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Martin John John


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Title: Martin John John


The Reformation
Martin John John Luther
Calvin Knox
Henry VIII Mary Tudor Elizabeth I
SOL 9.4
  • The student will analyze the historical
  • of the Reformation, including
  • the effects of the theological, political,
  • economic differences that emerged during the
  • Reformation, including the views and actions
  • Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII and
  • divorce issue
  • the influence of religious conflicts on
  • actions, including the Edict of Nantes in
  • the evolution of laws that reflect
    religious beliefs,
  • cultural values traditions, and philosophies,
  • including the beginnings of religious
    toleration the
  • spread of democracy.

Essential Questions
1) Who was Jan Hus? What happened to
him? 2) What was the connection between St.
Peters in Rome the selling of
indulgences? 3) What were the problems
issues that provoked (brought about)
religious reforms in Christianity? 4) Why did
Martin Luther (ML), Calvin, and Henry VIII
break with the Catholic Church? (Not
the same reason!!!) 5) What was the
Inquisition? 6) What was a heretic? 7) What
was the counter-reformation? Was it a
reaction to the reforms of the
Protestant reformation? Did it succeed?
Essential Questions
8) What was the Council of Trent its
effect? Why did many Popes resist
these councils? 10) What was the Peace of
Augsburg? 11) Calvinists believed in
pre-destination. What does this mean? 12) What
religion was formed by John Knox? 13) List
three religions whose roots can be traced
back to the Anabaptists? 14) Who was
the Holy Roman Emperor at the time of
Henry VIII? What was his religion?
Why was he particularly against the
divorce of Henry VIII to his first
wife? 15) Who was the Defender of the
Faith? Why was this King given
this title?
Essential Questions
16) Who was Bloody Mary? Why was she
called by that name? 17) Why was
Elizabeth I briefly imprisoned in her
youth? What was her religion? 18)
Prediction Do you think that the
Reformation, the Counter-Reformation
end religious conflicts --- once
for all? (What about today?) 19) What
about Islam --- Was Islam still a force
in Europe? 20) Elizabeth I was even
more famous for her achievements
during the so-called Age of Discovery.
Do you know anything about
Englands explorations or about a
man named Sir Francis Drake?
Refor- mation
Luther posts 95 Theses
Term Protestant is first used
Terms to define ?Annul ? Reformation ?
Predestination, ? Indulgences ? 95 Thesis ?
sacraments ? Recant ? Peace of Augsberg ?
Predestination ?Theocracy ? Act of Supremacy
(1534), ? Heretic ?Defender of the faith ?
Counter-reformation ?Huguenots ? Council of
Trent ? Inquisition
Henry VIII is proclaimed head of the Church
of England.
Calvin establishes Presbyterianism
People or Groups to meet ?Hus
?Erasmus ?Wycliffe ?Zwingli ?Martin
Luther ?Calvin ?HRE Charles V ?Knox
?Anabaptists ?Cardinal Wolsey ?Thomas More
?Henry VIII his wives ?Thomas Cromwell ?Mary
Tudor ?Elizabeth I
Knox founds Church of Scotland
1545 20 years
Council of Trent
Abuses in the Church
  • Beginning in the late Middle Ages,
  • the Church had become increasingly
  • caught up in worldly affairs. Popes
  • competed with Italian princes for political
  • During the Renaissance, Popes, like other
  • rulers, maintained a lavish lifestyle. When
    Leo X,
  • a son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was
    elected Pope,
  • he is said to have exclaimed, God has
    given us
  • the papacy--let us enjoy it. Like wealthy
  • popes, too, were patrons of the arts. For
  • Michelangelo was employed to paint the
    ceilings of
  • St. Peters Cathedral.

