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Title: The Canadian Immigration System: Policy and Patterns


1
The Canadian Immigration SystemPolicy and
Patterns
2
Outline of PresentationThe Canadian Immigration
System
  • History of Canadas Immigration Policy Forms
    and Periods
  • Immigration in Canada Today A General Picture
  • Immigration levels
  • Regions of origin
  • Types of immigrants
  • Where immigrants settle
  • Policy Challenge Immigrants skills and
    credentials are not utilized The Foreign
    Credentials Gap

3
MAJOR HISTORICAL TRENDS
  • The Shift in the Economic Base From an
    Agricultural to a Post-Industrial Foundation
    Corresponds to the Demographic and Cognitive
    Shift From a White-Settler Colony to a
    Post-Racial Society.
  • Historically, at the Collective Level, the Form
    of Immigration Intake has Shifted From a Closed
    Policy to Open Policy to Restricted Policy
    Characterized by Designer Immigration.
  • Historically, at the Individual Level, the
    Criteria for Admission has Shifted From
    Absorptive Capacity To Adaptive Capacity.
  • Historically, at the Mode of Production Level,
    the More Complex Developments in the Economic
    Infrastructure (Mode of Production) have
    Corresponded to the More Complex Social
    Differentiations in Society.

4
History of Immigration PolicyThe Three Forms
  • The Forms of Immigration
  • From a White-Settler Colony to a Post-Racial
    Society
  • From an Agricultural to a Post-industrial
    Society
  • Closed Policy" was inclined toward formalizing
    a practice that existed since Confederation of
    recruiting only designated newcomers from only
    designated countries. This closed policy resulted
    in targeted or selective immigration practices
    which guaranteed the bulk of newcomers were, and
    would remain, of preferred European stock.
  • Open Policy" Canada abandoned its
    White-Settler Colony mentality, country of
    origin was no longer a criterion in immigration
    selecting, and admission requirements were to be
    based on individual personal characteristics
    mapped by a point system, supporting the rise
    of a Post-Racial Society mentality.
  • Restrictive Policy- began in 1978 and is
    associated with specific yearly immigration
    target levels, coupled with a closer scrutiny of
    the immigrant's potential labor market impact,
    characterized by the rise of Designer
    immigration.

5
History of Canadas Immigration Policy The
Eight Periods
  • When I speak of quality, I have in mind
    something that is quite different from what is in
    the mind of the average writer or speaker upon
    the question of immigration. I think of a
    stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat, born on
    the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for
    generations, with a stout wife and half-a-dozen
    children, is good quality.
  • Sir Clifford Sifton, 1922

6
Period One 1867 1913
  • Immigration part of a general set of national
    policies (1868-1892 Department of Agriculture
    1892-1917 Department of Interior)
  • Main goals
  • . securing farmers, farm workers and female
    domestics
  • . populate, farm and settle the Canadian West
  • Search for farmers was concentrated in Britain,
    the U.S. and
  • Northwestern Europe
  • The highest levels ever 330,000 in 1911 and
    400,000 in 1913.
  • Demand for labour high, source countries begin to
    include Eastern and Central Europe and give
    away land to White-settlers.
  • Head tax on Chinese immigrants in West doubled,
    to 100
  • . tax increased again to 500, then immigration
    outlawed in 1923
  • . the Chinese were the only group for which
    there was a complete structure of special
    legislation and regulations limiting there
    opportunity to come, to be united with their
    families if already here, and to proceed
    immediately to citizenship when eligible.

7
"The Last, Best West"

8
Chinese Head Tax Certificate
9
Period Two 1919 1929Industrialization and
Urbanization
  • 1919 Immigration Act revised (reflecting growth
    of class-based cleavage/social stratification)
  • . government may limit the numbers of
    immigrants
  • . formalized immigration guidelines based on
    ethnicity, race, cultural and ideological
    traits.
  • . word nationality added to race to define
    the origin of immigrants.
  • First official division of source countries into
    preferred and non- preferred groups
  • . preferred countries included Britain, the US,
    the Irish Free State, Newfoundland, Australia
    and New Zealand
  • . applicants from northern and western Europe
    were treated similarly those from eastern,
    southern and central Europe faced stricter
    regulations.
  • Formal acknowledgement of short-term absorptive
    capacity

10
Period Three 1930s and 1940s déjà vu Capitalism
  • 1931 Canadian unemployment rate over 11
  • . Financial déjà vu Capitalism and the
    ideological distain for market regulation
    system crisis comparable to today.
  • . Effectively ended six decades of active
    immigrant recruitment
  • . Door closed to most newcomers except those
    (of European descent) from Britain and the
    US.
  • Family reunification remained a priority
    immediate family members admitted into the
    country (still in transition from and
    agricultural to and industrial based economy).

