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Settling the Backcountry


Settling the Backcountry Extended through the western part of most colonies Dense forests Rushing streams Appalachian Mountains Clashes with Native Americans over ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Settling the Backcountry

Settling the Backcountry
  • Extended through the western part of most
  • Dense forests
  • Rushing streams
  • Appalachian Mountains
  • Clashes with Native Americans over trade and land
  • Colonists resented government control

What were the Scots-Irish like?
  • Most settlers in backcountry had been forced west
  • Troubled region/history
  • Hostile environment gave SI survival skills that
    were useful in the Backcountry
  • Suffered drought, rent increases, and persecution
    by Church
  • Clans banded together and were extremely

What did the Scots-Irish Bring?
  • Unique culture
  • American Country Music and Bluegrass
  • Track and Field sports events
  • Democracy and freedom
  • Loyalty and Warrior ethic influenced military

Colonial Life
Women Men
Cooked, churned butter, made soap, candles, and clothes Worked outside
Tended the garden Planted, raised, and harvested crops
Looked after farm animals Cared for livestock and butchered meat
Ran inns or other businesses Cut trees and chopped wood for fires
A few practiced trades Could vote
Could not vote Could own land
Could not own property without husbands permission Could preach
Money earned by women belonged to husband Practiced trades
Life of the Young
  • American families were large
  • New England- 6 to 8 children
  • More children more farm workers
  • Age 13- boys became apprentices
  • Would receive education, food, clothing, lodging
    in exchange for work
  • 4-7 years for free then could work for wages or
    start own business
  • Girls learned to sew and other household skills
  • Age 13- girls sent away to learn special skills
  • Weaving
  • Cheese making

Education and Literacy
  • American Colonies had a higher rate of literacy
    than England
  • New England- 80 of white men were literate
  • England- 60 of white men were literate
  • Middle Colonies- 65
  • Southern- 50
  • Most thought it was more important for men to be
  • ½ as many women were literate in each region
  • Illegal to teach enslaved Africans to read
  • Eliza Lucas taught enslaved children
  • Children were taught to read so that they could
    understand the Bible
  • New England had free public schools

Africans in New England
  • Only few slaves in New England
  • 1700- only 2 of the population
  • No large plantations
  • Slaves
  • House Servants
  • Cooks
  • Gardeners
  • Stablehands
  • Were hired out to work in shops or warehouses
  • Could sometimes keep portion of wages
  • Could possibly buy their freedom

Africans in New England
  • New England had more free blacks than any other
  • Merchants, sailors, printers, carpenters, or
  • Still were not treated as equals

African Americans in the Cities
  • Economy did not depend on slave labor
  • 1750 only 7 of population was enslaved (most
    lived in cities)
  • Compared to Southern colonies 40
  • New York City was a big part of the slave trade
  • Manual laborers
  • Servants
  • Drivers
  • Assistants
  • Built roads, houses, and public buildings

Racial Tension in New York City
  • Lives of Slaves were harsh
  • Fears of slave revolt increased
  • 1712- group of slaves rebelled
  • Burned several buildings
  • Slaves faced defeat, torture, and death
  • Did not prevent further rebellions
  • Quakers condemned slavery
  • Said it was immoral and against Christian
  • Worked to prevent the slave trade from entering

The Search for Cheap Labor
Percentage of Population
What was causing this trend in the Southern
Middle Passage
Planters Turn to Slavery
  • First- tried Native Americans
  • Died of diseases
  • Escaped into forests
  • Turned to African Americans
  • By 1750- more than 235,000 living in America
  • 68 were in the Southern Colonies
  • 40 of the Souths population
  • As population increase, more laws arose
  • Were checked for passes when traveling
  • Living areas were checked for weapons
  • Etc

Living in Slavery
  • 20-25 slaves per overseer
  • Worked for 15 hours a day during peak seasons
  • Whipped, tortured, and mutilated if not doing
    work well
  • Small living areas and very little food
  • Kept customs and beliefs alive!
  • Music
  • Dance
  • Stories
  • Religion

Expansion of Plantations Brings Resistance
  • Growing rice required great skill
  • African Americans had these skills from certain
    areas in Africa
  • Rice grew in lowlands
  • Indigo was grown on higher ground
  • Introduced by Eliza Lucas

The Enslaved Fight Back
  • Worked slowly
  • Damaged goods
  • Deliberately carried out orders in the wrong way
  • Pretended not to understand directions

The Stono Rebellion
  • 1739
  • 20 slaves killed planters and marched south
  • Chanting Liberty
  • Called out for others to join them as they
  • Up to 100 total
  • 7 plantations were burned and 20 whites were
  • Fighting broke out
  • Many slaves died
  • Those captured were executed
  • Led to stricter rules on slaves
  • Needed permission to leave plantations
  • Illegal to meet with free blacks

Religious Revival
  • Both movements (Great Awakening and
    Enlightenment) offered people ways of changing
    themselves and their world
  • The Great Awakening
  • Inside emotions were more important than outward
  • Jonathan Edwards promised that everyone could be
    saved- attracted many crowds
  • Offered hope for every person
  • Many argued about religious practices
  • The established church grew weaker

Religion and Social Change
  • In the South
  • The Great Awakening threatened the social system
    by focusing on equality
  • African Americans were baptized
  • Baptist congregations welcomed African Americans
    and Native Americans
  • Allowed slaves to preach and women to speak in
  • Other ministers taught Christianity and reading
    to Native Americans and African Americans

The Great Awakening
  • Helped to develop American identity by
    encouraging a belief in spiritual equality
  • Inspired religious debate, which increased
    religious diversity
  • Encouraged colonists to challenge authority and
    question religious practices
  • It became easier to challenge and question other
    social and political traditions
  • Laid the groundwork for the revolt against
    British power

The Enlightenment
  • Enlightenment emphasized human reason and science
    as the path to knowledge
  • Benjamin Franklin was an important figure
  • Challenged social practices
  • Valued equality and justice
  • Began in Europe but soon influenced American

The Enlightenment
  • John Locke
  • Challenged the belief that kings had God-given
  • Citizens had the right to change their government
    if it does not protect their natural rights
  • Natural Rights
  • Life
  • Liberty
  • Property
  • Belief in Progress
  • Citizens can improve society and the world
  • Optimistic hope for future
  • Sparked political debate in colonies
  • Began to see British government as a threat to
    their rights and freedoms
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