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## ElectroMagnetic Induction

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Title: ElectroMagnetic Induction

1
ElectroMagnetic Induction
• AP Physics B

2
What is E/M Induction?
• Electromagnetic Induction is the process of using
magnetic fields to produce voltage, and in a
complete circuit, a current.

Michael Faraday first discovered it, using some
of the works of Hans Christian Oersted. His work
started at first using different combinations of
wires and magnetic strengths and currents, but it
wasn't until he tried moving the wires that he
got any success.
It turns out that electromagnetic induction is
created by just that - the moving of a conductive
substance through a magnetic field.
3
Magnetic Induction
• As the magnet moves back and forth a current is
said to be INDUCED in the wire.

4
Magnetic Flux
• The first step to understanding the complex
nature of electromagnetic induction is to
understand the idea of magnetic flux.

B
A
Flux is a general term associated with a FIELD
that is bound by a certain AREA. So MAGNETIC FLUX
is any AREA that has a MAGNETIC FIELD passing
through it.
We generally define an AREA vector as one that is
perpendicular to the surface of the material.
Therefore, you can see in the figure that the
AREA vector and the Magnetic Field vector are
PARALLEL. This then produces a DOT PRODUCT
between the 2 variables that then define flux.
5
Magnetic Flux The DOT product
• How could we CHANGE the flux over a period of
time?
• We could move the magnet away or towards (or the
wire)
• We could increase or decrease the area
• We could ROTATE the wire along an axis that is
PERPENDICULAR to the field thus changing the
angle between the area and magnetic field vectors.

6
• Faraday learned that if you change any part of
the flux over time you could induce a current in
a conductor and thus create a source of EMF
(voltage, potential difference). Since we are
dealing with time here were a talking about the
RATE of CHANGE of FLUX, which is called Faradays
Law.

7
Useful Applications
• The Forever Flashlight uses the Faraday Principle
of Electromagnetic Energy to eliminate the need
for batteries. The Faraday Principle states that
if an electric conductor, like copper wire, is
moved through a magnetic field, electric current
will be generated and flow into the conductor.

8
Useful Applications
• AC Generators use Faradays law to produce
rotation and thus convert electrical and magnetic
energy into rotational kinetic energy. This idea
can be used to run all kinds of motors. Since the
current in the coil is AC, it is turning on and
off thus creating a CHANGING magnetic field of
its own. Its own magnetic field interferes with
the shown magnetic field to produce rotation.

9
Transformers
• Probably one of the greatest inventions of all
time is the transformer. AC Current from the
primary coil moves quickly BACK and FORTH (thus
the idea of changing!) across the secondary coil.
The moving magnetic field caused by the changing
field (flux) induces a current in the secondary
coil.

If the secondary coil has MORE turns than the
primary you can step up the voltage and runs
devices that would normally need MORE voltage
than what you have coming in. We call this a STEP
UP transformer. We can use this idea in reverse
as well to create a STEP DOWN transformer.
10
Microphones
• A microphone works when sound waves enter the
filter of a microphone. Inside the filter, a
diaphragm is vibrated by the sound waves which in
turn moves a coil of wire wrapped around a
magnet. The movement of the wire in the magnetic
field induces a current in the wire. Thus sound
waves can be turned into electronic signals and
then amplified through a speaker.

11
Example
• A coil with 200 turns of wire is wrapped on an
18.0 cm square frame. Each turn has the same
area, equal to that of the frame, and the total
resistance of the coil is 2.0W . A uniform
magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the
plane of the coil. If the field changes uniformly
from 0 to 0.500 T in 0.80 s, find the magnitude
of the induced emf in the coil while the field
has changed as well as the magnitude of the
induced current.

Why did you find the ABSOLUTE VALUE of the
EMF? What happened to the that was there
originally?
4.05 V
2.03 A
12
Lenzs Law
• Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced emf
and current resulting from electromagnetic
induction. The law provides a physical
law of induction, indicating that the induced emf
and the change in flux have opposite signs.