11
Period Four 1946 1962The Transition to an
Advanced Industrial Society
  • Two main events large influx of displaced
    persons from Europe,
  • establishment of clear ethnic and economic goals
    for immigration
  • policy
  • 1947 Prime Minister Mackenzie King stated that
    immigration had
  • purpose of population growth and improved
    Canadian standard of
  • living
  • . immigration should not change the basic
    character of the Canadian
  • population
  • 1952 New Immigration Act allows refusal of
    admission on the
  • grounds of nationality, ethnic group,
    geographical area of origin,
  • peculiar customs, habits and modes of life,
    unsuitability with regard to
  • the climate, probable inability to become readily
    assimilated, etc.

12
Immigration Is A Privilege And Not A
RightCanadas Postwar Immigration Policy
  • "The policy of the government is to foster the
    growth of the population of Canada by the
    encouragement of immigration. The government will
    seek by legislation, regulation and vigorous
    administration, to ensure the careful selection
    and permanent settlement of such numbers of
    immigrants as can be advantageously absorbed in
    our national economy. It is a matter of domestic
    policy ... The people of Canada do not wish as
    a result of mass immigration to make a
    fundamental alteration in the character of our
    population. Large scale immigration from the
    Orient would change the fundamental composition
    of the Canadian population" William Lyon
    MacKenzie King.

13
Period Five 1962 1973Liberal Universalism and
Difference Blind-ness
  • 1962 Canada abandoned its all White racist
    immigration policy
  • . Admission to be based on individual
    personal characteristics not nationality
  • 1966 Immigration under Department of Manpower and
    Immigration (directly tie immigration and labour
    market).
  • 1967 Point system created to facilitate and
    encourage the flow of skilled migrants
  • Family class was still prioritized
  • Additional immigration posts were opened in third
    world areas resulting shift in region of
    immigrant origin

14
Period Six 1974 1985
  • A period of big swings in the business cycle
    immigration inflows
  • were adjusted accordingly.
  • 1976 New Immigration Act defines the 3 main
    priorities of the
  • immigration policy
  • . Priority 1 family reunification
  • . Priority 2 humanitarian concerns
  • . Priority 3 promotion of Canadas economic,
    social

    demographic and cultural goals
  • These goals/priorities still form the core of our
    immigration policy

15
Period Seven 1986 2002
  • 1985 Report to Parliament on future immigration
    levels
  • . fertility in Canada had fallen below
    replacement levels
  • . economic component of the inflow should be
    increased but not at the expense of social and
    humanitarian streams
  • 1992 Family class was reduced government
    committed to stable inflows of about 1 of the
    current population
  • 1993 Size of the inflow increased to 250,000 in
    spite of poor labour market a major shift from
    the absorptive capacity policy to adaptability
    (labour market indicators)
  • The switch to long term goals and the desire to
    increase the numbers of skilled workers continued
    through the 1990s (the birth of designer
    immigration)

16
Period Eight 2002
  • 2002 1976 Immigration Act replaced
  • . A few changes to the skilled workers category
    in order to attract younger and educated workers
  • . More points to applicants with a trade
    certificate or a second degree more points for
    language (French and English) fewer points for
    experience with greater weight on first two
    years of experience and changes in age factor
  • . Common-law partner in the family category
    (conjugal relations)
  • . More powers of detention
  • . Undocumented protected persons category
    eliminated

