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1
Info Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
2
  • Format Schedule for the
  • AP Human Geography Exam
  • Consists of 2 sections
  • Section I 60 minutes 75 M-C ?s
  • Counts 50 of total AP exam grade
  • 48 seconds each
  • BREAK.15 min. or so.
  • Section II 75 minutes 3 Free Response items
  • Counts 50 of final grade

3
  • 3 Free Response Items
  • -You have to do all 3 for full credit
  • -You have 75 total minutes to do these
  • -PREWRITE (!!!!) with each
  • -fancy form does NOT countcontent is most
    important
  • -Do NOT just list
  • -Do what it saysIF it says define, do that
  • -If it says give an EX., do that
  • Glance ahead at all 3 ?s
  • WHICH 1 you know most about?
  • Start with that one, leaving 2 pages for any
    you are skipping

4
  • You have about 25 min. to answer each free
    response question.
  • Take 5 min. to plan outline your answer.
  • A formal essay is NOT required
  • But it is NOT enough to just list facts.
  • Illustrate your answers w/ GOOD geographic
    examples whenever possible
  • Be sure that you number each of your answers,
    including individual parts like 1a) 1b) 1c), in
    the answer booklet as the questions are numbered
    on the next slide ? ?

5
  • Sample question
  • 1. The modern state system is engaged in a
    struggle between the forces of supranationalism
    devolution.
  • A) Define both terms give a geographic example
    for each.
  • B) With reference to the political economic
    geography of Europe, briefly discuss three
    changes resulting from supranationalism.
  • C) With reference to the political economic
    geography of Europe, briefly discuss 3 changes
    resulting from devolution.
  • BUTwrite in paragraphs

6
  • Multiple Choice
  • You can have 7 skips without penalty
  • That is, if you totally dont know some, leave up
    to seven blank it wont hurt you. Choose the 7
    you are least sure about.
  • If you can narrow it to 2 or 3 of the choices,
    answer it!
  • 1 pt. for each correct.lose .25 (1/4) for
    each wrong.
  • Blanks nothing
  • NOTE Guy who wrote the Barrons APHG Study
    Guide never taught APHGHis Free Response stuff
    is totally off baseso do not follow those
    instructions!!
  • His Multiple Choice ?s are OK

7
  • Chapters Topics of ?s
  • Ch. 1 Geog. Nature perspectives 5-10
  • Ch. 2 3 Pop. Patterns/Migration 13-17
  • Ch/ 4-7 Cultural Patterns (cultural
    geog.) 13-17
  • Ch. 8 Polit. Geog. 13-17
  • Ch. 10 14 Agric. rural land use 13-17
  • Ch. 9, 11, 14 Indus. Econ Devel. 13-17
  • Ch. 12-13 Cities/urban land (services) 13-17

8
How many do I have to get right.? The answer
from an APHG guru
  • That's really hard to say - especially since
    another factor would be whether students skip the
    other questions or answer them incorrectly.
    Skipped questions have no penalty, but they lose
    1/4 of the value of a right answer for each
    incorrect answer. So a student who answers 50
    right and skips the other 25 will do much better
    that the students who answers all the questions
    and gets 50 right. Be sure to remind them to
    SKIP a question if they aren't sure or can't
    eliminate at least 1 or 2 answers.
  • I just tell my kids to try to do better than the
    "average" kid taking the test - since over half
    will pass, if they are "average" or "above
    average" then they will get a 3, 4, or 5.
  • It is POSSIBLE to get a 4 by answering every
    multiple choice question correctly and not
    getting any points on the free response.
    (However getting all 75 questions is highly
    unlikely!)

9
  • To summarize
  • If you TOTALLY do NOT know anything about it,
    SKIP IT.
  • TRY to avoid skipping more than 7
  • BUTIf there are more than 7 you just DO NOT
    know, then skip more
  • PRE-WRITE.BUT.for no more than 5 min. for each
    question
  • Writing TOO MUCH is MUCH better than NOT
    including something that explains what you mean
  • Clarify.explain.discussDO what it tells you to
    do!

10
  • NOTES ON MAPS
  • --economic maps --physical maps --climate
    maps
  • --cartogram
  • --legend --political maps --population
    maps
  • 1) gives info about how to read the maps to get
    info from the map
  • 2) show landforms of an area..the shape of the
    Earths surface
  • 4) show places divided up by people, such as
    states (aka countries), cities, counties, etc.
    usually show rivers, major lakes, oceans, etc.,
    also
  • 5) show climatic zones/areas within countries,
    continents, etc.
  • 6) show natural resources in areas and/or ways
    that people make a living legends may show
    mines, factories, power plants, etc. NOTE the
    economy of a country is the way the money is
    earned, used, spent, controlled, issued, etc.
  • 7) shows were more people livethat is they show
    how (heavily, thickly) or how sparsely (thinly)
    populated a place is
  • 8) thematic map that shows political areas in
    relation to each other regarding some quality or
    quantity. Examples?