Lenzs Law
In the figure above, we see that the direction of
the current changes. Lenzs Law helps us
determine the DIRECTION of that current.
13
Lets consider a magnet with its north pole
moving TOWARDS a conducting loop. DOES THE FLUX
CHANGE? DOES THE FLUX INCREASE OR
DECREASE? WHAT SIGN DOES THE D GIVE YOU IN
FARADAYS LAW? DOES LENZS LAW CANCEL OUT? What
does this mean?
Yes!
Increase
Positive
NO
Binduced
This means that the INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD around
the WIRE caused by the moving magnet OPPOSES the
original magnetic field. Since the original B
field is downward, the induced field is upward!
We then use the curling right hand rule to
determine the direction of the current.
14
Lenzs Law
The INDUCED current creates an INDUCED magnetic
field of its own inside the conductor that
opposes the original magnetic field.
Since the induced field opposes the direction of
the original it attracts the magnet upward
slowing the motion caused by gravity downward.
A magnet is dropped down a conducting tube.
The magnet INDUCES a current above and below the
magnet as it moves.
If the motion of the magnet were NOT slowed this
would violate conservation of energy!
15
Lenzs Law
Lets consider a magnet with its north pole
moving AWAY from a conducting loop. DOES THE
FLUX CHANGE? DOES THE FLUX INCREASE OR
DECREASE? WHAT SIGN DOES THE D GIVE YOU IN
FARADAYS LAW? DOES LENZS LAW CANCEL OUT? What
does this mean?
Yes!
Decreases
negative
yes
Binduced
In this case, the induced field DOES NOT oppose
the original and points in the same direction.
Once again use your curled right hand rule to
determine the DIRECTION of the current.
16
In summary
• Faradays Law is basically used to find the
MAGNITUDE of the induced EMF. The magnitude of
the current can then be found using Ohms Law
provided we know the conductors resistance.
• Lenzs Law is part of Faradays Law and can help
you determine the direction of the current
provided you know HOW the flux is changing

17
Motional EMF The Rail Gun
A railgun consists of two parallel metal rails
(hence the name) connected to an electrical power
supply. When a conductive projectile is inserted
between the rails (from the end connected to the
power supply), it completes the circuit.
Electrons flow from the negative terminal of the
power supply up the negative rail, across the
projectile, and down the positive rail, back to
the power supply.
In accordance with the right-hand rule, the
magnetic field circulates around each conductor.
Since the current is in opposite direction along
each rail, the net magnetic field between the
rails (B) is directed vertically. In combination
with the current (I) across the projectile, this
produces a magnetic force which accelerates the
projectile along the rails. There are also forces
acting on the rails attempting to push them
apart, but since the rails are firmly mounted,
they cannot move. The projectile slides up the
rails away from the end with the power supply.
18
Motional Emf
• There are many situations where motional EMF can
occur that are different from the rail gun.
Suppose a bar of length, L, is pulled to right at
a speed, v, in a magnetic field, B, directed into
the page. The conducting rod itself completes a
circuit across a set of parallel conducting rails
with a resistor mounted between them.

19
Motional EMF
• In the figure, we are applying a force this time
to the rod. Due to Lenzs Law the magnetic force
opposes the applied force. Since we know that the
magnetic force acts to the left and the magnetic
field acts into the page, we can use the RHR to
determine the direction of the current around the
loop and the resistor.

20
Example
• An airplane with a wing span of 30.0 m flies
parallel to the Earths surface at a location
where the downward component of the Earths
magnetic field is 0.60 x10-4 T. Find the
difference in potential between the wing tips is
the speed of the plane is 250 m/s.

0.45 V
In 1996, NASA conducted an experiment with a
20,000-meter conducting tether. When the tether
was fully deployed during this test, the orbiting
tether generated a potential of 3,500 volts. This
conducting single-line tether was severed after
five hours of deployment. It is believed that the
failure was caused by an electric arc generated
by the conductive tether's movement through the
Earth's magnetic field.