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Action Research on Parent-Child Co-Learning in Penghu through English Picture Storybooks


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Title: Action Research on Parent-Child Co-Learning in Penghu through English Picture Storybooks

Action Research on Parent-Child Co-Learning in
Penghu through English Picture Storybooks
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I. Purpose of the Study
  • The first purpose of this study is to model the
  • process for parents who would like to guide
  • children in reading. Moreover, the investigator
  • would like to examine parents and childrens
  • attitudes toward the co-learning after the given
  • co-learning project. Last, from their attitudes,
  • advisable teaching methods and activities are
  • expected to be discovered from this study.

II. Research Questions
  • A. What is the process of EFL parent-child
    co-learning in childrens books?
  • B. What are the EFL parents and childrens
    attitudes toward the co-learning process after
    the project?
  • C. What are the advisable teaching methods and
    activities that help EFL parent-child
    interactions through co-learning childrens

III. Literature Review
  • Whole Language Approach
  • The concept of whole language has
    been adopted long in New Zealand later, some of
    the American experts in reading instruction like
    Goodman, Harste, and Burke theorized it in the
    1980s in the United States. A great number of
    researchers put efforts in this language theory
    and applied it in activities in literacy
    instruction. Goodman (1986) and Niblack (1995)
    voiced the condition that language learning is
    effective only when it is in a whole language

  • B. Cooperative Learning
  • Cooperative Learning is a learning
    strategy that centers working together not only
    by teacher and students, but also by students
    themselves. The idea of Cooperative Learning can
    be traced back to Dewey, who proposed the
    engagement of students cooperation in the
    classroom (1916). Later, in the mid 1960s, D. W.
    Johnson and R. T.
  • Johnson established Cooperative Learning
    Center and set up the language teaching approach
    for Americans.

  • C. Parent-Child Co-Learning
  • With meaningful interactions in the
    co-learning, many researchers and experts have
    attested optimistic effect in parents and their
    children. Leonora (1981) mentioned that through
    discussion in reading childrens literature, a
    child can learn how to adapt himself to a new
    environment physically and mentally. Bruno (1989)
    believed that even though the child is an
    independent reader, the parents should still tell
    stories to him often because the need for
    parent-child relationship goes beyond the childs

IV. Research Methodology
  • Action Research
  • The steps of action research used in
    this study are summarized as follows
  • (1) Identification Choose a topic for action
    research and determine its purpose and
  • (2) Collection Gather sources of information as
    well as organization and analysis.
  • (3) Evaluation Evaluate the data analyzed and
    make improvement for next action research.

  • B. Setting
  • The classroom is in an elementary school
    in Magong City in Penghu, with a blackboard, a
    TV, a CD player, book shelves, a bulletin board,
    six sets of students desks and one set for
    teaching aids like storybooks and pictures.
    Hardware equipment, such as a projector and a
    laptop computer, is in store in the iron saves.
    Childrens books were displayed on book shelves
    in the back of the classroom for students
    outside reading. A bulletin board is placed
    behind for class notice and students work
    presentation. All the students desks are
    arranged in groups, so that the investigator can
    easily conduct classroom activities in groups.
    Also, such desk arrangement saves much space as
    the investigator may walk around the groups.

  • C. Participants
  • The participants are parents and children
    in eight pairs. Among the participants, there are
    eight parents and twelve children. All of the
    parents are female. The parents are aged
    thirty-nine in average, with two of them masters
    degree, five with bachelors degree, and one with
    senior high school educational background. One of
    the parents had an English major. Four of the
    parents are housekeepers, one in education, one
    in business, one in service, and one in free
    lance. As for children, four of them are in the
    first grade, four in the second grade, two in the
    third grade, and two in the fourth grade. They
    are aged eight in average.

  • D. Course Design
  • The program was designed for thirteen
    weeks, from March 17, 2010 to June 9, 2010. Six
    picture storybooks (No, David! Bear Hunt,
  • The Very Hungry Caterpillar, Handas
  • Does a Kangaroo Have a Mother, Too? The Little
    Red Hen) were used throughout warm-up,
    presentation, practice, and activities. Each week
    lasted for two periods.

