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Unit Seven Machine Translation


Unit Seven Machine Translation Text A . Objectives: Students will be able to: 1.grasp the main idea and structure of the text; 2.have a general idea of the latest ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit Seven Machine Translation

Unit Seven Machine Translation
  • Text A

Tongues of The Web
?. Objectives
  • Students will be able to
  • 1.grasp the main idea and structure of the text
  • 2.have a general idea of the latest development
    of MT
  • 3.appreciate the writing skills employed in the
  • 4. conduct a series of activities skills
    focused reading and writing
  • skills integrated speaking and listening

II Time Allotment
periods content
1st 2nd Pre-reading While reading (Parts1-2)
3rd 4th While reading (Parts 3-4) Post reading
5th Practical exercise book IV Theme-Related Language learning tasks

III. Pre-reading tasks
1. Ask students to answer some questions as
warm-up exercises
  • a. Do you often surf on Internet?
  • b.What do you usually do when you go on Internet?

2. Discuss in class what are the positive
aspects and negative aspects of surfing on
3. Divide the whole class into two sides
(positive side and negative side) and hold a
  • Positive Side People should be encouraged to
    go on Internet.
  • Negative Side Some restrictions should be made
    to prevent people, especially university
    students, from surfing on Internet. (Some words
    for reference latest information, exchange,
    different cultures, relaxation, erotic content,
    virus, )

IV. While-reading tasks
  • 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of
  • 2. What does the title of the text mean? Ask
    several Ss to paraphrase it.
  • 3. T tells Ss some related background
  • 4. T helps Ss analyze the organization of the
  • 5. T explains some of the language points and
    has Ss to prepare for the others.
  • 6. T asks Ss to paraphrase some difficult
    language points.

Cultural Notes
1). Rockefeller Foundation
  • An Introduction of Rockefeller Foundation
  • The year was 1913. The United States, as a
    nation, was 137 years old. Woodrow Wilson was
    inaugurated as the 28th president. The 16th
    amendment was passed, creating the federal income
    tax. Richard Nixon was born. Willa Cather
    published O Pioneers! and John Singer Sargent
    painted Portrait of Henry James. Vitamin A was
    first isolated and Niels Bohr formulated his
    theory of atomic structure. J. Pierpont Morgan
    died, Grand Central Station opened, the
    Philadelphia Athletics beat the New York

  • Giants in the World Series, and World War I was
    imminent. And in 1913 the work of the
    Rockefeller Foundation began. During the emerging
    years, scientists and scholars worked to solve
    many of the worlds and the countrys ills. Plagues
    such as hookworm and malaria have been brought
    under control food production for the hungry in
    many parts of the world has been increased and
    the mind, heart, and spirit have been lifted by
    the work of Foundation-assisted artists, writers,
    dancers, and composers. But other plagues
    continue World hunger persists, particularly in
    Africa, as the imbalance among food, health, and
    growing populations threatens many countries, and
    in America the problems of cities

  • and schools demand attention. The tasks of today
    are as vital and daunting as they were when John
    Davison Rockefellers foundation formally came
    into being. His bent for philanthropy began early
    in life. In his teens, from sums earned in his
    first job, he allotted money for his Sunday
    school and other activities of his Baptist
    church. By 1860 Rockefellers philanthropy
    included regular contributions to churches,
    Sunday schools, and an orphanage.

  • As his personal wealth grew, Rockefellers
    interest in philanthropy increased. He was
    impressed in 1889 by an essay written by Andrew
    Carnegie and titled The Gospel of Wealth. The day
    is not far distant, Carnegie said, when the man
    who dies leaving behind him millions of available
    wealth, which was free for him to administer
    during life, will pass away unwept, unhonored,
    and unsung. Rockefeller wrote a letter to
    Carnegie I would that more men of wealth were
    doing as you are doing with your money but, be
    assured, your example will bear fruits, and the
    time will come when men of wealth will more
    generally be willing to use it for the good of
    others. In the same year 1889 Rockefeller began
    his philanthropic work in

  • earnest, making the first of what would become
    35 million in gifts, over a period of two
    decades, to found the University of Chicago. In
    1901 he established the Rockefeller Institute for
    Medical Research, now Rockefeller University. In
    1903 he created the General Education Board at an
    ultimate cost of 129 million to promote
    education in the United States without
    distinction of sex, race, or creed.