11
  • dispersed cartography agricultural
  • physiological clustered (or a___?___)
  • concentration
    arithmetic density
  • 1) density which considers the of farmers per
    unit of farmland...land being farmed.
  • 2) total of something within an area used to
    compare
  • the distribution of population in different
    countries.
  • Ex. In the United Kingdom has 241 people per
    sq. km.
  • 3) the science or mapmaking in order to store
    reference material and/or communicate geographic
    info
  • 4) the extent of feature's spread over space
    used to describe changes in distribution
  • 5) if objects in an area are close together they
    are said to be
  • 6) a feature that is relatively far apart from
    others

12
  • ID
  • NIMBY
  • B.O.D.
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Particulates
  • Biomass
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Most of electricity for businesses comes from
    what fuel source? For homes?

13
  • Not in My Backyard!
  • BOD biochemical oxygen demand decomposing
    organic waste in wateruses up oxygen not
    enough for normal animals plants can cause
    algae to grow too much
  • Hydrocarbons cause photochemical smog (dirty
    fog) --comes from fuels paint solvents
    (removers)
  • Particulates solids in the air from soot and
  • Biomass -plant material, wood, animal wastes
  • -LCD vs. MDC w/ biomass? Methane
  • Fossil Fuels coal, petroleum (oil), natural gas
  • -Finite supply is unevenly distributed
  • Non-renewable energy (can u make more?)
  • Most of electricity for businesses comes from
    what fuel source? Coal
  • For homes? Natural gas

14
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15
Map Projection
  • interrupted projection map depicts continents
    as accurately as possible by leaving blank space
    in less important areas of the map like oceans.
  • Below Mercator A cylindrical map
  • Inset is more of a conical map ...area of focus
    (Greenland) accurate, but as it goes lower, loses
    accuracy

16
  • LIGHTNING REVIEW!!!!!!
  • A page Unambiguous (?) identification of a
    place on the earths surface may use lat-long
    coordinates?
  • Reference to a location in relation to
    surrounding places?
  • Changes in value systems, attitudes, customs,
    language, and other cultural traits brought about
    by the contact with a dissimilar culture group?
  • Racial segregation in South Africa?
  • The areal (what do you think this means?) extent
    of a persons regularly visited places during a
    day?
  • Activities tendency to concentrate in a location
    to share facilities and services for mutual
    benefit?
  • Industry that includes the operation of farms,
    farm equipment, and farm commodities?

17
  • APHG RAPID REVIEW answers
  • A Page Unambiguous identification of place on
    earths surface may use lat-long coordinates?
    Absolute location
  • Refer. to location in relation to surround.
    places? Relative location
  • Changes in value systems, attitudes, customs,
    language, other cult. traits thru contact w/
    dissimilar culture group? Acculturation
  • Racial segregation in South Africa? Apartheid
  • The areal extent of persons regularly visited
    places during a day? Activity space
  • Activities tendency to concentrate in a location
    to share facilities and services for mutual
    benefit? Agglomeration or clustering
  • Industry that includes the operation of farms,
    farm equipment, and farm commodities?
    Agribusiness

18
  1. B page Another name for the Neolithic
    Revolution? __?__ About how long ago? __? __
  2. The practice of raising harvesting fish other
    water produce?
  3. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore?
  4. The division of a region or country into smaller
    administrative units, usually along ethnic lines?
  5. Industries that provide goods and services to
    areas outside its center?
  6. An effort by realtors to convince whites living
    on the edges of the expanding black housing areas
    to sell their homes, usually at prices lower than
    fair market value then resell the houses to
    blacks at higher than market values?
  7. Banks identified areas within a city that they
    believed presented too high a risk of financial
    loss to receive mortgage loans usually related
    to the race of occupants?
  8. Lines that separate countries?
  9. A place where cargo is transferred from one form
    of transportation to another?

19
  • ANSW. B Page
  • Another name for the Neolithic Revolution? __?__
    About how long ago? __? __ 1st agric.
    Revolution
  • The practice of raising harvesting fish other
    water produce? aquaculture
  • South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore?
    4 dragons or 4 tigersor 4 Asian dragons/tigers
  • Division of a region or country into smaller
    administrative units, usually along ethnic lines?
    Balkanization or Devolution
  • Industries that provide goods and services to
    areas outside its center? Basic industries
  • An effort by realtors to convince whites living
    on the edges of expanding black housing areas to
    sell their homes, usually at prices lower than
    fair market value then resell the houses to
    blacks at higher than market values?
    blockbusting
  • Banks identified areas within a city that they
    believed presented too high a risk of financial
    loss to receive mortgage loans usually related
    to the race of occupants? redlining
  • Lines that separate countries? Borders or
    boundaries
  • A place where cargo is transferred from one form
    of transportation to another? Break of bulk
    point

20
  1. C page A map that has been transformed into a
    type of graph where the administrative units have
    been enlarged or reduced in area to graphically
    reflect their numerical share in the topic
    presented?
  2. Maps which show distribution by area often by
    symbols or colors which fill an entire
    administrative unit?
  3. Forces that tend to disintegrate or push apart?
  4. Forces that tend to bind or pull together?
  5. A state that is principally composed of a city
    and a limited hinterland? __?__ Ex?
  6. A concept that says that an area will specialize
    in the production of items for which it has the
    greatest economic advantage over other areas?
  7. The joining together of large urban centers so
    that their edges create a continuous developed
    area? ___?___ Ex?

