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What is Islam and how is it related to Judaism and Christianity?


Title: What is Islam and how is it related to Judaism and Christianity? Author: Laura Last modified by: CUSD95 Created Date: 3/27/2003 8:28:43 PM Document ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Islam and how is it related to Judaism and Christianity?

What is Islam and how is it related to Judaism
and Christianity?
  • Islam peace, submission
  • Muslim submitter
  • Not Mohammedanism
  • Abrahams two sons
  • Isaac ? the Hebrews (Judaism ? Christianity)
  • Ishmael ? the Arabs (Islam)
  • Islam respects the two earlier Abrahamic
    religions as Peoples of the Book

Who was Muhammad
  • b. 570 CE, d. 632 CE
  • Prophet/founder human, not divine
  • Lived in Arabia, near Mecca
  • Orphaned by age 6, raised by grandfather and
  • Worked as a caravan driver for a woman Khadija
    15 years his senior
  • Age 25 accepted offer to marry Khadija
  • Sired six children, only one daughter Fatimah
    had children of her own
  • Age 40 Revelation begins 610 CE, continues
    throughout remainder of the Prophets life

What is the Quran?
  • Quran recite, recitation
  • Holy book of Islam
  • Revealed to Muhammad by God through angel Gabriel
  • Written piecemeal by scribes during or shortly
    after Muhammads life
  • Compiled as a whole about 20 years after
    Muhammads death
  • Comprised of 114 chapters (called surahs)
  • Hadith and Sunnah (stories, sayings, and
    traditions of Muhammad)
  • Quran Hadith and Sunnah Shariah (Islamic Law)

The Development of Islam
  • Early persecution by Meccans
  • Year 619 wife and uncle both die
  • Year 622 Hijrah - migration to Yathrib (Medina
    City of the Prophet) (year 1 AH)
  • Success in Medina, defense against Meccan attacks
  • Year 630 Reclaiming of Mecca
  • Year 632 first Muslim pilgrimage (hajj) to
    Mecca, led by Muhammad who died a few months
    later, having united the Arab tribes under the
    banner of Islam
  • Within 100 years, spread east toward India and
    west into north Africa and Spain

Who are Muslims?
  • More than one billion Muslims in the world today
  • Two major groups
  • Sunni 80 in many locations throughout the world
  • Shiite 15, mostly in Iran
  • Difference is political, basic beliefs and
    practices are the same
  • Sufis are Muslim mystics, come from both Sunni
    and Shiite backgrounds
  • Most Muslims are not Arab and not all Arabs are

What do Muslims Believe?
  • One God (Allah)
  • Spiritual beings
  • Angels, Jinn and the Devil (Iblis, Shaitan)
  • Prophets Messengers
  • Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, Muhammad
  • Holy Books
  • Torah, Psalms, Gospels, Quran
  • Decrements (destiny) Inshallah (if God wills)
  • End Times (eschatology)
  • Resurrection, Judgment day, Heaven Hell

How is Islam Practiced?The Five Pillars
  • Shahada Witness
  • There is no God but The God (Allah) and Muhammad
    is the Prophet of God
  • Salat Prayer, five times every day
  • Zakat alms giving to the poor and needy
  • Sawm fasting, sun-up to sun-down during month
    of Ramadan
  • Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca (at least once in a
    Muslims life, if able)

What is the Kaaba?
  • Located in the center of Mecca
  • Pre-dates Islam (said to have been built by
    Abraham and Ishmael as an altar to God)
  • Used by pre-Muslim Arabs for worship of their
    many tribal gods (idols)
  • Year 630 reclaimed by Muhammad, cleansed and
    rededicated to Allah
  • Center of Islam to this day place of annual
    pilgrimage and direction of prayer for Muslims
    from all corners of the globe

Other Sacred Places
What is a Mosque?
  • A place for prayer, study, socializing
  • No shoes in prayer hall
  • Women cover head, separate from men
  • Wudu room for ritual cleansing before prayer
  • Minaret for call to prayer (Adhaan)
  • Prayer hall oriented toward Mecca (qibla)
  • Imam (prayer leader) stands in mirahb(niche)

  • Halal (permissible) and Haram (prohibited)
  • No eating of pork (other dietary regulations
  • No gambling
  • No intoxicants
  • No usury (charging or paying interest on loans)
    (the rich shall not profit from helping the poor)

What about Jihad?
  • Struggle not Holy War
  • Inner spiritual and moral struggle between good
    and evil
  • Outer struggle to maintain proper social setting
    according to Gods will
  • Struggles in the Holy Land
  • Palestinian vs. Israeli, not Muslim vs. Jew
    (political, not religious)

What about Women in Islam?
  • Respected and Protected by Men
  • Modest dress for both men and women
  • Hijab differs from culture to culture
  • Heavy cover and veil not a religious requirement

Rights of Women
  • Right to vote (citizenship)
  • Right to inherit
  • Right to work, earn and keep their own money
  • Right to keep their own name in marriage
  • Right to initiate divorce
  • Right to refuse additional wives
  • Female infanticide outlawed

  • Jannah.org http//www.jannah.org/
  • World Assembly of Muslim Youth http//www.wamy.co.
  • Discover Islam Online http//www.discover-islam-on
    line.com/ (posters)
  • PBS Documentaries
  • Islam Empire of Faith http//www.pbs.org/empires/
  • Muhammad Legacy of a Prophet http//www.pbs.org/m
  • Muslims (Frontline) http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages
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