WYCLIFFE, John (1330-1384). The "morning star
of the Reformation" was John Wycliffe, English
priest reformer of the late Middle Ages. His
teachings had a great effect on Jan Hus and,
through Hus, on Martin Luther. Wycliffe opposed
the pope's claim to the right to tax and to
appoint men to church offices without asking the
king. In 1377 he was brought to trial before
the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of
London, but a crowd of his London supporters came
to his rescue. The pope issued papal decrees
against him, and his teachings were condemned at
Oxford. He continued to preach fearlessly,
however, and he wrote many Latin treatises to
support his attacks on the beliefs and practices
of the church. To help those who could read to
understand the Bible, Wycliffe's followers made
the first full English translation. Wycliffe had
the support of the nobles as long as he denounced
rich churchmen, but he began to teach that
lordship and property were held only by God's
grace and were forfeited if the owners fell into
mortal sin. In 1384 Wycliffe died in his parish
of Lutterworth.
Jan Hus (1369-1415).
A forerunner of the Reformation, Jan Hus of
Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic) was burned
at the stake as a heretic rather than recant his
religious views and his criticisms of the clergy.
Hus founded the Moravian church. As a young
priest Hus was drawn to the writings of the
English priest and reformer John Wycliffe, who
denounced evil practices that had grown up among
the clergy. Hus carried on Wycliffe's protests,
and as a result he gained many enemies. Hus
disagreed with some of Wycliffe's beliefs. When
he opposed the burning of Wycliffe's books, he
was charged with heresy and was forbidden to
preach or to teach.
This was the time of the Great Schism in the
church (1378-1417), caused by rival claims to the
papacy. One of the Popes proclaimed a crusade
and promised indulgences to volunteers. Hus
attacked this procedure. His followers burned the
pope's decree. The church excommunicated Hus,
laying an interdict on any place that sheltered
him. Friends defied the interdict and hid Hus in
the countryside. During this period Hus spent his
time writing. In 1415 the Council of Constance
met to heal the Great Schism and to discuss
reform. Called by the council, Hus was given
safe-conduct by the German king Sigismund. While
Hus was at Constance, Sigismund repudiated his
pledge. Arrested thrown into prison, Hus was
called before the council accused of beliefs
that he had never held. He refused to take back
things he had not said was put to death in
ERASMUS (1466-1536). He was the leading scholar
of the northern Renaissance. While the
Renaissance in Italy was chiefly concerned with
the revival of the ancient Greek and Roman
classics, that of northern Europe was centered
on reforming and revitalizing Christianity by
going back to its sources in the New Testament
and the church fathers. Erasmus was born on Oct.
27, 1466, in either Rotterdam or Gouda in the
Netherlands. He had a mainly religious education
and became a priest in the Augustinian order.
But, he found no satisfaction in his duties. He
won a release in 1494, and from that time he was
a traveling scholar. His greatest influence
resulted from his writings and other scholarly
efforts. He wrote on theology, religious issues,
education, and philosophy. He published editions
of the works of the church fathers, including
Augustine of Hippo.
ERASMUS (Continued)
His publication of the Greek New Testament was
a landmark achievement for its time, enabling
scholars to examine a more accurate text than
had been available for centuries. Among his own
books the most popular and enduring are
'Enchiridion', on Christianity, published in
1503, and 'The Praise of Folly'(1509), his
best-known book. In one respect Erasmus differed
from the spirit of his time. He wanted a
reformed Christianity, but he was opposed to a
divided church. Thus he opposed the Reformation,
though he praised many of its goals.
Martin Luther
Martin Luther was born in 1483 -- a miners
son. He started to study law, but gave
it up to become first a monk, then a
priest, and in 1508, a professor of
theology at the University of Wittenberg,
in Saxony. He worked hard to win his
salvation. Then, one day, in 1515, he was
reading St. Pauls Epistle to the Roman
and came upon a verse that says The
just shall live by faith. This simple
phrase struck Luther with the force of
revelation. Here was his answer God asked
of men only faith in Him --total,
unquestioning faith. God did the rest.