21
  1. Page C Map thats been transformed into a type
    of graph where the admin. units have been
    enlarged or reduced in area to graphically
    reflect their numerical share in the topic
    presented? Cartogram
  2. Maps which show distribution by area often by
    symbols or colors which fill an entire
    administrative unit? Choropleth
  3. Forces that tend to disintegrate? Centrifugal
  4. Forces that tend to bind together? Centripetal
  5. A state that is principally composed of a city
    and a limited hinterland? City-state Ex? old
    Athens new Singapore
  6. A concept that states than an area will
    specialize in the production of items for which
    it has the greatest economic advantage over other
    areas? Comparative advantage
  7. The joining together of large urban centers so
    that their edges create a continuous developed
    area? Conurbation or Megalopolis Ex? BosWash,
    ChiPitts, San-San East-west in Japan from Tokyo
    to Kyushu Ruhr region of Germany

22
  1. D Page The spatial structure of the world
    economic system that includes unequal development
    one area w/ the greatest wealth and economic
    power another area/region which lacks
    development? Also known as the Brandt line
  2. A recent shift in population from urban to rural
    areas?
  3. Number of births per 1000 population?
  4. Number of deaths per 1000 population?
  5. of deaths of children less than age 1 per 1000
    births?
  6. Birth rate minus death rate, expressed as a
    percentage?
  7. Survey system used by the French with narrow but
    long sections? Made to give all access to a
    river.
  8. Survey system used by British colonies?

23
  1. D The spatial structure of the world economic
    system that includes unequal development 1 area
    w/ the greatest wealth econ. power another
    area/region which lacks development? Also known
    as the Brandt line Core-periphery
  2. A recent shift in population from urban to rural
    areas? Counterurbanization
  3. Number of births per 1000 population? Crude birth
    rate
  4. Number of deaths per 1000 population? Crude death
    rate
  5. Number of deaths of children less than age 1 per
    1000 births? Infant mortality rate
  6. Birth rate minus death rate, expressed as a ?
    Rate of natural increase
  7. Survey system used by the French? Long lot
  8. Survey system used in British colonies? Metes and
    bounds

24
  • E Page
  • Survey system that includes division of land into
    regular pattern of squares or rectangles?
  • Wherever a culture group has modified its
    environmental setting this is the result?
  • Model that uses graphs of birth death rates to
    illustrate historical trends of population?
  • Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service
    dominated economy?
  • Relationship between the number of active workers
    in a country (age 15-64) those younger older
    than the worker group?
  • Idea that spatial interaction will decline in
    intensity with increasing distance from the
    origin?
  • The measure of the increase in total jobs based
    on the ratio between basic employment and total
    employment?
  • Industries that provide goods and services to
    areas outside its center?
  • In an urban setting, the highest land values are
    found near the city center (or CBD). What is the
    expression of the relationship between land
    values distance from city center?

25
  1. E Survey system that includes division of land
    into regular pattern of squares or rectangles?
    Township and range
  2. Wherever a culture group has modified its
    environmental setting this is the result?
    Cultural landscape
  3. Model that uses graphs of birth and death rates
    to illustrate historical trends of population?
    Demographic transition model
  4. Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service
    dominated economy? Deindustrializtion
    (postindustrial economy)
  5. Relationship between the number of active workers
    in a country (15-64) those younger older than
    the worker group? Dependency ratio
  6. Concept that spatial interaction will decline in
    intensity with increasing distance from the
    origin? Distance decay
  7. The measure of the increase in total jobs based
    on the ratio between basic employment and total
    employment? Multiplier effect
  8. Industries that provide goods and services to
    areas outside its center? Basic Industries
  9. In an urban setting, the highest land values are
    found near the city center (or CBD). What is the
    expression of the relationship between land
    values and distance from city center? Bid-rent
    curve (usually convex sharp decrease just
    inside city center, declines are lower in areas
    farther from the center as the curve flattens)

26
  1. F Page Spread of ideas or innovations from a
    point of origin?
  2. 2 Diffusion Types?
  3. 3 Types of E________ diffusion?
  4. Common agricultural practice in warmer Asian
    regions where two crops are grown on the same
    land within the same year?
  5. of years it take a population to double?
  6. The permanently inhabited portion of the earth?
  7. Urban development section outside of a city
    usually along transportation beltways that is
    now self-sufficient?
  8. A territory within surrounded by a different
    state?
  9. A territory outside of its state or surrounded by
    another state?