  • In 1909 he established the Rockefeller Sanitary
    Commission for Eradication of Hookworm Disease to
    cure and prevent the disease, particularly in the
    southern United States. Rockefeller was prepared
    to begin the Rockefeller Foundation in 1909, even
    signing a deed of trust to turn over 72,569
    shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey stock worth
    50 million. But delays and difficulties in
    seeking a federal charter for the Foundation,
    desired by Rockefeller though never obtained,
    resulted in a lapse until 1913, when the
    Foundation was officially incorporated in the
    state of New York. Since its inception the
    Rockefeller Foundation has given more than 2
    billion to thousands of grantees worldwide and
    has assisted directly in the training of nearly
    13,000 Rockefeller Foundation Fellows. In the
    chronology that follows, we highlight the work of
    these men and women who have brought the work of
    the Rockefeller Foundation to life.

  • The character of a company -- the stamp it puts
    on its products, services and the marketplace --
    is shaped and defined over time. It evolves. It
    deepens. It is expressed in an ever-changing
    corporate culture, in transformational
    strategies, and in new and compelling offerings
    for customers. IBM's character has been formed
    over nearly 100 years of doing business in the
    field of information-handling. Nearly all of the
    company's products were designed and developed to
    record, process, communicate, store and retrieve
     information -- from its first scales,

  • tabulators and clocks to today's powerful
    computers and vast global networks. IBM helped
    pioneer information technology over the years,
    and it stands today at the forefront of a
    worldwide industry that is revolutionizing the
    way in which enterprises, organizations and
    people operate and thrive. The pace of change in
    that industry, of course, is accelerating, and
    its scope and impact are widening. In these
    pages, you can trace that change from the
    earliest antecedents of IBM, to the most recent
    developments. You can scan the entire IBM

  • from the 19th century to the 21st or pinpoint --
    year-by year or decade-by-decade -- the key
    events that have led to the IBM of today. We hope
    that you enjoy this unique look back at the
    highly textured history of the International
    Business Machines Corporation.

  • This IDC study presents a competitive market map
    for the business analytics (BA) software market
    based on the end-of-year 2002 results. The market
    map and its methodology are introduced as a tool
    for evaluating the competitive positioning of
    software vendors in an increasingly complex
    market. Although we used end-of-year 2002 data
    (the most recent available full-year data), this
    study will be updated by the end of May 2004 with
    full-year 2003 vendor performance results.
    Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is
    to introduce the tool and methodology in advance
    of the 2003 full-year results. "The business
    analytics software market continues to mature

  • and has attracted vendors from different segments
    of the overall software market. To evaluate the
    market landscape, IDC introduces the competitive
    market map as a quantitative tool based on the
    following four variables size, scope, momentum,
    and dependence of business analytics software."
    Dan Vesset, research manager, Analytics and Data

  • AltaVista - Babel Fish Translation

2. The structure of the text
  • Part One Paras1-3
  • Main idea An brief introduction to MT.
  • Part Two Paras4-8
  • Main ideaThe chronological development of MT
  • Part Three Paras9-12
  • Main idea The need for MT and its current state 

3. Have Ss paraphrase some difficult sentences
  • 1) Since its has suffered from exaggerated
    claims and impossible expectations.(Para1)
  • 2) It does so because both the difficulty of
    getting computers to understand human languages,
    and the high expectations that must be met if MT
    is to be taken seriously.(Para2)

4. T explains some key and active language
1). a short in the arm sth. that boosts ones
spirits or encourages, esp. in a difficult
  • Example
  • The new measure taken by the government was a
    real short in the arm for the local economy.

2). transmit pass along(news or information)
send an electronic signal, radio, television
broadcast, or disease etc.
  • Examples
  • Water transmits sound better than air.
  • Insects can transmit disease.
  • trans- This prefix means changing or moving.