Faith freed men of sin.
Martin Luther
All efforts to wipe out the penalties of
sin by penance and good works were in
vain, and indeed misleading, since men
might think that their accounts with God
were square when in fact they had failed
in the great essential to have faith and
commit all else to God. The radical
consequences of his position became clear
to Luther only by degrees. He did not
seek out to split the Catholic Church in
two. On the contrary, he always clung to
the idea that somehow God would unite all
What triggered the Lutheran Reformation?
To raise money in Germany for the building
of St. Peters cathedral in Rome, the
Pope collected money by selling indulgences.
These were pieces of paper that canceled
the penalties of sin. The idea was that
the Pope could arrange the transfer of
merits, accumulated by Christ and the
saints, to the soul in need of help.
What triggered the Lutheran Reformation?
By buying such indulgences, pious persons
believed they could relieve themselves or
others from having to suffer for their
sins in purgatory. The sale of indulgences
had become an important source of income
for the popes. Luther was appalled by such
an approach to sin salvation. In 1517,
therefore, when a seller of indulgences came
to nearby town, Luther publicly
challenged the usefulness of indulgences.
Martin Luther protested against the selling
of indulgences in the customary way of
the times --- He posted a series of 95
thesis (grievances) on the door of All
Saints Church, in Wittenberg. These thesis
were short statements of points which
Luther was prepared to defend in public
debate with anyone who chose to argue
against him. Luthers views were soon
deemed as heresy. If men needed only faith
for salvation, then the sacraments of the
Church were unnecessary. Moreover, if faith
alone saved mens soul, what happened to
the power of priests to channel Gods
saving grace to sinful men through the
rites of the Church? Luther admitted that
on these points, he agreed with Jan Huss,
the Czech heretic, who had been burned at
the stake, in 1415. Luther would not
recant - and felt, instead, that the Pope
must be wrong!!
Luther put the whole issue before the German
public, in 1520, by writing three
pamphlets which outlined his position. What
was the effect of Guttenbergs printing
press on the spread of the Reformation?
Luther invited the German nobility to
reform the Church along the lines laid
down in the Bible itself. Appeal to the
Bible as the only reliable source of religious
truth was, in fact Luthers strongest and
most convincing argument. The public
response in Germany to Luthers words was
tremendous. His arguments seemed convincing
to most Germans. Nearly everyone agreed
that the Catholic Church needed reform---and
furthermore, no one in Germany really
liked to see good German money being
shipped off to Rome to build the new
Charles V, summons Luther to an assembly
The newly elected Holy Roman
Emperor(HRE), Charles V made the Lutheran
question one of the important items of
business to be taken up at his first
imperial diet (legislature), which met at
Worms, in 1521. Luther went, expecting to
defend his writings. Instead, the emperor
simply ordered him to stop. ML refused!
Charles V declared ML an outlaw, making it
a crime for anyone in the empire to give
him food or shelter. That same year, the
Pope excommunicated Luther. But, Prince
Frederick, the Elector of Saxony, hid him,
anyway, in a castle for nearly a year.
During this time, throughout Germany, ML was
hailed as a hero. Many began to renounce
the authority of the Pope. Luther used
this time to translate the New Testament
into German. Next, he translated the Old
  • Who was Charles V (1500-1558) ?
  • He was the grandson of Ferdinand of Castile
  • Isabella I heir to Burgundy(in France)
  • He, then, acquired Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia
  • through succession. He bribed the electors of
  • the Holy Roman Empire to name him emperor,
    crowning him Charles V and giving him rule over
    more countries than any other European monarch.
    Under his rule, the Hapsburgs became the
    most powerful European family, ruling Spain,
    Austria, Germany, much of Italy, the Low
    Countries (or present day Belgium,
    Luxembourg, the Netherlands.). No European
    ruler since Charlemagne had presided over
    such an empire. At the same time, Charles
    Vs enemies were as numerous as his
    subjects and his lands lacked any real
    cohesion. Spaniards, Dutchmen, Austrians,
    Germans had little in common except the
    same ruler. (see map).