27
  1. F Spread of ideas or innovations from a point
    of origin? Diffusion
  2. 2 BasicTypes in ?1? Expansion and Relocation
  3. 3 Types of Expansion diffusion? Contagious,
    stimulus, hierarchical
  4. Common agricultural practice in warmer Asian
    regions where 2 crops are grown on the same land
    w/in the same year? Double cropping
  5. Rate of natural increase divided into 70?
    Doubling time
  6. The permanently inhabited portion of the earth?
    Ecumene
  7. Urban development outside of a city usually
    along transportation beltways that is now
    self-sufficient? Edge city
  8. A territory within and surrounded by a different
    state? Enclave
  9. A territory outside of its state, separate from
    the main land area of the state? Exclave

28
  1. G page 200 nautical miles from a coastal state
    that can be claimed for use of the water and sea
    bottom?
  2. Farming that requires a large expanse of land
    unit per land area of production is low?
  3. A culture group that is usually small in area
    number very slow to change?
  4. Relocated capital city for desire to unify or
    promote growth?
  5. Restoration of run-down dwelling in low-income
    inner city neighborhoods?
  6. Complex integrated computer programs for data
    management display in map form in layers?
  7. Rural or natural land sector around many European
    cities which limits urban growth?

29
  1. G 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that
    can be claimed for use of the water and sea
    bottom? Exclusive Economic zone (EEZ) (may go
    to 350 nm if continental shelf)
  2. Farming that requires a large expanse of land and
    unit per land area of production is low?
    Extensive agriculture
  3. A culture group that is usually small in area and
    number and very slow to change? Folk culture
  4. A manufacturing activity that is free to locate
    where it wants to be? Footloose industry
  5. Relocated capital city for desire to unify or
    promote growth? Forward Capital (or forward
    thrust capital)
  6. Restoration of run-down dwelling in low-income
    inner city neighborhoods? Gentrification
  7. Complex integrated computer programs for data
    management and display in map form? GIS
  8. Rural or natural land sector around many European
    cities which limits urban growth? Greenbelt

30
  1. H Page Total value of goods services produced
    within a country on a yearly basis divided by
    population?
  2. UN ranking of countries based on four measures of
    development? ___?__ And what are these 4
    measures? ___?___
  3. Mechanisms that support business operations
    such as roads, railroads, communication systems,
    water, sewer?
  4. Part of the economy that is not reported to the
    government or taxed, often illegal?
  5. A country without any territory bordering an
    ocean?
  6. Language used for communication especially
    between peoples who speak different languages?
  7. Program to aid economic development without
    destruction of valuable natural resources? ?

31
  1. H Total value of gods and services produced
    within a country on a yearly basis divided by
    population? GDP per capita
  2. UN ranking of countries based on four measures of
    development? Human Development Index
    (econ., politcal, demographic, social, )
  3. Mechanisms that support business operations
    such as roads, railroads, communication systems,
    water, sewer? Infrastructure
  4. Part of the economy that is not reported to the
    government or taxed, often illegal? Informal
    sector (EX drugs/drug trafficking)
  5. A country without any territory bordering an
    ocean? landlocked
  6. Language used for communication especially
    between peoples who speak different languages?
    Lingua franca
  7. Program to aid economic development without
    destruction of valuable natural resources?
    Sustainable development

32
  1. i Page Economic system that promoted
    accumulation of wealth by encouraging exports and
    limiting imports?
  2. A city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and
    adjacent counties that have at least 50 of their
    population in the metro area?
  3. A cohesive grouping of people who share a
    political unit?
  4. Boundary that follows a geological feature, such
    as a river or mountain range?
  5. Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes,
    volcanic eruptions are a few examples?
  6. Economic dependency in former colonies despite
    gaining political independence?
  7. Number of people divided by the land area?
  8. Manufacturing in US owned border factories in
    Mexico?
  9. Semi nomadic herders who take flocks to higher
    elevations in the summer and valleys in winter?
    ?

33
  1. Pg i Economic system that promoted accumulation
    of wealth by encouraging exports and limiting
    imports? Mercantilism
  2. A city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and
    adjacent counties that have at least 50 of their
    pop. in the metro area? Metro. statis. area
  3. A cohesive grouping of people who share a
    political unit? Nation-state
  4. Boundary that follows a geological feature, such
    as a river or mountain range? Natural boundary
  5. Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes,
    volcanic eruptions are a few examples? Natural
    hazards
  6. Econ. depend. in former colonies despite gaining
    polit. independence? Neocolonialism
  7. Number of people divided by the land area?
    Population density
  8. Manufac. in US owned border factories in Mex.?
    Maquiladoras
  9. Semi nomadic herders who take flocks to higher
    elevations in the summer and valleys in winter?
    Transhumance

34
  1. J Page 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and
    Canada?
  2. Particular business functions that are completed
    outside the organization (hired out)?
  3. Large business firms based in developed countries
    that have established factories in other
    countries?
  4. Grazing of sheep and cattle on natural
    grasslands?
  5. Number of people per unit area of arable or
    cultivable land?
  6. Large scale commercial agricultural operations
    typically found in LDCs?
  7. View that humans have choices in the way they
    interact with their physical settings the
    antithesis of environmental determinism?
  8. Largest city in a country that is more than
    double the size of the next largest city?
    Answers ?

