Application of ICT in Mainstreaming of Gender in The Global Market And Women Entrepreneurship Promotion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Application of ICT in Mainstreaming of Gender in The Global Market And Women Entrepreneurship Promotion


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Title: Application of ICT in Mainstreaming of Gender in The Global Market And Women Entrepreneurship Promotion

Application of ICT in Mainstreaming of Gender in
The Global Market And Women Entrepreneurship
  • The emergence of electronic commerce over the
    past decade has radically transformed the
    economic landscape. For developing countries, the
    digital revolution offers unprecedented
    opportunities for economic growth and
    development, as entrepreneurs from Bangalore to
    Guadalajara to Dakar can testify.
  • Kofi A. Annan

  • Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)
    are not only a significant factor in the
    performance and growth of economies - the
    importance of which is continuously growing -,but
    they also represent a novel and effective tool to
    help advance sustainable human development (SHD).

  • The Buenos Aires Declaration on Global
    Telecommunication Development for the
    Twenty-first Century stated that
    telecommunications are an essential component of
    political, economic, social, and cultural
    development and the basis of the global
    information society

  • ICTs allow faster delivery and a more adapted
    content of technical assistance in a variety of
    sectors - ranging from long-distance education,
    telemedicine, environmental management to
    strengthening of participatory approaches and the
    creation of new livelihoods.

  • ICTs allow access to information sources
    worldwide, promote networking transcending
    borders, languages and cultures, foster
    empowerment of communities, women, youth and
    socially disadvantaged groups, and help spread
    knowledge about "best practices" and experience.
  • ICTs are indispensable to realize the global
    information society and the global knowledge

  • Women are a vulnerable group throughout the
    world, and are targeted e-international and
    national efforts to improve their status. Lack of
    knowledge is the main reason why women are
    considered a vulnerable group.
  • Having ICT-literate women who use it to advance
    in their careers is important to help them keep
    up with the global trends and live up to the
    international standards.

Factors hindering women access to ICT
  • A series of factors, including literacy and
    education, language, time, cost, geographical
    location of facilities, social and cultural
    norms, and women's computer and information
    search and dissemination skills constrain women's
    access to information technology.

Factors hindering women access to ICT
  • Science and technology education.
  • Womens access to resources is limited due to
    biases resulting from the family arbitration
  • Lack of womens grassroots organizations prevents
    their participation in development activities.

Factors hindering women access to ICT
  • Constraints to the preparation and implementation
    of appropriate development plans.
  • Lack of regional gender-desegregated data.
  • Absence of womens groups because of cultural
  • Weak collaboration with non-governmental or
    private entities.

Objectives of ICT Applications
  • Mainstreaming of gender in global market.
  • Economic empowerment of women.
  • Women entrepreneurship promotion.

Mainstreaming of gender in global market
  • Access to labor market
  • According to the ILO World Employment Report
    2001, the greatest potential for job creation
    globally is within the core IT sector.

Economic Violence Against Women
  • Definition
  • Economic violence against women is the suffering
    of women from poverty, deprivation of Job
    opportunities her capability to increase her
    income her standard of living.

Economic Violence Against Women
  • The unemployment of females in Egypt is 21
    against 5 in Males.
  • 27 of the men headed families are below the line
    of poverty while on the other hand 45 of the
    women headed house hold are below the line of
  • The average wages for males is 54 L.E. compared
    to that of females 37 L.E. which is 69 of the
    wages of the males.

Economic Violence Against Women
  • Although there is equal pay for the same job
    the labor law does not discriminate in salaries
    between males or females in the same job.
  • Women have access to only 12 of the microloans.
  • Women own only 3 of the cultivated land.

Factors contributing to Economic Violence against
  • Education
  • The tradition culture concentrates on the
    education of males as the main supporter of the
    family with negligence to womens education
    increasing her dependency on the male partner.
  • Training
  • She has less chance to improve her talents
    hence qualify for prestigious jobs requiring
    certain skills I.T technology. Thus women
    contribute 22 of the labor market in the lowest
    occupational ladder with medium wages as their
    training opportunities are much less than the
    male opportunities.
  • Economic Awareness Women Entrepreneurship
  • The promotion of women Entrepreneurship is
    closely linked with their economic awareness
    their ability to establish their own enterprises
    though formal equality exists in the constitution.

Empowerment through employment of women
  • ICT makes the role of time and distance less
    significant in organising business and production
    related activities.
  • Women therefore can work from anywhere and at
    anytime and raise that extra income to become
    more financially independent and empowered.

Empowerment through employment of women
  • Recently, companies like Ford and General
    Electrics have moved their back-end operations to
    Asia and employ a large number of women workers
    having basic information technology and data
    management skills.
  • New areas of employment such as tele-marketing,
    medical transcription etc. have also opened up
    tremendous job opportunities for women. These
    jobs are definitely under-paid and fall at the
    lower segment of ICT jobs nevertheless, they are
    opening up avenues where none existed before.