(No Transcript)
Peasant Revolt
In 1524, a peasants revolt erupted
across Germany. The rebels demanded an
end to serfdom. As the revolt grew more
violent, Luther denounced it. He did not
see himself as a social reformer. In
fact, he urged nobles to suppress the
rebellion. They did... killing between
70,000 and 100,000 people and leaving
50,000 homeless. By 1530, the Lutherans
were using the name Protestants, for those
who protested the popes authority.
Luther his followers set out to order
the Church according to the Bible
After Luther denounced the peasant revolt,
the Lutheran reform movement lost much of
its white-hot enthusiasm which Luthers
words had stimulated during the first eight
years. Instead, Luther his followers set
out to order the Church as it should be
ordered--that is, according to the
Bible---in every land where the secular
ruler would agree to undertake the task
of reform. Many, but not all German princes
went along with Luther in this task. They
had much to gain, for the Lutherans
decided that Church property was
unnecessary, that monasteries should be
suppressed, and that Church appointments
should be handled like appointments to
other public offices. (Posts of
administrative responsibility in the Church
should be treated as another, though
supremely important, branch of the
governmental bureaucracy.)

After Martin Luthers Death
When Martin Luther died in 1546, reform
along these lines had been firmly
established in most of northern Germany
and in Scandinavia. Charles V had been
too busy in Italy and elsewhere to check
Lutheranism effectively. When he did find
time to turn to internal German affairs,
it was too late. Confiscated lands and
abandoned monasteries could not be restored
in such matters the German princes would
not submit to the emperors will without a
fight. Charles V tries to use force, but
soon failed. In 1555, he therefore
reluctantly agreed to the Peace of Augsburg
(also referred to as the Augsberg Confession),
which gave every German ruler the right
to impose either Lutheranism or Roman
Catholicism upon his subjects. The south
remained mostly Catholic.

Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Luthers challenge to the Pope did not
pass unnoticed outside Germany. Especially
among townspeople in France, Switzerland,
England, the Low Countries. In many
places, however, the reform party was
unable to gain control of the government.
Without such power they could only form a
church, according to their taste, by
withdrawing into some sort of separate body
of their own. But, in Switzerland, local
districts and cities ruled themselves.
Therefore religious reformers had only to
convince a majority of the city council in
order to begin reform. In this fashion, a
fiery preacher, Huldreich Zwingli started
reform in Zurich, Switzerland -- in 1518.
Calvin (John 1509-1564)
Huldreich Zwinglis ideas paralleled those
of Luther on many points. Church reform
spread to other Swiss towns, but in the
mountains, more conservative communities
clung to Catholicism. Civil war broke out,
Zwingli was killed in battle. Soon,
thereafter, a peace was concluded that left
each district free to choose its own
form of religion. In 1541, a Frenchmen named
John Calvin (1509-1564), took up residence
in Geneva. Calvin was far more cool-headed
than Martin Luther.
John Calvin (continued)
John Calvin was a major leader in the 16th
century Reformation of the Catholic Church.
He established a new religion with strict codes
of belief and behavior. Calvin taught the
virtues of faith above good works advanced
the theory of universal priesthood, in which all
Christians could practice their religion without
the daily guidance of priests. Calvin also
established the idea of the Elect. This is
called predestination. This is a belief that
a pre-ordained group of people have been
pre-chosen by God for salvation. Many
European princes and citizens embraced Calvinism,
his ideas spread to other countries sparked
other major Protestant religions.
John Calvin the Reformation Calvins
In 1541, Protestants in the city-state of
Geneva, in Switzerland, asked Calvin to
lead their community. In keeping with his
teachings, Calvin set up a theocracy, or
government run by church leaders. Calvins
followers in Geneva came to see themselves
as the new chosen people. Calvinists
stressed hard work, discipline, thrift,
honesty, and morality. Citizens faced fines
or even harsher punishment for offenses
such as fighting, swearing, laughing in
church, and dancing. By the late 1500s,
Calvinism had spread to Germany, France,
the Netherland, England, Scotland. This
was clearly a challenge to the Catholic
Church. In Germany, the Calvinists faced
opposition from Lutherans as well as from
Catholics. In the late 1500s, in France,
wars raged between French Calvinists (called
Huguenots), and Catholics.
John Knox of Scotland
In Scotland, a Calvinist preacher named
John Knox led a religious rebellion. He
declared that, right religion takes neither
its origin nor authority from worldly
princes, but from the eternal God alone.
Under Knox, Scottish Protestants overthrew
their Catholic queen. They set up the
Scottish Presbyterian Church.
The Anabaptists As the Reformation
continued, hundreds of new Protestant sects
sprang up. These sects often had ideas
that were even more radical than those of
Martin Luther Calvin. For example, a
number of groups rejected infant baptism.
Infants , it was argued, were too young to
understand what it meant to accept the
Christian faith. Only adults should receive
baptism. These critics were known as
Anabaptists. Some Anabaptists were radical
social reformers, as well. When a group of
Anabaptists took over the city of Munster,
in Germany, Luther advised his supporters
to join Catholics in suppressing the threat
to the traditional order. Butmost
Anabaptists were peaceful. Today, Protestant
denominations such as Baptists, Quakers,
Mennonites, and Amish all trace their roots
to the Anabaptists.