  • transform ---- to change in form
  • transplant ---- to move (a plant) from one place
    and plant it in another
  • transport---- to carry (goods or people etc.)from
    one place to another
  • transact---- to carry (a piece of business, etc.)
    through to an agreement
  • transition---- to change or pass from one state,
    subject or place to another

3). lay out plan in detail, provide (a detailed
plan or design) spread out or arrange
  • Examples
  • The architect laid out the interior of the
  • His dinner jacket was already laid out on the
  • Some phases with lay
  • lay down to put down (tools, arms etc.) begin
    to build or state firmly
  • lay off to stop employing

  • lay over to make a short stay (usu. at an
    airport) before continuing a journey
  • lay up (usu. Pass. ) to cause to be kept indoors
    or in bed with an illness

4). be (well) along toward go in the direction
of, come near
  • Example The talk is well along toward reaching
    an agreement on the border dispute between the
    two countries.

5). dry up disappear as if by draining or
cutting off a source of a supply
  • Examples
  • The streams dry up in the summer.
  • The separation of many years has dried up their

6). revival the coming again into activity and
prominence (followed by of )
  • Example
  • There has been a revival of interest in the
    fashions of the 1930s.
  • v. revive

7). spur urge or incite to act (used in the
patterns spur sth. spur (on) sb. to do sth.
spur sb. into sth./doing sth.
  • Example
  • He spurred on his team to try harder.

8). analysis (pl. analyses) work done to find
facts and solutions to problems
  • Example
  • The analysis of the samples on the murder spot
    showed some valuable clues to the police.
  • v. analyze

9). databases a large collection of information
that is stored in a computer system in such a way
that it can easily be found by a computer user
  • Examples
  • We are linked to the online database at our head

10). output information or data produced by a
computer an amount produced or manufactured
  • Examples
  • The output of the factory this year is four times
    that in 2000.
  • An assessment of the Welfare System would involve
    careful study of its inputs and outputs.

11). elaborate carefully worked out and rich in
detail very detailed and complicated
  • Examples
  • They are making the most elaborate preparations
    for the wedding.
  • He came out with such an elaborate excuse that I
    didn't quite believe him.
  • cf collaborate

12). highlight v. emphasize, make important
  • Examples
  • The report on the accident highlights the need
    for considerable improvements in safety.
  • Could you read through this for me and highlight
    the important points?

highlight n. the best or most exciting,
entertaining, orinteresting part
  • Examples
  • The highlight of our trip to New York was going
    to the top of the Empire State Building.
  • Youll be able to see the highlights of the TV
    series in a one-hour special on Christmas Day.

13). scramble mix or throw together haphazardly
move or climb quickly but with difficulty,
often using the hands
  • Examples
  • We had scrambled eggs on toast for breakfast.
  • She scrambled up the steep hillside and over the

14). whereas but compared with the fact that
  • Example
  • He must be about sixty, whereas his wife looks
    about thirty.

15). partial not complete or whole
  • Examples
  • He made a partial recovery, but he was never able
    to walk properly after the accident.
  • Opp. impartial

5. T asks Ss to prepare the following words and
expressions in advance.
  • 1) anonymous (n. anonymity)
  • 2) storage
  • 3) on the face of it
  • 4) go back to
  • 5) memorandum (memo)
  • 6) automatic

  • 7) collaboration
  • 8) better than none/nothing
  • 9) multinational
  • 10) intermediate
  • 11) symbolic
  • 12) plug
  • 13) multiple
  • 14) particle

6. Practice
  • 1. Cholera is __________ through contaminated
  • A. transferred B. transmitted C. transported
    D. transacted
  • 2.  The company has signed (a) ________ of
    understanding with a group of investors to sell
    its steel operations.
  • A. memoirs B. memento C. memorial D.
  • 3.  Most of Manhattan is _________ in a grid
    pattern with avenues of going north-south and
    streets east-west.
  • A. laid down B. laid out C. laid off
    D. laid up
  • 4.The two playwrights worked in close _________
    with each other on the script.
  • A. operation B. colleague C. collaboration D.