Entrepreneurship Promotion
  • Definition of An entrepreneur
  • An entrepreneur is essentially a person who is
    not only self-employed but generates employment
    and income for others through a combination of
    efforts requiring zeal and capability to
    transform physical, financial, natural and human
    resources for production possibilities to extract
    the business potential within any situation.

Entrepreneurship Promotion
  • Entrepreneurs should be able to produce
    innovative goods and services to suit to the
    market demand as well as earn a profit. Besides
    the above qualities, women entrepreneurs need to
    have additional quality in terms of determination
    and tenacity and additional skills in terms to
    access to ICT to cope with adverse situations,
    which seem to confront the female entrepreneurs
    more than their male counterparts in a given

Promotion of Womens Entrepreneurship
  • It is a means to alleviate womens unemployment
    and poverty and also stimulate economic growth.
  • Womens entrepreneurship promotion aims at
    eliminating gender specific barriers which limits
    womens capacity to up businesses. These include
    inadequate access to information, business
    networks as well as the traditional attitude
    towards the gender role.

Entrepreneurship Promotion Objectives
  • To contribute to the elaboration of strategies
    and policies supporting women in using their
    entrepreneurial potential.
  • To raise awareness among regional decision-makers
    concerning the importance of promoting womens
  • To develop tools such as financing, incubators
    and seminars for encouraging potential women

Entrepreneurship Promotion Objectives
  • To set up regional networks supporting womens
  • To develop training and education that
    contributes to creating an entrepreneurship
    culture for women.
  • To contribute in the capacity building and
    training of entrepreneur regarding ICT.

E-commerce and Women Entrepreneurship Promotion
  • E-commerce Definition
  • Any use of information and communications
    technology by a business that helps to improve
    its interactions with customers or suppliers.
  • The definition encompasses both domestic and
    international business. SMEs may find beneficial
    ways to use e-commerce to enhance relationships
    with their domestic customers and suppliers as
    well as internationally.

Creating class of women entrepreneurs
  • One of the most powerful applications of ICT in
    the domain of knowledge networking is electronic
    commerce. Electronic commerce refers not just to
    selling of products and services online but to
    the promotion of a new class of ICT-savvy women
    entrepreneurs in both rural and urban areas.
  • Women over time have learnt the advantages
    offered by ICT and its potential in opening up
    windows to the outside world. This has put them
    in a greater control over the activities
    performed by them- laying the foundation for
    entrepreneurship development

Potential Gains from e-Commerce
  • Find new customers and partners and suppliers
    domestically and internationally
  • Serve current and new customers better, hence
    offering more value to them
  • Improve the efficiency of their business
  • Offer entirely new services and products even
    start entirely new businesses.

  • Marketing is always an obstacle facing women
    entrepreneurship. ICT is crucial for marketing of

Marketing Agreement
  • An agreement was done between Egyptian Federation
    of Business and Professional Women (BPW-Egypt),
    and the International Federation of Business and
    Professional Women (BPWI) to market BPW-Egypt
    women products via their website which is
    accessible to 50000 members in 100 countries.
  • Main Obstacle
  • All the products to marketed are still not
    promoted using ICT tools, even just a CD
    catalogue as a marketing tool never existed.

ICT Benefit For Women Owners Of SMEs
  • E-commerce may offer them comparatively more
    advantages to find new customers and suppliers
    especially in markets they have not easily been
    able to reach before either internationally or
  • Access to Information
  • The most valuable application is information
    accessing to facilitate their business and
    generating and disseminating information about
    it. Women entrepreneurs globally have said that
    access to information, especially market
    information, is their first priority in
    accelerating the growth of their businesses5.

Role of Partners of Development in Promoting
Gender Equity in Using IT
Partners of Development
  • Building Partnerships
  • It is necessary to involve strategic stakeholders
    from both the public and the private sectors.
  • These could include the government bodies,
    corporate firms, financial institutions and the
  • Fostering corporate partnership in ICT ventures
    and raising of venture capital fund for social
    development projects becomes an important line of
  • This could be done through a plethora of ways
    such as ICT based advertisement, using existing
    corporate infrastructure for opening of
    telecentres, bringing about transfer of technical
    expertise from corporate to the development

Partners of Development
  • Governments.
  • Civil Society.
  • Private Sector.

Partners of Development
  • Governments
  • Education.
  • IT Policy.
  • Telecommunication Infrastructure.

A- Governments
  • Education
  • Girls and women must acquire literacy and basic
    education to be able to fully utilize new
  • Information technologies could be integrated into
    girls' education and women's literacy programs to
    expose girls to new technologies at early stages
    and allow for much needed integration of these
    two program areas.