35
  • J 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and
    Canada? NAFTA
  • Particular business functions are completed
    outside the organization? Outsourcing
  • Large business firms based in developed countries
    that have established factories in other
    countries? Transnational corp.s (aka
    multinational)
  • Grazing of sheep and cattle on natural
    grasslands? Pastoralism
  • Number of people per unit area of arable or
    cultivable land? Physiological density
  • Large scale commercial agricultural operations
    typically found in LDCs? Plantation
  • View that humans have choices in the way they
    interact with their physical settings the
    antithesis of environmental determinism?
    Possibilism
  • Largest city in a country that is more than
    double the size of the next largest city?
    Primate city

36
  1. Page K In relation to migration, slavery would
    be a ____ factor and/or ____ migration.
  2. In migration, a good climate would be what kind
    of factor?
  3. A physical feature, such as a body of water,
    which hinders migration is an example of ___?___
  4. 124,000 is an example of what kind of scale?
  5. A system for transferring locations from a globe
    to a flat map is
  6. The name given to a portion of Earths surface is
    known as
  7. The International Date Line is measured at
    _?_degrees. Is it latitude or longitude?
  8. Number of movements from Place A to Place C is
    reduced by the existence of Place B which is
    closer to A?
  9. Area of land under foreign control that is
    claimed by another country? EX would be
    CyprusTaiwanKashmir
  10. A type of map where lines connect places with
    equal data values (such as elevation,
    temperature)?
  11. Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of
    territorial waters when two countries are closer
    than 400 nm? ?

37
  1. K In relation to migration, slavery would be
    a _____factor and/or ____ migration.
    Pull.forced
  2. In migration, a good climate would be what kind
    of factor? Pull/voluntary
  3. A physical feature, such as a body of water,
    which hinders migration is an example of ____?
    Intervening obstacle
  4. 124,000 is an example of what kind of scale?
    Fractional (ratio)
  5. A system for transferring locations from a globe
    to a flat map is __? projection
  6. The name given to a portion of Earths surface is
    known as a___? toponym
  7. The International Date Line is measured at 180
    degrees. Is it latitude or longitude? longitude
  8. Number of movements from Place A to Place C is
    reduced by the existence of Place B which is
    closer to A? intervening opportunity
  9. Area of land under foreign control that is
    claimed by another country? Irredentism
  10. A type of map where lines connect places with
    equal data values (such as elevation,
    temperature)? Isoline maps
  11. Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of
    territorial waters when two countries are closer
    than 400 nm? Medial line principle

38
  • Page L What are the other 2 acceptable terms
    for a formal region?
  • Diffusion of AIDS is an EX of which type of
    diffusion?
  • Culture combines what 3 fundamental elements?
  • A cultural groups 3 main values/beliefs?
  • The idea that deals the reduction in time it
    takes for something or someone to reach another
    place?
  • The world's 5 largest concentrations of people
    in order?
  • The number of people per area of arable land?
  • Why did Europe N. America go from Stage 1 to
    Stage 2?
  • Why did Africa, Latin Amer., Asia go from Stg 1
    to Stg 2?
  • The process of legally adding land area to a city
    in the US is ____.
  • The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is
    the ____.
  • The largest type of urbanized area is _____

39
  1. Page L What are the other 2 acceptable terms
    for a formal region? Homogeneous uniform
  2. Diffusion of AIDS is an EX of which type of
    diffusion? relocation
  3. 3 fundamental elements of culture? Values,
    material artifacts, political institutions
  4. A cultural groups 3 main values/beliefs?
    Language, religion, ethnicity
  5. The idea that deals the reduction in time it
    takes for something or someone to reach another
    place? Space/time compression
  6. The world's 5 largest concentrations of people
    in order? E.Asia, S.Asia, W.Europe, SE Asia, NE
    North Amer.
  7. The number of people per area of arable land?
    Physiological density
  8. Why did Eur. N. Amer. go from Stage 1 to Stage
    2? Industrial revolu.
  9. Why Africa, Latin Am., Asia from Stg 1 to Stg
    2? Medical rev.
  10. The process of legally adding land area to a city
    in the US is ____. annexation
  11. The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is
    the ____. Urbanized area
  12. The largest type of urbanized area is _____ .
    megalopolis

40
  1. Page M The circulation area of a newspaper is
    an example of what kind of region?
  2. The currently approximate world annual natural
    increase rate?
  3. 2 areas of the world with the highest TFRs?
  4. Area of the world w/ lowest TFRs?
  5. Why did Malthus predictions not come true?
  6. Neo-Malthusians say what?
  7. The most important pull factor for migrants to
    North America ?
  8. The most important obstacle to emigration from
    Eastern Europe during the past 50 years?
  9. Who are the boat people? (from where to where
    when?)
  10. 3 periods of large increase in UN membership?

