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BTEC National Travel and Tourism


BTEC National Travel and Tourism ... Wales and Scotland Plus the location of the proposed Mourne National Park in Northern Ireland. Activity evidence for P1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BTEC National Travel and Tourism

BTEC National Travel and Tourism
  • Unit 1 Investigating Travel and Tourism

Unit 1 Learning Outcomes
  1. Know the components of travel and tourism, and
    how they interrelate
  2. Know the roles and responsibilities of travel and
    tourism organisations within the different
  3. Understand how recent developments have shaped
    the present day travel and tourism industry
  4. Understand the trends and factors affecting the
    development of travel and tourism

  • Make a list of all the travel and tourism
    organisations that you can think of
  • Try and group them into similar categories, e.g.
    transport, attractions, accommodation, etc.
  • Think of ways in which some of the organisations
    work together
  • Have a go at coming up with your own definition
    of travel and tourism
  • Make a list of the reasons why people travel in
    this country and abroad
  • Write down who you think owns the travel and
    tourism organisations on your original list
  • Make a list of the jobs available in two of the
    organisations you have listed

What is travel and tourism?
  • '...the activities of persons travelling to
    and staying in places outside their usual
    environment for not more than one consecutive
    year for leisure, business and other purposes
    (World Tourism Organisation)
  • Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement
    of people to destinations outside the places
    where they normally live and work, and activities
    during their stay at these destinations it
    includes movement for all purposes, as well as
    day visits or excursions (Tourism Society)

What is travel and tourism?
  • Both definitions clearly show that people we
    think of as tourists are
  • Away from their normal place of residence
    (although they will be returning home)
  • On a visit that is temporary and short-term
  • Engaged in activities which would normally be
    associated with travel and tourism
  • Not necessarily staying away from home overnight
    they may be on a day-trip or excursion
  • Not always away from home for holiday purposes
    they could be on business or visiting friends and
    relatives (VFR), but would still qualify as

Types of tourism
  • There are three main types of tourism
  • Domestic tourism when people take holidays,
    short breaks and day trips in their own country,
    e.g. a family from Birmingham enjoying a two-week
    holiday in a farm guesthouse in North Wales
  • Inbound/incoming tourism when people enter a
    country from their own country of origin or
    another country which is not their home, e.g.
    Monsieur and Madame du Pont from Paris sampling
    the delights of Edinburgh as part of a driving
    tour of Scotland
  • Outbound tourism when people travel away from
    the country where they normally live, e.g. the
    family from Birmingham deciding to give North
    Wales a miss this year and taking a week's
    holiday at Disneyland Paris instead

Textbook activity 1.1
  • Carry out a survey of the rest of your group to
    find out how many people took their last holiday
    abroad (outbound tourism) and what proportion
    stayed in the UK (domestic tourism). Draw a bar
    chart showing the results you collected. Ask the
    members of your group to tell you which
    components of the travel and tourism industry
    they used on their last holiday.
  • This activity is designed to provide evidence
    for P1

Why do people travel?
Leisure tourism
Business tourism
Textbook activity 1.2
  • Business tourism is often considered to be high
    value tourism. Why do you think this is? Can you
    think of ways that travelling for business
    reasons has changed in recent years and what
    factors are likely to affect business travel in
    the future?

CD-ROM activity CD1.1
  • Investigates the different types of leisure

CD-ROM activity CD1.2
  • Investigates the different types of business

Components of travel and tourism
  • Accommodation
  • Transport
  • Attractions
  • Tour operations
  • Travel agents
  • Tourism development and promotion
  • Trade associations and regulatory bodies
  • Ancillary services
  • All of these components are provided by a large
    number of different businesses and public
    agencies working in tourism, which together make
    up the travel and tourism industry as shown in
    the following slide.

