American History Unit 12 America at the Turn of the Twentieth Century - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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American History Unit 12 America at the Turn of the Twentieth Century


American History Unit 12 America at the Turn of the Twentieth Century Out of this conference came the formation of the National Association for the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American History Unit 12 America at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

American HistoryUnit 12America at the Turn of
the Twentieth Century
America at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
  • Topics discussed in this unit
  • Education
  • Entertainment
  • Life for African Americans under Jim Crow laws
  • The changing role of women.

The Expansion of Education
  • In the nineteenth century, education was out of
    reach for many Americans, but by the turn of the
    century more and more Americans were able to take
    advantage of educational opportunities.
  • Educational opportunities were not available to
    all Americans on an equal basis.
  • Women, African Americans, and Native Americans
    still faced significant discrimination.

  • By the end of the nineteenth century, the vast
    majority of Americans attended at least a few
    years of public schooling in order to learn to
    read, write, and do basic arithmetic.
  • Public schools not only provided education for
    immigrant children, but they also played a major
    role in assimilating immigrants, helping them
    become part of American culture.

The Expansion of Education
  • As more students completed high school, more
    opportunities developed for them to attend
    institutions of higher learning.

The Expansion of Education
  • Between the years 1880 and 1900, around 150 new
    colleges and universities opened their doors.
  • By 1915, even some middle-class families were
    able to send their children to college.

  • Women, too, began to have opportunities to
    receive a higher education as many colleges
    formed associated womens schools.
  • This wide availability of higher education would
    come to distinguish the United States from other
    industrialized nations.

Early American Classes
The Expansion of Education
  • Unfortunately this education was not equally
    available to everybody.
  • African-American children generally attended
    separate schools that were very inferior to those
    of their white counterparts.

  • Native American children could only attend
    schools if they left the reservation and their
    families to attend special boarding schools that
    forced them to give up their language, dress,
    customs, and culture.

Carlisle Indian Industrial School
The Expansion of Education
  • As far as higher education went, there were few
    colleges and universities who would admit African
    Americans, yet there were many African Americans
    who wanted higher educational opportunities.
  • Only a few institutionsOberlin, Bates, and
    Bowdoinaccepted African-American students, and
    there were also several segregated
    African-American schools founded during
    Reconstruction, including Fisk University and
    Howard University.

Early African-American Schools
The Expansion of Education
  • Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Dubois
    represented two differing views on
    African-American education.
  • Washington believed in vocational education that
    would provide African Americans with a way of
    making a living because they needed economic
    equality to gain social equality.
  • W. E. B. Dubois did not agree. He argued that
    African Americans needed to gain social and
    political equality and civil rights through
    educated leaders who took pride in their heritage.

Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Dubois
New Forms of Entertainment
  • From 1880 to 1915, Americans who had more money
    and leisure time began to flock to new forms of

New Forms of Entertainment
  • With new forms of transportation and more leisure
    time and more money, many Americans began to look
    for new forms of entertainment to take them away
    from the dirty, crowded streets where they lived
    and work.
  • These forms of entertainment included vaudeville
    shows and, sometime later, movies.
  • They also included visits to the circus and tips
    to amusement parks.

New Forms of Entertainment
  • This was the grand era of amusement parks such as
    Coney Islands Luna Park.

New Forms of Entertainment
  • Sports provided people with another form of
    inexpensive entertainment, and fans flocked to
    baseball, football, and basketball games in

1889 Cincinnati Red Stockings
Ben Turpin and Charlie Chaplin, 1915
Amusement Parks
New Forms of Entertainment
  • Other more personal forms of entertainment
    included the reading of newspapers, magazines,
    and dime-store novels.
  • Musical diversions included concerts, dances, or
    simply gathering around the piano at home.
  • The invention of the player piano and the
    phonograph helped spread the development of new
    musical styles such as jazz and ragtime.

Jazz and Ragtime
The World of Jim Crow
  • African Americans lost many of the rights they
    had gained during Reconstruction.
  • In the South, Jim Crow laws were designed to keep
    African Americans subservient.
  • In the North, there was less legal
    discrimination, but still not full equality in
  • African Americans began to band together to work
    for civil rights.

The World of Jim Crow
The World of Jim Crow
  • After the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites
    began to introduce laws to keep freed slaves and
    other African Americans subservient in society.
  • First, they restricted the voting rights of
    African Americans by requiring literacy tests or
    poll taxes that they knew African Americans could
    not pass or afford.

Jim Crow
  • Most Southern states also introduced Jim Crow
    laws to enforce segregation.
  • These laws required the separation of African
    Americans and whites in schools, parks, public
    buildings, hospitals, and on transportation

The World of Jim Crow
The World of Jim Crow
  • Even public facilities such as bathrooms and
    water fountains were segregated.
  • The Supreme Court held up this idea of
    segregation in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson,
    which stated that separate but equal facilities
    are Constitutional.

The World of Jim Crow
  • Facilities, though, were hardly equal, which was
    difficult to prove in court.
  • In the North, discrimination was less blatant but
    was still ever present, sometimes erupting in
    race riots.
  • Violence was not unusual as African Americans
    were frequently attacked ormuch worselynched.

The World of Jim Crow
  • As discrimination and violence became
    increasingly common, black leaders began to seek
    solutions for the race problems.
  • In 1905, many black leaders met to discuss the
    problem at the Niagara Conference in Ontario,

  • Out of this conference came the formation of the
    National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.

The World of Jim Crow
  • The NAACP became a vital force in the fight for
    civil rights throughout the twentieth century.
  • African Americans also began to form mutual-aid
    societies to help the advancement of their
  • African-American intellectuals published
    scholarly articles and literature,
    African-American businesses sprang up everywhere,
    and Booker T. Washington established the national
    Negro Business League in 1900.

Negro Business League in 1900
The Changing Roles of Women
  • With new inventions to make housework easier,
    women found their roles in society changing.
  • These changes fueled a debate over the proper
    role of women in the workplace, in education, and
    in the public arena.

The Changing Roles of Women
  • At the turn of the century, there was wide debate
    throughout society on the women question.
  • For many women, the question boiled down to a few
    demands Women should be able to vote, control
    their own property and income, and obtain an
    education and professional job.

Early Suffragettes, 1913
The Changing Roles of Women
  • Womens role in the home had changed. Although
    there was still necessary work, it no longer took
    as many hours to take care of a home and family.
  • Few women needed to bake homemade bread or make
    their familys clothes because ready-made items
    were less expensive and easily available.
  • Even rural families could receive many ready-made
    articles with rural free delivery from the post
    office and mail order catalogues from Sears and
    Montgomery Wards.

Early Sears and Roebuck Catalogue
The Changing Roles of Women
  • Many women worked in factories, as domestic
    servants, or as teachers or nurses either because
    their families needed the funds or because they
    wanted to work.
  • Most but not all women stopped working after
  • The invention of the typewriter and telephones
    provided more work opportunities for women as
    secretaries or operators.

  • Wealthier women put their energies into volunteer
    work to improve society.
  • They joined clubs of common interest and worked
    for causes such as temperance and girls

The Changing Roles of Women
  • Womens groups established libraries and helped
    each other in speaking, writing, and finance.
  • The National Womens Suffrage Organization began
    to strive toward gaining the vote for women in
    1890 and would succeed thirty years later.
  • Although many women disagreed with some of the
    ideas of the New Women and her dress,
    hairstyles, occupations, and pastimes, suffrage
    was the issue on which nearly all of them could

National Womens Suffrage Organization
National Womens Suffrage Organization
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