  • 5. With cheaper PC software and wider access to
    the Internet , there has undoubtedly an _______
    growth in the use of MT.
  • A.unprocessed B.unperceived
  • C.unprecedented D. unperturbed
  • 6. Recently there has been some __________ of
    interest in ancient music.
  • A. revival B. revision C. reversion
    D. reverse
  • 7. Many shops cut prices just before Christmas in
    an attempt to ________ sales.
  • A. spurn B. spurt C. spur D. sputter
  • 8.  Radio Two plans to double its daily news ____
    from next month. A. output B. outrage
    C.outspread D. outcome
  • 9. He came out with such (a)n ____ excuse that I
    didnt quite believe him.
  • A. cooperative B. elaborate C. collaborated
    D. evaporated
  • 10.  Its about time we ____ the organization of
    this company.

  • A.demonstrated B.demoralized
  • C.demotivated D.democratized
  • 11.   What the person does next is the result of
    the ________ influences to which they have been
  • A. multilingual B. multiple C. multilateral
    D. multinational
  • 12.   The report on the accident ___________ the
    need for considerable improvements in safety.
  • A. highballs B. highlights C. hightails
    D. hijacks
  • 13.   He came to the party dressed in a yellow
    suit and a pink bow tie, which caused great
    ________ among the other guests.
  • A. confusion B. congestion C. hilarity
    D. enthusiasm
  • 14.   Bad weather _________ the air schedule, and
    a lot of passengers are allocated to hotels
  • around waiting for new information.
  • A. bothered B. scrambled C. interfered
    D. troubled
  • 15.   He must be about sixty, ________ his wife
    looks about thirty. A. whereas whereby C.
    wherein D. whereupon

  • 16.   The food decays easily. It is
    important to store these ________ food in cool
  • A. available B. breakable C. valuable
    D. perishable
  • 17.   ________ news coverage is quite hard to
    find as quite a few news companies are financed
    by particular interests.
  • A. Immoral B. Impartial C. Immortal D.
  • 18.   There is a wide __________ of opinions on
    the question of unilateral disarmament.
  • A. diversity B. involvement C. database
    D. analysis
  • 19.   Ive wired up the stereo system, but I
    havent _______ the speaker in yet.
  • A. placed B. inserted C. plugged D.
  • 20.   A(n) _______ of seven years work revealed
    errors and inconsistencies.
  • A. output B. analogy C. collaboration
    D. analysis

  • 21.   Very correctly, she was handing out the
    polite but casual _____ due to a new neighbor who
    had rendered her small service.
  • A. hostility B. hospitality C. submission
    D. indifference
  • 22.   Were linked to the online ________ at our
    head office.
  • A. website B. database C. logo D.
  • 23.   He is ______ one of the worlds finest
    football players.
  • A. arguably B. unintentionally C. colloquially
    D. partially
  • 24.   She wouldnt give me the slightest ________
    of information about what shed been doing.
  • A. part B. party C. particle D.
  • 25.   I didnt have much _______ into the
    project, which resulted in bad consequences.
  • A. output B. input C. putout D.

  • 26.   Environmentalists are doing everything
    within their power to ______the impact of the oil
  • A. maximize B. minimize C. lower D.
  • 27.   Their team _______ to the top of the League
    after their three years efforts.
  • A. rocketed B. bolstered C. blustered
    D. boomed
  • 28.   English, maths and science are compulsory
    for all students, but art and music are ________.
  • A. available B. acquirable C. optional
    B. optical
  • 29.   Dictators like him rarely go ________
    without a fight.
  • A. back on B. for C. off D. down
  • 30.   This fundamental idea immediately found its
    way into mans speech, which ____ became filled
    with words and idioms expressing it.
  • A. henceforth B. nevertheless C.
    whatsoever D. whereby
  • 31.   What ________ do you use when judging the
    quality of a students work?
  • A. standard B. norm C. appraisal D.

  • 32.   As a revenge, the government has ordered
    the immediate __________ of exports to that
  • A. inspiration B. expiration C.
    cancellation D. suspension
  • 33.   Susans success in winning the first prize
    ________ the other girls jealousy and they
    viciously spread a rnmor that she was cheating in
    the exam.
  • A. concurred B. recurred C. incurred
    D. occurred
  • 34.  The computer program isnt ____ with this
    operating system.
  • A. comparable B. compatible C. compactable
    D. computable
  • 35.   There is a growing ______ that this country
    can no longer afford to be a nuclear power.
  • A. recognition B. acclamation C. evaluation D.
  • 36.   He sees himself as being _________ economic
  • A. on the face of B. well
  • C. well along toward D. in the
    vanguard of
  • 37.The concert was a good one, but because of bad
    __very few people came.A.publishing B.publicity
    C. highlights D. advertiser