Components of travel and tourism
Textbook activity 1.3
  • Working in a small team, carry out some research
    into which components of the travel and tourism
    industry are found in your local area. Use the
    diagram in Figure 1.4 (slide 13) as your starting
    point. Make a note of the names of the companies
    or organisations represented, their purpose and
    how they interrelate with other components of the
    travel and tourism industry, giving examples that
    include domestic, inbound and outbound tourism.
  • This activity is designed to provide evidence
    for P1, P2 and M1

Types of accommodation
  • Serviced when a service is provided along with
    an overnight stay, e.g. hotels, guesthouses,
    youth hostels, B Bs, etc.
  • Self-catering when tourists cater for
    themselves, e.g. cottages, camping, holiday
    centres and villages, caravanning, second homes,

Accommodation grading schemes
  • Accommodation grading schemes are a way that
    tourist boards can classify accommodation
    according to the quality of facilities and
    standards of service on offer in a particular
    establishment. Customers use these schemes when
    selecting where to stay, with the expectation
    that their accommodation will be a fair
    reflection of the grade that it has been given.
  • In the UK, the national tourist boards have used
    different schemes in the past based on crowns,
    stars, keys and a variety of other symbols. There
    are also schemes on offer from the motoring

Textbook activity 1.4
  • Carry out some research into the accommodation
    grading scheme used by your national tourist
    board and design an illustrated brochure for
    visitors that explains the different categories
    on offer.

Types of transport
  • Road private car, coach, taxi, bus, bicycle
  • Rail regional services, inter-city routes,
    high-speed services, steam trains
  • Sea ferries, cruise ships, barges, yachts
  • Air scheduled services, charter flights, no
    frills carriers, air taxis

Road travel
  • Most popular type of transport used by tourists
    in Britain
  • Dramatic growth in car ownership since the 1950s
  • Congestion and pollution are problems in urban
    and rural areas
  • Historic cities and National Parks have
    introduced traffic control measures, e.g.
    park-and-ride schemes, cycle hire, etc.

Rail travel
  • Under-investment over many decades in Britains
    rail network
  • Government is now investing over 60 billion to
    develop a bigger, better and safer railway system
  • Network Rail maintains the infrastructure
    track, signalling, bridges, tunnels, etc.
  • Train Operating Companies (TOCs) run the trains,
    ticketing, rail enquiries, etc.
  • Examples of TOCs include Virgin Trains, GNER,
    Arriva Trains, First Great Western, etc.

Textbook activity 1.5
  • Produce a PowerPoint presentation on one of the
    UKs train operating companies (TOCs), giving
    details of its history, services, performance
    standards, fare structures and customer service
    arrangements. Describe how the company works with
    other components of the travel and tourism
    industry, formally and informally.
  • This activity is designed to provide evidence
    for P1 and P2

Sea travel
  • Sea travel in UK tourism is dominated by the
    ferry companies, which operate services between
    the UK and Ireland, Scandinavia and the near
    continent, e.g. France, Belgium and the
  • There is fierce competition on the cross-Channel
    services between ferry companies and the Channel
  • Cruising from UK ports is growing in popularity
  • 1.2 million British people took a cruise in 2005
  • Major cruise companies include Cunard, Ocean
    Village, Thomson Cruises and PO

Air travel
  • Rapid growth in international tourism over the
    last 50 years is closely linked to the growth in
    air travel
  • Deregulation of air travel has increased
    competition between airlines and helped to keep
    fares low on an expanding network of routes
  • Britain has a number of world-class airlines,
    e.g. British Airways, Virgin Atlantic Airways,
    easyJet, bmi, etc.

Types of air travel services
  • Domestic air travel within a country, e.g. a
    flight from Manchester to Stansted
  • International flights between different
    countries, e.g. London Heathrow to New York
  • Scheduled services that run to a published
    timetable (includes low-cost airlines)
  • Charter services linked to package holidays,
    where tour operators contract with an airline for
    a specific route for a season, e.g. Newcastle to
    Alicante between Easter and the end of October

Textbook activity 1.6
  • Carry out some research on low-cost airlines to
    find out which companies fly from the following
    UK airports Edinburgh, Cardiff, Birmingham,
    Stansted and Manchester. Choose one of the
    companies and find out more information on its
    route network, sample prices, additional
    services, fare structures, aircraft fleet, etc.
    Describe the interrelationships the airline has
    with other components of the travel and tourism
    industry, giving examples that include domestic,
    inbound and outbound tourism.
  • This activity is designed to provide evidence
    for P1, P2 and M1