17
Immigration in Canada TodayComponents of
Immigration Intake
Family Reunification Members of the Family Class
Humanitarian Convention Refugees Members of Designated Classes Persons eligible under special humanitarian measures
Economic Assisted Relatives Business Immigrants Entrepreneurs Self-employed persons Investors Retirees Other Independent Immigrants
18
Selection Grid for Economic Immigrants (Point
System)
Factor One Education Maximum 25
Factor Two Official Languages Maximum 24
1st Official Language Maximum 16
2nd Official Language Maximum 8
Factor Three Experience Maximum 21
Factor Four Age Maximum 10
Factor Five Arranged Employment in Canada Maximum 10
Factor Six Adaptability Maximum 10
Total Maximum 100
Passing Mark 67
19
Selection Factor Adaptability
Factor Six Adaptability Maximum 10 points
Spouses or common-law partners education 3 - 5
Minimum one year full-time authorized work in Canada 5
Minimum two years full-time authorized post-secondary study in Canada 5
Have received points under the Arranged Employment in Canada factor 5
Family relationship in Canada 5
20
The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
  • 28 June 2002 The Immigration and Refugee
    Protection Act comes into effect. It emphasizes
    the importance of immigration to improving
    Canadian society and economy and creating a
    culturally diverse nation. The Act also states
    the governments commitment to reuniting families
    in Canada, integrating immigrants, and protecting
    the health and safety of all Canadians. The
    refugee program plans to fulfill Canadas
    international legal obligations and give fair
    consideration to all people being persecuted. The
    Act guarantees the policies will be consistent
    with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
    and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It
    also states that intergovernmental co-operation
    will be important, as will be greater public
    awareness of policies.
  • 12 December 2003 The Canada Border Services
    Agency (CBSA) is created. It is part of a broader
    package of programs designed to deal with the
    security concerns raised by the 11 September
    attack on the WorldTrade Center. The CBSAs
    mandate is to facilitate the legal movement of
    goods and people across Canadas borders while
    stopping illegal or threatening shipments.
  • 31 December 2003 Introduction of the Permanent
    Resident Card. The card is required for permanent
    residents leaving and re-entering Canada. It is
    designed to increase border security.

21
Canadian Immigration in 2005By Admissible
Category
Economic 56.1
Family 28.5
Refugee 12.8
Other 2.6
Total Number of Immigrants 262,157 (100)
22
Annual Distribution of Permanent Residents By
Source Area1997-2006 ()
  • In the 1950s, 84.6 of immigrants were European
    by birth
  • By the mid 1980s immigrants born in Europe
    slipped to 28.6
  • Now its about 15
  • Source Citizenship and
  • Immigration Canada
  • 2007, 27.

Source Area 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Africa and the Middle East 18.9 20.0 18.8 19.0 20.6 21.8 21.2 22.0 19.7 21.8
Asia and Pacific 53.4 47.1 49.8 52.7 52.3 50.8 49.9 47.2 51.4 48.4
South and Central America 7.6 7.6 7.6 6.9 7.5 8.0 8.9 9.2 9.1 9.5
Total for the Above 79.9 74.7 76.2 78.6 80.4 80.6 80.0 78.4 80.2 79.7
United States 2.1 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.6 3.2 3.5 4.4
Europe and UK 18.0 22.7 21.1 19.1 17.4 17.2 17.3 18.4 16.4 15.8
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
23
Canadian Immigration Source Countries 2005 Number of Immigrants
China 42,291
India 33,146
Philippines 17,525
Pakistan 13,576
United States 9,262
Columbia 6,031
United Kingdom 5,865
South Korea 5,819
Iran 5,502
France 5,430
Romania 4,964
Sri Lanka 4,690
Russia 3,607
Taiwan 3.092
Hong Kong 1,784
Yugoslavia (Former) 272
Top 10 Source Counties 144,447
Other 117,789
Total 262,236
24
Where do Permanent Residents settle in Canada?
Province/Territory 2005
Nova Scotia 1,929 0.7
Other Atlantic Provinces 1,918 0.7
Quebec 43,308 16.5
Ontario 140,533 53.6
Manitoba 8,097 3.1
Saskatchewan 2,106 0.8
Alberta 19,399 7.4
British Columbia 44,767 17.1
Territories 160 0.06
Provinces/Territories not stated 19 gt0.001
Total 262,236
Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick,
Prince Edward Island Yukon, Northwest Territori
es, Nunavut
25
Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement
  • The first-ever Canada-Ontario Immigration
    Agreement was signed in November 2005.
  • The Agreement signals a new era of
    federal-provincial collaboration in the
    integration of newcomers to Ontario.
  • . Over the next five years, Citizenship and
    Immigration Canada (CIC) plans to invest 920
    million in new funding for settlement and
    language training programs and services in
    Ontario.
  • . The federal and provincial governments will
    jointly develop settlement and language training
    strategies (service gaps and optimal ways of
    delivering and measuring the effectiveness of
    integration services)
  • . The overall goal of these strategies is to
    support the successful social and economic
    integration of immigrants in Ontario.