  • 38. There was much ____ before the family would
    agree to my suggestion.
  • A. unanimity B. controversy C. conspiracy
    D. anticipation
  • 39.  You must ___ with the library rule, or else
    you will be fined.
  • A. abide B. stick C. conform D.
  • 40. No matter what the teacher said, he still __
    tenaciously to his opinion. A. persisted B.
    insisted C. clung D. persevered
  • 41.At the moment there is a (n) ____lack of
    enthusiasm in her musical performance.
  • A. extinct B. instinct C. distinct D.
  • 42.Congress is considering measures to ____the
    sale of cigarettes.
  • A. restrict B. enchant C. promote D.
  • 43.I know him well and have some___about the
    truth of his story.
  • A. reservations B. conservations C. preservations
    D. desperations
  • 44.The man standing over there is the composer
    who will __________ the orchestra at tonights
  • A. control B. manipulate C. operate D.

  • 45.   Do you think he is ________ in making that
  • A. reasoned B. rationalized C. justified
    D. identified
  • 46.   The constitution is no longer ________ as a
    system of private rights and legislation is now
    regarded as a dynamic, not an interpretative
  • A. contrived B. conceived C. contracted
    D. contributed
  • 47.The new job _______ selling and setting up
    sale conferences.
  • A. retails B. entails C. details D.
  • 48. Half the people questioned said they were
    opposed to military _______ in the civil war.
  • A. interference B. interpretation C. intrusion
    D. intervention
  • 49. The campaign of violence and ____ against
    them intensifies daily.A. intimation B.
    intoxication C. intimidation D. intrusion
  • 50.   His face _________ with bitterness and
  • A. contorted B. extorted C. presorted
    D. retorted
  • 51.The missionaries____the teaching of
    Christianity throughout the islands. A.
    dispatched B.apprised C. discharged D. preached

  • 52.  In buying an apartment, a difference of ten
    cents in prices is _____. A. negligible B.
    infallible C. doubtful D. innumerable
  • 53. Cheer up! It is stupid to ______ over the
    lost opportunity all the time. A. rejoice B.
    brood C. dwell D. conceive
  • 54.   The lighting of the Olympic torch ________
    peace and friendship among the nations of the
  • A. expresses B. predicts C. means D.
  • 55.   Two men _________ him with weapons and
    forced him to give up his money.
  • A. blackmailed B. menaced C. conquered
    D. eliminated
  • 56.   Dont be so __________ to be taken by their
  • A. merciful B. malignant C. ingenuous
    D. obscene
  • 57.   There is no evidence to think that the
    _________ that the phone call was made by the
    defendant is correct.
  • A. resumption B. consumption C. supposition D.
  • 58.   The dress will not __________ the years as
    my velvet will.
  • A. stand up to B. live up to C. come up
    to D. face up to
  • Key

  • 1-5 BDBCC 6-10 ACABD
    11-15 BBCBA
  • 16-20 DBACA 21-25 BBACB 26-30
  • 31-35 DDCBA 36-40 DBBAC 41-45
  • 46-50 BBDCA 51-55 BABDB 56-58

4. Writing Skills Employed in the Text
  • 1. How to write a chronological development of a
    thing or an event.(pay attention to time
  • 2. How to define a new term (e.g. use of
    synonyms, examples, a list of items covered by
    the term, or a list of items not covered by the
    term), and ask Ss to work in pairs to locate and
    appreciate the definitions for the following
    terms in Text A MT(Para1), parallel
    text(Para7), example-based MT system (Para7),
    Babel Fish (Para 10), round-trip translation
    (Para 10)

V. Post- reading tasks
  • 1. Have Ss do some after-text exercises
  • 2. Check on Ss home reading of Text B
  • 3. Guide Ss through Reading Strategy
  • 4. Have Ss to prepare for the next
    unita. Preview Text A of Unit 8b. Suggested
    topic of Oral Presentation for Text A of Unit 8
  • 5. Let students do some additional exercise

The End
  • Thank you !
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