WOLSEY, Cardinal (1475-1530). During the early
years of Henry VIII's reign, Cardinal Wolsey
shaped England's policy abroad and was the
leading figure in both church and state at home.
When Henry VIII came to the throne in 1509, he
continued to favor Wolsey as his father had done
before him. Soon all authority was concentrated
in his hands. England was too narrow a field for
his vast ambition. He threw England's influence
on the side of the Holy Roman emperor, Charles V,
in the latter's rivalry with Francis I of
France. He expected thereby to enlist the
emperor's aid for his own aspirations to become
Pope. He initiated the policy of destroying the
monasteries, which was to be carried through to
completion by Henry VIII. Wolsey's greed,
arrogance, and insatiable lust for power
outweighed his many great qualities. His
policies and haughtiness alienated both clergy
and laymen.
Wolseys Hampton Court Palace
England's influence in Europe declined instead of
increased. Charles V found it prudent to see that
Wolsey should not become Pope. Wolsey had
reluctantly made himself responsible for the
success of Henry VIII's appeal to Rome for an
annulment of the king's marriage to Catherine of
Aragon. When the pope refused, the king's wrath
knew no bounds. Wolsey was swept from his high
place. He had already given his Hampton Court
Palace to the King now he requested the king to
take over all his possessions, and he retired.
Summoned to London to answer a charge of treason,
Wolsey died on the way, on Nov. 29, 1530, in
CROMWELL, Thomas (1485-1540). Virtually the
ruler of England from 1532 to 1540, Thomas
Cromwell served as principal adviser to Henry
VIII during those years. Cromwell established the
English Reformation, seized the wealth of the
monasteries for the Crown, and transformed the
administration of the kingdom into a kind of
civil service. By 1520 he had entered the service
of Cardinal Wolsey, who was at the peak of his
powers in Henry's court. For Wolsey he dissolved
some of the lesser monasteries in 1525 and was
involved with the establishment of the cardinal's
colleges at Oxford and Ipswich. Having entered
Parliament in 1523, Cromwell pleaded in the House
of Commons for Wolsey in 1529, when the cardinal
fell from the King's favor.
Entering the king's service in 1530, Cromwell
rose rapidly privy councillor in 1531, master of
the jewels in 1532, chancellor of the exchequer
in 1533, King's secretary in 1534, and vicar
general in 1535. His religious views have been in
doubt. However, he became firmly associated with
a radical policy of reform and Reformation,
writing most of the Reformation acts from 1532 to
1539, serving as the king's deputy as head of the
English church in 1536, and carrying into effect
the Act of Supremacy and the suppression of
monasteries from 1536 to 1539. Cromwell's
downfall resulted from his urging the King to
marry Anne of Cleves to gain an alliance with her
brother, a Protestant leader in western Germany.
Henry hated this, his fourth, wife from the
beginning, and the Protestant alliance was
distasteful to him. Although Cromwell became
Earl of Essex and l Lord Great Chamberlain, in
1540, his enemies persuaded the King that he was
a traitor to both his religion and to the King.
He was arrested, condemned without a hearing, and
MORE, Thomas (1478-1535). One of the most
respected figures in English history, More was
a statesman, scholar, author. He was noted
for his wit also for his devotion to his
religion. The great Dutch scholar Erasmus became
his close friend. More, Erasmus, and John Colet,
the distinguished dean of London's St. Paul's
Cathedral, were leaders of a group of scholars
religious reformers. This group, which became
known as the Oxford Reformers, did much to
promote the Renaissance in England. More entered
the profession of law, in which he gained
distinction. His religious piety led him to
fast, pray, and do penance. For a time he hoped
to enter the priesthood. Throughout his life
More's deep religious convictions dominated his
More became a member of Parliament. He was
disliked by Henry VIIIs father, whom he opposed
on financial matters. The accession of Henry VIII
brought More to a high place at court. On
Cardinal Wolsey's fall from power in 1529, More
was made lord chancellor--the first time that the
office had been held by a layman. When Henry
VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon, More as a
loyal churchman resigned his office on the plea
of ill health. He refused to acknowledge Henry's
claim to be head of the English church. For this
defiance the king had More--together with Bishop
Fisher and others--committed to the Tower of
London on a charge of treason. He was beheaded
on July 6, 1535. More is famous not only as a
statesman and religious martyr but also as an
author. 'A Dialogue of Comfort Against
Tribulation', written in 1534 while he was in
prison, shows his faith and his calm courage.
Perhaps his best-known work is his 'Utopia'
(1516). Utopia, which is the name of an imaginary
island with a happy society, free from all cares,
anxieties, and miseries.
Henry VIII --- his wives his proclamation
as head of the Church of England.
Henry VIII the English Reformation
  • By the 1520s, some English clergy were
    toying with Protestant ideas. The final
    break resulted from a confrontation between
    the Catholic Church Henry VIII of
    England. For political reasons, Henry
    wanted to end papal control over the
    English church. At first, Henry VIII stood
    firmly against the Protestant revolt. The
    pope even awarded him the title Defender
    of the Faith. Then, in 1527, after 18
    years of marriage, Henry and his wife,
    Catherine of Aragon, had only surviving
    child, a daughter named Mary Tudor.
    (i.e., no male heir.) Henry VIII decided
    to remarry --- hoping for a male heir.
    Since the Catholic Church does NOT permit
    divorce, he asked the pope to annul, or
    cancel, his 18 year marriage.