41
  1. Page M The circulation area of a newspaper is
    an example of what kind of region? Functional
  2. Currently approximate world annual NIR? 1.4
  3. 2 areas of the world with the highest TFRs?
    Africa the Middle East (W. Asia)
  4. Area of the world w/ lowest TFRs? N-W Europe
  5. Why did Malthus predictions not come true?
    Growth of technology (Indus. Rev.) increased food
    production let to lower pop. in areas of
    increasing pop. (MDCs)
  6. Neo-Malthusians say what? Struggle will be for
    more than just food are enough resources, just
    not distributed evenly
  7. The most important pull factor for migrants to
    North America ? Econ opportunity
  8. The most important obstacle to emigration from
    Eastern Europe during the past 50-60 years?
    Communism (USSR, E. Europe, China, N. Korea)
  9. Who are the boat people? (from where to where
    when?) Vietnam late 70s- early 80s
  10. 3 periods of large increase in UN membership?
    Late 1940s (after WWII) 60s-70s (Africa/Asia
    out of colonialism) 90s (fall of communism)

42
  • Page N
  • Political reasons for migrating falls under which
    type of push factor?
  • A man and his family migrate to the USA in 1910.
    Hes most likely from which country? China,
    Mexico, Poland, Sweden
  • Most migrants to the USA during the 1960s 1970s
    came from where?
  • Most migrants to the USA since the 1980s have
    come from where ?
  • Main reason migration to the USA decline during
    the 1920s?
  • What are 2 terms for someone who is paid to help
    undocumented Mexicans immigrate?
  • The largest interregional migration in the USA of
    African-Americans was the ____ in ___ it moved
    ____ to ____
  • In a ____ government, power is located centrally,
    decisions come from the central govt.
  • In a ____ government, power is more diffused
    among regions and/or ethnicities
  • 5 Permanent members of the UN Security Council?

43
  • Page N
  • Political reasons for migrating falls under
    cultural push factors
  • A man and his family migrate to the USA in 1910.
    He is most likely from which of these 4? Poland
  • Most migrants to the USA during the 1960s 1970s
    came from where? Asia (India, China, Vietnam)
  • Most migrants to the United States since the
    1980s have come from where ? Latin America,
    especially Mexico
  • Main reason migration to the USA decline during
    the 1920s? Quota laws of 1921 1924 limiting
    ethnicity of migrants
  • What are 2 terms for someone who is paid to help
    undocumented Mexicans immigrate? Pollero, coyote
  • The largest interregional migration in the USA of
    African-Americans was the ____ in ___ it moved
    ____ to ____ Great
    Migration1920s-30s south to north
  • In a ____ government, power is located centrally,
    decisions come from the central govt. unitary
  • In a __government, power is more diffused among
    regions and/or ethnicities federal
  • 5 Permanent members of the UN Security Council?
  • USA, Russia, China, France, UK

44
  • Page O
  • 1. In 19th most of 20th century most
    prominent (most common) type of intraregional
    migration worldwide?
  • 2. World region that is the hearth for 3 of major
    world religions?
  • 3. In 1st half of the 20th century which below
    helped make it easier (facilitated) the
    transportation of beef to global markets?
  • canning refrigerated ships airplanes
    hi-speed railways
  • 4. Name 2 countries which have a majority
    population of Shiite Muslims.
  • 5. Name at least 3 countries which are majority
    Eastern Orthodoxy.
  • 6. Which industry below will locate closer to
    raw materials?
  • soft-drink bottler brewers nickel
    smelting
  • baking auto mfg.

45
  • Page O
  • 1. In 19th most of 20th century most
    prominent (most
  • common) type of intraregional migration
    worldwide?
  • Rural to urban
  • 2. World region that is the hearth for 3 of major
    world religions?
  • SW Asia or Mid-East
  • 3. In 1st half of the 20th century which below
    helped make it easier (facilitated) the
    transportation of beef to global markets?
  • canning refrigerated ships airplanes
    hi-speed railways
  • 4. Name 2 countries which have a majority
    population of Shiite Muslims. Iran Iraq
  • 5. Name at least 3 countries which are majority
    Eastern Orthodoxy. Greece, Russ., Ukraine,
    Georgia,
  • 6. Which industry below will locate closer to
    raw materials?
  • soft-drink bottler brewers nickel
    smelting
  • baking auto mfg.

46
  • Page P Contagious Diffusion
    Cultural Ecology Culture Density
    Diffusion Distance Decay 3 main
    cultural values
  • 1. Rapid, widespread diffusion of a
    characteristic throughout the population
    process that causes expansion diffusion or the
    spread of a feature from one place to another in
    a snowballing process (gets bigger as it rolls
    along).
  • 2. The geographic study of human-environment
    relationships relationship between culture
    environment Important to geographers in
    constructing regions
  • 3. The body of customary beliefs. material
    traits, and social forms that together constitute
    the distinct tradition of a group of ppl, from
    the Latin word cultus 3 main parts
    language, religion, ethnicity
  • 4. The frequency with which something occurs in
    space feature being measured could be people,
    houses, cars, volcanoes, or etcetera. (anything)
    measured in sq. km., sq. mi., hectares, acres,
    or other unit of area.
  • 5. The process by which a characteristic spreads
    across space from one place to another over time
    (b/c of communication technology, new ideas in
    one place diffuse quickly to others)
  • 6. Ppl in more than one region may improve
    modify an idea at the same time but in different
    ways
  • 7. Phenomenon in which contact diminished w/
    increasing distance eventually disappears.