A- Governments
  • IT Policy
  • IT policy must take gender into account to
    provide an enabling environment for women, and
    gender policy must take account of the
    opportunities that IT can bring.
  • Telecommunication Infrastructure
  • The country must have good telecommunications
    infrastructure and an enabling environment that
    will attract jobs that women can fill.
    Requirements for teleworking are computer
    literate workers, reliable power supply, and
    adequate communication infrastructure5.

B- Civil Society
  • NGOs contribute to the empowerment of women and
    development of human resource through
  • Training.
  • Capacity Building.
  • Technical Assistance and Support Services.
  • Advocacy.
  • Project Development.
  • Networking.

B- Civil Society
  • Training
  • Women outside the formal schooling system and
    already in the workforce need access to
    technology training to retrain and upgrade skills
    as well as to acquire new ones. Such improvement
    requires interventions at all levels of

B- Civil Society
  • Capacity Building
  • Empowerment of women in the context of knowledge
    societies is understood as building the ability
    and skills of women to gain insight of actions
    and issues in the external environment which
    influence them, and to build their capacity to
    get involved and voice their concerns in these
    external processes, and make informed decisions.
  • It entails building up of capacities of women to
    overcome social and institutional barriers, and
    strengthening their participation in the economic
    and political processes for an overall
    improvement in their quality of lives.

B- Civil Society
  • Technical Assistance and Support services
  • Human resource development for system support To
    ensure the presence of girls and women among the
    technologically trained, campaigns could be
    developed to attract and retain women
  • Advocacy
  • Strengthening institutional capacity to integrate
    gender considerations in policies and programs
    and supporting women's equitable access to
    training is required to ensure that
    telecommunications address women's needs and
    concerns more effectively.

B- Civil Society
  • Project Development
  • Effective partnerships with NGOs which extend
    beyond disaster relief and mitigation to include
    a range of project development, implementation
    and delivery systems can contribute to the
    effectiveness and range of telecommunications
  • Many innovative activities and models for
    telecommunications networks are being developed
    by NGOs which contribute to improved
    consultation, human resource development, and
    incorporating gender equality considerations.
  • Programs will have to be designed and put in
    place that ensures women's access to the
    technologies that can empower them in many
    aspects of their lives.

Civil Society
  • Networking
  • Networking is crucial to have access to the
    global market.
  • Affiliation to regional and international women

Private Sector
  • Should mobilize its resources and invest in the
    field of ICT.
  • Share the social responsibility of the capital in
    funding training programs for the uses of ICT for
    women Entrepreneurship.

  • Access to the global market
  • Information and communication technologies have
    enormous potential to link remote communities to
    global markets, to make telemedicine and telework
    available to communities in need, to democratize
    decision-making, to support distance learning.
    But if the global community and national policy
    makers are not proactive about ensuring that the
    benefits of IT are equally available to and
    shaped by women and men, we will fail to reap the
    full potential of these powerful tools.

  • ICT is a way to alleviate poverty and contribute
    to the solution of elimination of economic
    violence against women and hindering women access
    to the labor market.
  • Without full participation in the use of
    information technology, women are left without
    the key to participation in the global world of
    the twenty-first century.

  • A brain-storming meeting was held in Addis Ababa,
    Ethiopia, 21-23 November 2003, for the building
    of the African Union in 21st century.
  • It recommended to encourage member states to
    promote investments in ICT to enhance the
    development of the African private sector.
  • A project was submitted to the African Union for
    economic women empowerment through ICT.

  • During the 2nd Pan AfroArab Congress of Business
    and Professional Women held in Cairo, April,
    2003, it was recommended to establish an
    E-Catalogue gathering the products and services
    of women entrepreneurs in the Arab World and
    Africa to achieve economic integration in the
    region and open international markets which acts
    as a marketing tool to empower women

  • Concentrate on the export of services and
    products using ICT.
  • Establishment of a Databank for Business women,
    experts, industries, products, etc.

  • Partners of Development should
  • Put a plan of action for increasing of ICT
    awareness among women and organizing training
    courses for capacity building.
  • Raise awareness, build vision and advise on
    policies to capture information and knowledge for
  • Promote and build connectivity and necessary
    infrastructure for access to information and
  • Build required human and social capacities and
    institutions and provide training and education
    to impart requisite skills.

  • Leverage partnerships with the private sector
    (they have the know-how), business associations,
    teaching institutions, technical schools or any
    other associations of SMEs.
  • Meet with and work with womens professional
    associations or other organizations with women
    business owners as members.

  • Provide support to several innovative approaches
    to e-readiness training by different
    organizations and then facilitate the replication
    of the successful ones in other areas.
  • Conduct pilot projects to demonstrate the
    feasibility, suitability and impact of ICTs for
    sustainable human development (SHD) through
    electronic community centres.
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