  • E. Instruments
  • (1) Field notes
  • Field notes were recorded for each class,
    where the investigator kept track of what he
    observes from the co-learning process. The field
    notes included parents and childrens responses,
    feedback, difficulties, interactions with each
    other, and things worth notice. Field notes
    served as a short diary of feelings from the

  • (2) Questionnaires
  • Two sets of questionnaires were employed
    in this study. The first one was the survey, and
    the other was the oral interview. Some of the
    questions above were developed by the
    investigator himself, and some others are adapted
    from other studies (Lin, 2001 Tsai, 2004 Wei,
    2005). All of the questions were first examined
    and revised by two pairs of parents and their
    children, who were not the participants, to
    modify the unsuitable question expressions.

V. Findings and Discussions
  • Process of Parent-Child Co-Learning
  • (1) Children
  • Over half of the children expressed
    positive response to the survey items. All the
    children said they strongly agreed or agreed on
    interactions like guessing stories with the
    class, (N12) answering my teachers
    questions, (N12) trying to speak in simple
    English, (N12) and asking my teacher word
    meanings in stories, (N12). Only three of the
    children chose disagree on items asking my
    teacher questions about stories and actively
    participating in front of the class.

  • (2) Parents
  • According to the investigators
    observation, the three things that parents would
    do to interact with their children are listed
  • (a) Guiding children in shared reading
  • (b) Providing assistance for childrens
  • participation
  • (c) Giving positive reinforcement on the
  • worksheets

  • B. Parents and Childrens Attitudes toward the
  • Co-Learning Interactions
  • (1) Children
  • Nine out of the twelve children supported
    the idea that the program made them enjoy
    learning English with their parents. Likewise,
    most of them (N9) felt attending the class with
    their parents did not make them nervous. Indeed,
    studies have proved the positive effect of
    parents involvement on childrens learning,
    which lessens the frequency of their behavioral
    problems (McNeal, 2001 Wu, 2002). In this study,
    children interacted with their parents naturally
    in the program.

  • (2) Parents
  • At least six out of the eight parents
    agreed that the program made them enjoy (N7) and
    realize (N6) the ways to learn with their
    children. Most of the parents disagreed that
    learning English with children is tiresome (N6).

  • C. Parents and Childrens Suggestions for Co-
  • Learning Program
  • (1) Children
  • A majority of children stated that they
    hoped for more stories from the teacher (N9),
    more time for story discussions (N11), more
    activities in class (N11), more English
    vocabulary or sentences (N12), more
    opportunities to speak English (N9) and to write
    English (N10). Eight out of the twelve chose
    strongly agree or agree to have more teaching

  • (2) Parents
  • Over half of the parents agreed with the
    suggestions of telling more stories (N7), having
    more time for story discussions (N7), having
    more activities in class (N5), teaching more
    English vocabulary or sentences (N8), having
    more opportunities for children to speak English
    (N8) and to write English (N5). Different from
    their children, the only exception is having more
    teaching hours, which over half of the parents
    disagreed on (N5).

VI. Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Conclusions
  • 1. Parents shifted their roles while
  • with children
  • 2. Co-learning program made parents and
  • children love stories
  • 3. Co-learning program becomes more
  • through sharing childrens books

  • B. Recommendations
  • 1. For teachers
  • (1) Variety of activities should be
  • for a multi-leveled class
  • (2) Communication with parents should
  • made on language performance
  • 2. For parents
  • (1) Co-learning environment should be
  • provided for children
  • (2) Parents should be aware of childs
  • learning pace

Appendix A P-C Project (Mom Said, I Said)
Appendix B P-C Project (Animal Planet)
Appendix C P-C Project (The Small Book Box)
Appendix D P-C Project (Family Picture)
  • Thank you for your listening and comments!!! 0
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