47
  • Page P (Rough...need to edit!!!)(
  • 1. Rapid, widespread diffusion of a
    characteristic throughout the population
    process that causes expansion diffusion or the
    spread of a feature from one place to another in
    a snowballing process (gets bigger as it rolls
    along). Contagious Diffusion
  • 2. The geographic study of human-environment
    relationships relationship between culture
    environment Important to geographers in
    constructing regions Cultural Ecology
  • 3. The body of customary beliefs. material
    traits, and social forms that together constitute
    the distinct tradition of a group of ppl, from
    the Latin word cultus Culture
  • 4. main parts language, religion, ethnicity
    3 main cultural values 4. The frequency with
    which something occurs in space feature being
    measured could be people, houses, cars,
    volcanoes, or etcetera. (anything) measured in
    sq. km., sq. mi., hectares, acres, or other unit
    of area. Density
  • 5. The process by which a characteristic spreads
    across space from one place to another over time
    (b/c of communication technology, new ideas in
    one place diffuse quickly to others) Diffusion
  • Ppl in more than one region may improve
    modify an idea at the same time but in different
    ways
  • 6. Phenomenon in which contact diminished w/
    increasing distance eventually disappears.
    Distance Decay

48
Shatterbelt
  • Shatter belt - "a region caught between stronger
    colliding external cultural-political forces,
    under persistent stress, often fragmented by
    aggressive rivals."Area hit often with outside
    conflicts and stressesIt has also played the
    role of a cold war buffer zone.EX Southeast
    Asia borders the "giants" of India and China.
    One country of the realm, Myanmar, borders both.
    To the east, the island State of Indonesia
    controls the western half of the island of New
    Guinea, yet the whole island is included in the
    pacific realm.Another EX Eastern Europe
    often invaded, cultural differences

49
  • Terms NOT in our book.
  • 1. two-pronged, from 2 fork to cause to
    divide into 2 branches or parts, to divide into
    2 branches or parts you can ____ rivers, states,
    regions, govts. bifurcate
  • 2. Spread of birth control diffusion of
    fertility control
  • 3. Boundary that follows a geological feature,
    such as a river or mountain range? Natural
    boundary
  • 4. Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes,
    volcanic eruptions are a few examples? Natural
    hazards
  • 5. Area of land under foreign control that is
    claimed by another country? Irredentism
  • 6. 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that
    can be claimed for use of the water and sea
    bottom? Exclusive Economic zone (EEZ) (may go
    to 350 nm if continental shelf)
  • 7. Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division
    of territorial waters when two countries are
    closer than 400 nm? medial line principle
  • 8. Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service
    dominated economy? Deindustrializtion
    (postindustrial economy
  • 9. The measure of the increase in total jobs
    based on the ratio between basic employment and
    total employment? Multiplier effect
  • 10. Streets roads in urban areas that
    wanderare NOT grid patterns, like older
    pre-colonial cities dentritic

50
  • 1. In an urban setting, the highest land values
    are found near the city center (or CBD). What is
    the expression of the relationship between land
    values and distance from city center? Bid-rent
    curve (usually convex sharp cost decrease just
    inside city center, declines are lower in areas
    farther from the center as the curve flattens)
  • 2. A concept that states than an area will
    specialize in the production of items for which
    it has the greatest economic advantage over other
    areas? Comparative advantage
  • 3. Another name for the Neolithic Revolution?
    __?__ About how long ago? __? __ 1st agric.
    Revolution
  • 4. The practice of raising harvesting fish
    other water produce? aquaculture
  • 5. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore?
    4 dragons or 4 tigersor 4 Asian dragons/tigers
  • 6. Division of a region or country into smaller
    administrative units, usually along ethnic lines?
    Devolution ...or Balkanization

51
  • ID each persons/event contribution
  • Rostow Hoyt
  • Christaller Burgess
  • Ravenstein Hecateus
  • Von Thunen Mackinder Spykman
  • Malthus
  • Zelinsky Harris Ullman
  • Carter/Begin/Sadat
  • Samuel Slater
  • Karl Marx F. Engels
  • Dalai Lama
  • Siddhartha
  • Joseph Smith
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson
  • Jakob Ammam
  • Aristotle

52
  • Rostow (model) 5 things needed for inter.
    trade
  • Christaller Central place theory
  • Ravenstein (11 laws of migration who migrates
    why)
  • Von Thunen (model) agric. distance to city
    (transpor./land cost)
  • Malthus food arithme. people
    geomet/exponential
  • Zelinsky (Demog.trans/migra2s migrate 1s stay
    2s to 3 4)
  • Nicholas Appert canning 1801
  • Carter/Begin/Sadat Camp David Accords (Sinai to
    Egy.)
  • S. Slater brought textiles to US (late about
    1800) in New Engl.
  • Karl Marx F. Engels developed communist theory
  • Dalai Lama Tibetan religious leader (former
    state also
  • Siddhartha Indian prince who became The
    Buddhathru middle way
  • Joseph Smith Founder of Mormonism
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson US court case separation
    of races
  • Jakob Ammam Moravian leader, led grp to US
    Amish
  • Aristotle wrld. round 3 pieces of
    evidence
  • Hecateus Gk. 1st geography bk
  • Hoyt (ch. 13) developed sector model lo/hi
    class areas
  • Burgess developed concentric model for urban
    areas

53
  • These models show WHAT?
  • Which is which
  • model?

