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APHG Unit 1 Review

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Title: APHG Unit 1 Review


1
APHG Unit 1 Review
  • The Nature and Perspectives of Geography

2
Historical Foundations of Geography
  • What is geography?
  • A description of the Earths surface and the
    people and processes that shape its landscapes
  • It is a science and an art
  • Grandfather of all social sciences
  • Geography is the stage upon which history is
    set-Dr. Jeff
  • Geography is where its at-Chuck Norris

3
The Greeks
  • The Greeks were the first people to study
    Geography as a science
  • Classical Greek literature like the Odyssey are
    filled with Geographic accounts
  • Eratosthenes the Father of Geography
  • First used the term geography
  • Determined Earths circumference using the angle
    of the sun and two points on Earth
  • 99.5 accurate

4
The Age of Exploration
  • Marco Polos travels in the 14th century inspired
    Europeans to explore the world
  • Cartography the art of creating maps

5
The Modern Period
  • In 1888, the National Geographic Society was
    formed
  • Around that time, different schools of geography
    came about
  • Environmental Determinism cultures are a direct
    result of where they exist
  • Warmer climates cause people to be lazy
  • Europeans were more motivated, intelligent, and
    advanced because of the temperate climate
  • Prejudiced and embarrassing theory

6
Possibilism
  • Humans are not a product of their environment,
    but can modify the environment to meet their
    needs
  • Terraced farming
  • Air conditioning

7
Geography Today
  • If you want to make money in geography, go into
    the field of Geographical Technology
  • GPS uses latitudinal and longitudinal
    coordinates to determine an exact location
  • Uses satellite technology
  • GIS uses geographic information and layers it
    into a new map showing geographic data
  • Google Earth

8
Maps
  • A map is a representation of the Earths surface
  • Scale the relationship of the size of the map to
    the amount of area it represents on the planet
  • The smaller the scale, the less detail is on the
    map
  • Large scale maps show more detail
  • A world map has the smallest scale

9
Distortion
  • Distortion occurs when a three-dimensional object
    (Earth), is put on a two-dimensional map
  • The larger the scale, the less distortion
  • City maps have little distortion
  • The farther one goes from the Equator, the
    greater the distortion

10
Equal-Area Projection
Keeps the size of the or amount of area intact,
but distorts the shape of the continents
11
Conformal Map
Distorts area, but keeps shapes intact
12
Mercator Map
Useful for determining distance, but it
exaggerates the land around the polar regions.
All lines of latitude and longitude meet at right
angles
13
Cylindrical Map
Shows true direction Mercator Map is best example
14
Planar Projection
Shows true direction and examines Earth from one
point
15
Azimuthal Map
Planar projection that shows the Earth from the
poles
16
Conic Projection
Cone-like map that tries to maintain distance,
but loses directional qualities
17
Oval Projection
Combination of cylindrical and conic projections
most commonly used small scale map by
Geographers Robinson Projection is oval
projection also my favorite
18
Thematic Map
Maps created for a specific purpose, or to
represent a particular theme
19
Choropleth Map
Put data in spatial format by assigning colors or
patterns to areas
20
Dot Map
The size of the dot determines the amount
measured the bigger the dot, the greater the
measurement
21
Cartogram
A variable ,like population, is substituted for
land size
22
Flow-Line Map
Map used to determine direction of movement, like
migration
23
Toponym
  • Place names on maps
  • Quebec uses religious toponyms
  • Sometimes the color or the size of the writing
    indicates importance of the place

24
Five Themes of Geography
  • Geographers have divided the field into two
    subjects Physical Geography and Human Geography
  • Physical Geography examines the physical features
    on the Earth like landforms, climate, and
    vegetation
  • Human Geography is the study of human
    characteristics on the landscape
  • What impact have humans made on the Earths
    surface?

25
Place
  • Place is the description of what and how we see
    and experience a certain aspect of the Earths
    surface
  • Place describes what a location is like
  • Physical characteristics include climate,
    landforms, and vegetation
  • Human characteristics include culture, cities,
    and other changes to the environment

26
Region
  • Region links places together using any parameter
    a geographer chooses
  • A region is an area that displays a coherent
    unity in terms of the government, language, or
    possibly the landform or situation
  • Regions can range in size from a single place up
    to a global area
  • Examples Midwest, Bible Belt, Anglo-America,
    Europe

27
Formal Region
  • Formal Regions are those defined by governmental
    or administrative boundaries
  • Because most governments and geographers agree on
    the definitions, they are unlikely to be disputed
  • Physical regions fall under this category
  • Example The Rocky Mountains, The United States,
    Houston

