas of
interest Scheme to use English Separatists
(Pilgrims) for colony on the Hudson This was
rejected by the Dutch government used Protest
Flemish Walloons who had petitioned to the
London Company of Virginia to go to America
hence religious refugees formed main body of 1st
Dutch colonies in North America Dutch purchased
Manhattan Island from local Indians and laid out
New Amsterdam on its southern tip
The Dutch arrive to set up a trade post, a scene
repeated across the globe in the 17th century
Major West India Company settlements in the
Atlantic (1640s1650s)
Major VOC settlements in the East (1660s)
New Netherland
  • Area of modern-day New York State, New Jersey,
    and parts
  • of Delaware and Connecticut, settled by Dutch in
  • Immediately successful because the Dutch were
    aware of
  • the previous experiences of other European
    colonization efforts
  • British took control in 1664, restored to Dutch
    control in 1673
  • permanently ceded to Britain 1674
  • Developed conditions for colonies This was a
    detailed set
  • of instructions about what equipment and supplies
  • bring emphasized the need for self-sufficiency

New Netherland
New Netherland Archaeological Sites
  • Two types of sites
  • 1. Fortified urban mercantile centres
  • - Manhattan Island
  • - Fort Orange (Albany)
  • 2. Large landed agricultural estates
  • New Amsterdam/New York administrative trading
  • multi-ethnic community (Dutch, Walloons,
    Huguenots, Scandinavians, Germans, English,
    Scots, Jews, Africans, and Native Americans)
  • Most trade direct with Amsterdam
  • Retention of Dutch foodways culture well into
    British regime

New Amsterdam in 1664
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Albany Timeline 1624 Fort Orange
established 1664 Dutch surrender New Netherland
to the Duke of York 1673 Dutch regain control
of New York for a year 1676 English build a new
fort overlooking Albany 1686 Albany receives
its municipal charter 1697 Census shows city
population at 714 17131744 Three decades of
peace on the New York frontier 1714 city
population counted at 1128 17541763 The French
and Indian War 1765 Albany buys the fort and
other military buildings from the British 1766
Sons of Liberty orchestrate opposition to the
Stamp Act 1766 Docks and seawall built by
Albany Corporation 1776 Tories arrested for
drinking to the King's health 1790 Albany
population reaches 3,498 1793 Albany's first
great fire destroys several blocks in the core
city 1799 New York State passes law that will
abolish slavery by 1827 1800 Census fixes city
population at 5,349
Fort Orange/Renselaerswyck
  • Renselaerswyck agricultural colony that grew
    up around Fort Orange on both
  • sides of Hudson founded by Killiaen van
    Rensselaer, Amsterdam diamond
  • merchant, under license from WIC
  • Fort Orange established 1624 (excavated by
    Paul Huey)
  • remnants found in salvage projects in Albany
    revealed south moat of fort faced
  • with cobblestones included several houses.
  • Van Doesburgh house
  • wood-floored cellar walls collapsed by 1660
  • delft tiles
  • decorative leaded glass windows
  • brick chimney, plaster, pantile roof
  • glasswareextremely delicate fragile
  • few coins found, but some wampum
  • trade goods - glass beads, clay pipes, jews
  • few tools or other trade items few military

Present-day location of Fort Orange
Fort Nassau
Fort Orange (Albany)
Beverwyck (settlement that grew up north of Fort
Archaeological Projects in Albany
Dean Street Excavations
Dean Street Excavations
General area of excavations
Dean Street Excavations
Views of well-preserved remains of early wharves
Dean Street Excavations finds indicating global
Conch shell from Caribbean
Cowrie shell bearing inscription In remembrance
of me As time may pass and years may fly and
every hope decay and die ---joyful dream lived
beset ---ever can forget. The cowrie is probably
from Africa.
Portion of Gunters quadrant
Dean Street Excavations
Remains of well
Fragments of Delft tiles
Late 18th/ early 19th-century tea bowls saucer
from Albany sites
Quackenbush Square Excavations
Quackenbush Square Excavations Area 1 Remains
of 17th-century Dutch house
Quackenbush Square Excavations of Brick Yard
Quackenbush Square Excavations Area 5
18th-Century Distillery
Quackenbush Square Excavations Area 5
Interpreting the 18th-Century Still House
Quackenbush Square Excavations Area 5
Interpreting the 18th-Century Still House
Dutch material Culture and Foodways
  • Diet very similar to that of Netherlands
  • bread most important
  • Usually made from wheat or rye flour - cheaper
  • bought from bakers
  • Cheese, butter, fish, eggs, shellfish,
    vegetables, grain gruels
  • cheese fish principal sources of protein
  • Meat in smoked or salted forms for all but
    poorest people
  • Beverages
  • beer, milk, whey, buttermilk, and wine
  • Some wild species, especially in early years
  • Adopted North American maize to some extent, as
    replacement for grain-based gruels
  • Most common pottery vessel types
  • Grapen
  • Skillets (steelpan or bakpan)
  • Colanders
  • plates (higher percentage than on English sites)

Dutch material Culture and Foodways
  • The types of artifacts for food preparation found
    include a variety of coarse earthenwares
  • redwares sometimes buff-paste wares
  • These reflect simple dishes simple cooking
  • Pancakes
  • Waffles
  • Pies
  • Porridges
  • Grilling
  • Roasting
  • Frying
  • Stewing

Common forms of Dutch Utilitarian Ceramics
(a) Chamber Pot (kamerpot), Amsterdam, the
Netherlands. Dutch lead-glazed whiteware,
yellow, c. 1640-1650. (b) Serving dish
(dienstschotel), Delft, the Netherlands. Dutch
lead-glazed redware, polychrome, 17th
century. (c) Pipkin (grape or kookkan), Delft,
the Netherlands. Dutch lead-glazed earthenware,
17th century. (d) Skillet (steelpan), DeRyp, the
Netherlands. Dutch lead-glazed earthenware, c.
1650. (e) Bowl (oorkom), Dutch lead-glazed
redware, polychrome, c. 1630. (f) Colander
(vergiet), Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Dutch
lead-glazed whiteware, dark green, c. 1630.
Three views of a Dutch slip-decorated porringer,
dated 1614
Dutch tin-glazed earthenware (Delft)
Lobed fruit dish
Drug pot
Woman in Window (note fluted delft fruit dish)
top right, Still Life with Wan Li porcelain
bottom right, still life with Roemer (note fancy
prunts on glasss stem)
Two mid-17th-century scenes of well-off Dutch
households, painted by de Hooch. Above, Interior
with Young Couple right, The Visit.
Jan Steen, Merry Family, 1660s
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Maes, Lacemaker, 1665
Maes, Girl Peeling Apples, 1655
Man in Armor (in the style of Rembrandt)
Bisschop, Young Girl in a Tavern
The Smoker
Tavern scene
Jan Steen, The Dissolute Household, 1665
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