54
  • What does this model show? What point is it
    trying to make?

55
  • Added terms
  • Special Economic Zone (SEZs) Open Cities
    Open Coastal Zones areas that encourage
    international investment trade despite
    political differences BEST EX ChinaShanghai
  • EEZ (exclusive econ. Zone) UNCLOS
  • Entrepot City that is primarily just a port
    area w/o econ. Activity of its own Singapore
    WAS this way about 40 yrs. agobut has changed to
    industry, etc., as an Asian Tiger
  • Shatter belt area(s) caught between 2 more
    powerful groups who oppose each other.
  • Can be cultural (like linguistic) or
    political (democratic vs. communistic)
  • -- "a region caught between stronger colliding
    external cultural-political forces, under
    persistent stress, often fragmented by
    aggressive rivals.
  • EX E. Europe played the role of a cold war
    buffer zone.
  • Also SE Asia borders the "giants" of India
    China.
  • One country in that area, Myanmar, borders both.
  • To the east, the island State of Indonesia
    controls the western half of the island of New
    Guinea, yet the whole island is included in the
    pacific realm

56
Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N. Spykman)
Theory of Geopolitics
  • 1904, Halford Mackinder published a theory RE
    political strength in Eurasiaanalyzed the
    strengths weaknesses of the regions
  • Concluded the Russian Core areas east of the
    core had potential to become a world power.
  • 1919 revised his theory to include E. Europe
    the theory became known as Mackinder's Heartland
    Theory.
  • Basically stated - Who rules East Europe
    commands the heartland. - Who rules heartland
    commands the World Island (Eurasia Africa) -
    Who rules the World Island commands the World.
  • 1942, Nicholas Spykman countered Mackinder's
    Heartland Theory. Spykman stated that Eurasia's
    Rimland, the coastal areas or buffer zone, is the
    key to controlling the World Island, not the
    heartland.
  • Spykman's book, "America's Strategy in World
    Politics" was published during World War II dealt
    w/ political military strength of the USA at
    that time.
  • Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its
    economic strength potential, but the book dealt
    w/ primarily military intervention, control
    conquest of the Old World.

57
  • enclave exclave (see next slide)
  • 1) enclave an area surrounded by an area that
    does not rule it.
  • EXs Vatican City Lesotho Gambia
    (actually a penne-enclave b/c it has a small
    outlet to the sea)
  • 2) exclaves parts of a national territory
    separated from the main body of the country
  • EXs Alaska Kaliningrad (part of Russia
    but on Baltic Sea) former E. Pakistan,
    separated from W. Pakistan

58
Enclaves Exclaves
59
Region outlines Tell about eachCountries ?
Where Ethnicities? Neighbors? Religions?
Languages?
60
Shapes of states? Name each?Geomorphology
61
Peninsulas? Bodies of water? Islands? States?
Regions? Religions? Ethnicities
62
EuropeanRivers
63
Regions Ethnicities? Religions?
64
Region? ID countries? Religions?
65
  • Region?
  • ID countries? Religions?

66
  • Region? ID countries? Religions?

67
  • Region? ID countries? Religions?

68
  • ID the following (who, what, when, where?)
  • NATO 16. SEZs
  • UN 17. EEZ
  • Warsaw Pact 18. Benelux
  • CMSAs
  • OPEC
  • EU
  • COMECON
  • BRP
  • CDR
  • NIR
  • TFR
  • IMR
  • CBR
  • GDP/GNP
  • CBD

69
Religions Which relates to what religion,
branch, or denomination?
  • Ramadan
  • Eight-fold Path
  • Caste system 4 Noble Truths
  • 5 Pillars
  • Main in Greece Russia
  • Gurus Imam Patriarch
  • Deities Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu
  • Krishna (hero) Makah (Mecca)
  • White cows are sacred (2)
  • Hajj Swastika
  • Lotus is a symbol (2)
  • Mandela Kabbah
  • Bible Torah Vedas
    Quran (Koran)

70
NAME that symbol!
71
  • Symbols of
  • 14 religions
  • Clockwise
  • from N. Pole
  • Baha'i
  • Buddhism
  • Christianity
  • Confucianism
  • Hinduism
  • Islam
  • Jainism
  • Judaism
  • Shinto
  • Sikhism
  • Taoism
  • Wicca
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Druidism

72
Religious SymbolsCan you name these now?
73
ID religion
74
  • Some good discussion ?s
  • Explain demographic transition model.
  • Which of the sections of the demographic
    transition model countries are most likely to
    migrate WHY?
  • Explain the differences between the major aspects
    of folk culture popular culture
  • In order of less specific to most specific,
    organize each of these terms in regards to
    languagesand give Englishs category for each
  • a) branch b) family c) group d) subgroup

75
  • Explain in detail why Sub-Saharan African
    countries have so many problems with development.
  • Discuss the evolution of the modern concept of
    the state.
  • 3. A) Women development What is the GDI and
    how does it affect the development level of a
    state?
  • B) What are some of the negative aspects of
    globalization on women in LDCs?
  • C) What are some of the positive aspects in
    LDCs?

76
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77
  • Colonial Powers in Africa
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