Henry VIII the English Reformation
Break with Rome The Pope at that time
was concerned about offending the powerful
Holy Roman emperor, Charles V --- who was
Catherine of Aragons nephew. Not
surprising, therefore, he refused Henry
VIIIs request. Henry VIII, obviously, was
furious! Acting through Parliament, Henry
VIII had a series of laws passed. The
most notable of these laws was the Act of
Supremacy (1534), that made Henry VIII,
the only supreme head on Earth of the
Church of England. In other words, the
Church was placed under the control of
Henry VIII. At the same time, Henry VIIIs
archbishop annulled the marriage. Henry,
then, married Anne Boleyn. She, too, bore
only daughters. Henry VIII married four
more times but only had one son, Edward.
(His six wives are listed depicted in
subsequent slides.)

Henry VIII the English Reformation
The reign of Henry VIII was marked by his break
with the Roman Catholic Church for not granting
him a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of
Aragón. Henry declared himself supreme head of
the Church of England, initiating the Reformation
in England.

  • Between 1536 1540, Henry VIII
  • shut down all convents and
  • monasteries in England and seized
  • their lands. This move brought new
  • wealth to the royal treasury. Henry
  • shrewdly offered aristocrats others
  • of high standing a share of the gains,
  • thereby securing their support for the
  • Anglican Church, as the new Church
  • of England was called.
  • .