  • UK airports handled 228 million passengers in
  • Traffic at the 5 main London airports Heathrow,
    Gatwick, Stansted, Luton and London City
    totalled 133 million passengers
  • Heathrow was the UKs busiest airport with 68
    million passengers
  • Traffic at UK regional airports is growing
    rapidly the result of the increasing numbers of
    flights offered by the low-cost airlines, e.g.
    Ryanair, flybe, easyJet, Jet2, bmibaby, etc.

  • Visitor attractions can play a large part in a
    destinations success.
  • They attract visitors and encourage them to stay
    at a destination longer, thus increasing visitor
  • The UK officially has 6500 visitor attractions
    they are important to both the domestic and
    inbound tourism market.

Visitor attractions can be either natural or
purpose built (man-made).
For this section you need to research the
Natural attractions
Heritage attractions
Purpose-built attractions
Natural Attractions
The UK has an abundance of fine landscapes.
Domestic and overseas visitors are attracted to
the beautiful coastline, the rugged mountains,
peaceful lakes and the picturesque valleys.
Many areas are now AONB or SSIs these include
the National Parks map exercise www
Activity evidence for P1 add to display board
On an outline map of the UK mark the position of
the Existing National Parks in England, Wales
and Scotland Plus the location of the proposed
Mourne National Park in Northern Ireland.
Heritage Attractions
Many of Britains most popular attractions are
heritage attractions, depicting life at a
particular point in time in the past.
Museums, Galleries etc are examples of such
  • Research the following two heritage attractions
    as examples for your display board.
  • Remember to give details about what they are and
    what they offer the tourist.
  • Jorvik Viking Centre in York
  • Ulster American Folk Park
  • You can also look in Wikipedia

Purpose built attractions
As the name suggests these are tourist
attractions that are man made.
Examples include theme parks, zoological centres,
entertainment venues etc.
Research example Local Aquarium in Portaferry National Alton towers or
the London eye
Events attract tourists to an area as well as
serving the needs of local people.
They come in all shapes and sizes the Olympics,
to local and regional examples such as the St
Patricks Carnival.
There are lots of examples to research. Edinburgh
Festival Notting Hill Carnival
Glastonbury St Patrick celebrations.
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Tour Operations
  • Tour operators are the holiday companies that
    many of us use when booking a UK or overseas
  • The role of the Tour operator is to put together
    all the different components that make up a
    holiday and sell them as packages to the

They make contracts with hoteliers, airlines and
other transport companies to put the package
In the case of foreign package holidays, the
majority of customers use the services of a
travel agent.
However, developments in technology have meant
that growing numbers of people are using the
internet, digital tv or teletext.
Companies that sell direct claim that the money
they save on paying travel agents is passed on to
the customer meaning a cheaper holiday.
The big 4 tour operators include Thompson,
MyTravel, Thomas Cook and First Choice Holidays.
however these companies have merged recently.
In 2007, Thomas Cook and MyTravel merged and
First Choice and Thompson also merged to
effectively create two super tour operators.
The graph above clearly shows an increase in
online tour operations in recent years since
2002. customers are able to visit these
websites and design their own holiday.
Types of tour operators
  • Mass-market operators
  • Specialist operators
  • Domestic operators
  • Incoming tour operators

Mass market operations (outbound)
These operations sell high volumes of holidays
and include best known names -
Thomas Cook Group, the company formed by the
merger of travel giants Thomas Cook and MyTravel,
began trading on June 19 2007.
Tour operator First Choice merged with the
tourism division of German company TUI which
includes Thomson Holidays. The deal, which has to
be approved by shareholders, will see the
creation of a new company - TUI Travel.
  • Research Choose one of the tour operators
  • History of the company
  • Its roles and responsibilities
  • Products that it sells
  • Destinations it travels to
  • Researching on the internet and in brochures
    should give you
  • All the info you need

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