28
Functional Regions
  • Functional regions are those defined by a
    function
  • If the function ceases to exist, the region also
    ceases to exist
  • Usually centered around a point or node
  • The further one moves from the point, the less
    one will feel the influence
  • Distance Decay
  • Examples Newspaper route, school attendance
    zone, radio stations, malls

29
Perceptual/Vernacular Regions
  • Vernacular regions are those loosely defined by
    people's perception or feelings
  • Example The South, Midwest, Middle East

30
Location
  • Location answers the question, where?
  • Absolute location uses latitude and longitude or
    a street address to determine exact location
  • Relative location gives location in reference to
    another location
  • Described by landmarks, time, direction or
    distance from one place to another

31
Site and Situation
  • Site refers to the internal, physical
    characteristics of a place that are unlikely to
    change
  • Situation is defined as the location of a place
    relative to its surroundings and other places
  • Factors included in an area's situation include
    the accessibility of the location, the extent of
    a place's connections with another, and how close
    an area may be to raw materials if they are not
    located specifically on the site

32
Latitude and Longitude
  • Latitude lines are parallel lines that run
    east-west on the surface of the Earth
  • They are measured in degrees North or South of
    the Equator
  • When giving coordinates, latitude is used first
  • Longitude lines are parallel lines that run
    north-south on the surface of the Earth
  • They are measured in degrees East or West of the
    Prime Meridian
  • The Prime Meridian runs through Greenwich, England

33
Human-Environmental Interaction
  • Human-Environmental Interaction describes how
    people modify or alter the environment to meet
    their needs
  • Humans usually do not live in the five toos too
    hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, or two hilly
  • Examples terraced farming, housing, roads,
    cities, air conditioning, dams

34
Movement
  • Movement, or spatial interaction, looks at how
    people, goods, and ideas move across the Earths
    surface
  • Migration people moving
  • Trade goods moving
  • Ideas diffusion or communication

35
Diffusion
  • Diffusion is the movement of any characteristic
  • Diffusion relates to the movement theme of
    Geography
  • A hearth is where the characteristic began

36
Relocation Diffusion
  • Relocation Diffusion is the physical spread of
    cultures, ideas, and diseases through people
  • Usually occurs with migration
  • Examples Bubonic Plague, colonization of North
    America, religion and language in South America
  • Migration diffusion a particular type of
    relocation diffusion associated with the movement
    of people

37
Expansion Diffusion
  • Expansion Diffusion is the spread of a
    characteristic from a central node or hearth
    through various means
  • Hierarchical Diffusion the idea that a
    phenomenon spreads by the social elite, and then
    filters down through the masses
  • Example Fashion, AIDS
  • Reverse Hierarchical Diffusion when a phenomenon
    spreads first through the masses, and works up to
    the social elite
  • Example Nascar, Walmart, Rap Music

38
Contagious Diffusion
  • Contagious Diffusion is a type of expansion
    diffusion usually associated with a disease
  • The phenomenon spreads without regard to race,
    social status, or family status
  • Examples the plague, or the Internet
  • AIDS is not contagious diffusion

39
Stimulus Diffusion
  • Stimulus Diffusion is a type of expansion
    diffusion where part of an idea spreads and
    creates an innovative product
  • Example technology, McDonalds in India

40
Distribution
  • Everything on the Earths surface has a physical
    location and is organized in space
  • This is called distribution
  • The three types of distribution are density,
    concentration, and pattern

41
Density
  • Density is how often an object occurs within a
    given area or space
  • Population Density looks at how many people
    occupy a given amount of space
  • Physiological Density refers to the number of
    people divided by the arable (farmable) land
  • Arithmetic Density calculates the density using
    all land in a given area

42
Concentration
  • Concentration refers to the proximity of a
    particular phenomenon over the area in which it
    is spread
  • To rank concentration, a person must count the
    same number of objects in different areas
  • Objects are considered clustered or agglomerated
    if they are close together
  • Objects are considered dispersed or scattered if
    they are spread out

43
Pattern
  • Pattern relates to how objects are organized in
    their space
  • Patterns are described using geometric shapes
  • Hexagon is the best shape
  • Linear pattern the objects are along a single
    line
  • Example gas stations along a highway
  • Centralized the objects are clustered together
  • Example Ethnic neighborhoods, flower district
  • Random Distribution lack of pattern on the
    landscape
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