Henry VIII the English Reformation

  • .
  • As the Protestant Reformation
  • swept across northern Europe, a
  • vigorous reform movement took
  • hold within the Catholic Church.
  • The movement was called the
  • Catholic Reformationor counter-reformation.
  • Council of Trent In 1545, the
  • Pope called the Council of Trent to
    establish the
  • direction of the reforms. The council met
    off and
  • on for almost twenty years. Essentially,
    the council
  • took steps to end abuses in the Church.
    It also
  • established new schools to create a
  • clergy who could challenge Protestant

Council of Trent
  • .

The Inquisition-Religious
Intolerance To deal with the Protestant
threat more directly, Pope Paul III
strengthened the Inquisition. The Inquisition
was a Church court set up during the
Middle Ages to root out heretics. The
Inquisition used secret testimony, torture,
and execution to stamp out heresy. It
also prepared the Index of Forbidden Books,
a list of works considered too immoral
or irreligious for Catholics to read. Not
surprising... included on the Index were
books by Machiavelli, ML Calvin.
Widespread Persecution In troubled times,
people look for scapegoats. One group that
was singled out for persecution were the
Jews. The Jews had been expelled from
Spain in 1492.
  • .

The Inquisition-Religious Intolerance
At that time, Italy allowed Jews to
stay. Yet, by the 1500s, there was
pressure for Jews to convert. By 1516,
Jews in Venice had to live in a separate
quarter of the city, known as the ghetto.
During the Reformation, restrictions of
Jews increased. Some German princes
expelled Jews from their lands. All German
states confined Jews to ghettos or
required them to wear a yellow badge if
they traveled outside the ghetto. After
1550, many Jews migrated to Poland-Lithuania
and to parts of the Ottoman Empire.
When Henry VIII died in 1547, his
10-year-old son, Edward VI, inherited
the throne. This set off religious
turmoil. The young king pushed for
Calvinist reforms. But, when Edward VI
died in his teens, his half-sister Mary
Tudor inherited the throne. She was a
Catholic was determined to make
England, once again, a Catholic country.
Obviously, she failed. When she
died, Elizabeth I became queen.
Edward VI

Mary Tudor or Bloody Mary, became queen
of England after the death of her brother,
Edward VI. The daughter of Henry VIII, she
became known as Bloody Mary after she
burned more than 300 high-ranking Protestant
clergymen during her five-year reign. She
had hoped to restore the Roman Catholic
church in England.
. In 1554, barely six months after Mary
ascended to the throne, a plot against
her was uncovered. Although she had no
proof, Mary was convinced that Elizabeth I
was involved. Elizabeth was imprisoned in
the Tower of London. Elizabeth Is unjust
imprisonment made her even more popular
with the people. Even though Elizabeth I
preserved many traditional Catholic ideas,
she firmly established England as a
Protestant nation.
Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII his
second wife Anne Boleyn, ruled England from
1558 to 1603 during what is known as the
Elizabethan Age. Elizabeth was Protestant
popular. Elizabeths reign was a time of great
prosperity achievement, her court was a
center for poets, writers, musicians,
Cause Effect Reformation
Johann Tetzel sells indulgences. ML posts 95
Theses. Printing press helps to spread
reform ideas. Calvin other reformers
preach against Catholic traditions. ML calls
for Jews to be expelled from Christian

Roman Catholic Church becomes more
worldly Humanists urge return to simple
religion. Strong national monarchs emerge.
Immediate Causes
LT Effects
Peasants Revolt Founding of Lutheranism,
Calvinism, Anglican Church, Presbyterianism,
other Protestant churches. HRE Weakened.
Religious wars,
Counter-Reformation Inquisition anti-
Religion in Europe 1546
Enlarged key in next slide
Religion in Europe 1650
Roman Catholic
Predominantly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic Moslem
Roman Catholic Lutheran
Scattering of Lutheran
Moslem Orthodox
Bohemian Brethran
Scattering of Calvinists
Concentration of Calvinists
Scattering of Unitarians
Concentration of Unitarians
Religion in Europe 1650
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