26
New Developments
  • Provincial Nominee Program (PNPs) are also in
    place with 10 jurisdictions (the Yukon and all
    provinces except Quebec), either as an annex to a
    framework agreement or as a stand-alone
    agreement. Under the PNP, provinces and
    territories have the authority to nominate
    individuals as permanent residents to address
    specific labour market and economic development
    needs.
  • Canada Experience Class program will allow
    temporary workers as well and international
    students to apply to become permanent residents
  • . Aimed at people who want to immigrate to
    Canada and already have Canadian work experience
    or Canadian academic credentials.
  • . Perhaps as many as 12,000 18,000.
  • The Immigration Backlog is now report as 900,000.
    (This effectively means that newcomers face long
    processing delays, perhaps as along as five
    years).

27
Policy ChallengeImmigrants Skills Are
Underutilized
  • Immigrants tend to start at a significant
    earnings disadvantage,
  • . In 1980, the income of male immigrants
    represented 89 of the income of workers born in
    Canada
  • . In 2000, the income of immigrants fell to 77
    relative to the income of workers born in Canada
  • Unemployment rate shows the same trend
  • . In 1981, the unemployment rate of immigrants
    (7.1) was lower than the unemployment rate of
    Canadians (7.9)
  • . 20 years later, the unemployment rate of
    immigrants is 12.7 compare to 7.4 for workers
    born in Canada
  • The economic condition of newcomers in the
    country has worsened the immigrants who are most
    affected belong to racial minorities
  • Annual cost of this problem 2 billion

28
Salary GapDisparity in median incomes among
recent immigrants
Recent Immigrants from 2001 to 2006
University educated, 26,301
Non-university educated, 19,280
Immigrants from 2000 and before
University educated, 37,647
Non-University educated, 29,301
Canadian-born
University educated, 57,695
Non-university educated, 39,586.
29
Policy ChallengeImmigrants Skills Are
Underutilized
  • Principal Cause the non-recognition of foreign
    education and foreign experience
  • Canadian workers are increasingly educated,
    employers have access to a qualified workforce
    and prefer to hire Canadian- educated workers
    with domestic experience
  • Professional associations are often accused
    of placing too many barriers in front of
    otherwise qualified immigrants
  • Even with a work authorization given by a
    professional association, there is still an
    earnings gap of 15 between newcomers and the
    Canadian-born limited access to
    senior/management positions
  • The earnings gap for workers outside the
    knowledge economy (mostly regulated by
    professional association) represents a 30
    difference
  • Most newcomers will not be part of the knowledge
    economy
  • Cultural hegemony is the new head tax to exclude
    the undesirable, and to perpetuate oppression
    in Canada.

30
Potential Solutions
  • The Canadian government has recently announced
    that it will increase
  • immigration yet, most of our newcomers today
    are visible minorities
  • To help mitigate possible social tensions,
    governments (federal, provincial and municipal)
    have a role to play in establishing coherent
    policy
  • Some potential initiatives include
  • 1) Better sources of information for immigrants,
    before and after arrival
  • 2) Bridge-training programs to top-up
    immigrants skills or fill in the gaps
  • 3) Subsidized workplace internship and mentoring
    programs
  • 4) More support for credential assessment
    services to improve labour market effectiveness
  • 5) Improved public awareness of the problems
    faced by skilled immigrants in integrating into
    the Canadian labour market and the consequences
    for Canadian society
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