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Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle


Title: Active, Healthy Lifestyles for All: Thinking About Philosophy Author: Deborah Buswell Last modified by: Deborah Buswell Created Date: 9/24/2003 1:26:52 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle

Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle
  • Chapter 13

  • Major goal in adapted physical activity
  • Detriments to achievement
  • Lack of knowledge
  • Lack of self-determination
  • Lack of self-confidence
  • Lack of self-esteem
  • Role models

Recent Changes in the Knowledge Base
  • WHO
  • Biocultural approach to physical activity
  • Healthy People 2010
  • American Association on Mental Retardation
  • Exercise and physical activity adherence focus

Recent Changes in the Knowledge Base
  • Increased use of FITNESSGRAM, the ACTIVITYGRAM,
    and the new Presidential Active Lifestyle Award -
  • ACSM updated guidelines and resources
  • Minimal physical activity standard for health

Recent Changes in the Knowledge Base
  • Minimal physical activity standard pertaining to
    calories expended during activity
  • Easy-to-understand information about
    conditioning, training, and testing people with
  • NCPERID standards

Definitions of Fitness, Activity, and Related
  • Physical fitness
  • Physical activity
  • Exercise
  • Function or capacity
  • Health
  • Wellness

Rehabilitation Versus Fitness Programming
  • Rehabilitation - restoration and/or maintenance
    of physical function which allows an individual
    to perform activities of daily living without
    incurring high levels of stress or fatigue
  • Services provided in hospitals or centers that
    provide services for persons temporarily or
    permanently disabled
  • Medical model
  • Reimbursed by insurance

Rehabilitation Versus Fitness Programming
  • Fitness testing and training - conducted in many
    settings and follows many models
  • Associated with goals beyond activities of daily
  • Prevention of hypokinetic conditions like
    obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure
  • Hypokinetic - insufficient movement or exercise
  • Hypokinetic disease begins in childhood

Lifestyle Problems of Americans
  • Everything that interferes with wellness and
    negatively affects lifespan
  • Various factors such as diet, stress, smoking,
    drug abuse, and physical inactivity are risk
  • SHPPS report on physical activity in schools
  • Healthy People 2010 - increase daily physical
  • Exercise adherence

Lifestyle Concerns Pertaining to Disability
  • Poor body alignment and inefficient movement
    patterns increase energy expenditure
  • Various factors negatively affect mechanical
    efficiency and energy level
  • Coping with barriers requires extra energy
  • Employment requires high levels of fitness
  • Obtain social acceptance and overcome

Lifestyle Concerns Pertaining to Disability
  • Relief of chronic depression and other mental
    health problems
  • Sedentary lifestyles are associated with lack of
    socialization into sport or physically active
  • Success in programs can increase body image and
  • Activity deficit hypothesis
  • Obesity associated with movement problems in

Components of Health-Related Fitness
  • Cardiorespiratory or aerobic endurance
  • Body composition
  • Muscular strength and endurance
  • Flexibility
  • Also beliefs, attitudes, and intentions that give
    persons the self-determination, self-confidence,
    and self-esteem to achieve and maintain fitness

  • School-age individuals with functional capacity
    to perform the test items
  • Criterion referenced
  • Includes alternatives items for individuals who
    cannot perform the prescribed six tests
  • Unique aspects include the PACER, cadence tapes
    for curl-ups and push-ups, and alternative tests
    for upper body strength

Assessment of Physical Activity
  • Recall of physical activity over previous 24
    hours in 30-minute blocks
  • Six categories examined as well as the intensity
    levels in each 30-minute block
  • Data is also gathered through the use of heart
    rate monitors, activity monitors, direct
    observation, and self-report

Brockport Physical Fitness Test
  • Parallels the FITNESSGRAM and is a
    health-related, criterion-referenced test
  • Presents standards for youth in the general
    population as well as five subgroups with various
  • Recommended adaptations and alternatives for
    testing students with various disabilities

Brockport Physical Fitness Test
  • Target Aerobic Movement Test
  • Seated Push-Up
  • Reverse Curl
  • Wheelchair Ramp Test
  • Modified Apley Test
  • Modified Thomas Test
  • Dumbbell Press
  • Target Stretch Test

Other Fitness Tests
  • Each country has its own test, norms, and minimal
  • Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sport
    - uses norms and award structure
  • YMCA test is used worldwide
  • Various single fitness component tests

School Fitness Testing History, Issues, Trends
  • Which tests to use
  • How high to set fitness standards
  • How much time to spend training and testing
  • Fitness over sports and motor skills training
  • Trend toward performance within healthy fitness
  • Personalization of fitness goals and tests

Types of Fitness Physical and Motor
  • Physical fitness - health-related
  • Cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition,
    muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility
  • Motor fitness - skill-related
  • Agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, and
    reaction time
  • Included as part of definition of physical
    education in IDEA

The 1950s Early Beginnings
  • Kraus-Weber research findings
  • American College of Sports Medicine
  • Presidents Council on Youth and Fitness
  • First AAHPER Youth Physical Fitness Test
  • Contributions of Rarick

The 1960s to the 1980s
  • 1960-1970s focus on both physical and motor
  • 1980s AAHPERD tests changed focus exclusively to
    health-related fitness
  • Fitness tests for persons with mental retardation
  • Fitness norms developed for youth who were blind
    or visually impaired - later adjusted to match
    general population except running items

The 1980s Onward Health-Related Fitness
  • Late 1980s AAHPERD moved to criterion-referenced
  • Physical Best replaced by FITNESSGRAM
  • Major research for fitness of various populations
    funded by U.S. government including four
    specifically targeted at various disability

Fitness Classifications Requiring Special Help
  • Various methods of classifying fitness and
    identification of individuals who require special
  • Adapted physical activity generally focuses on
    those who are classified as having symptomatic
    clinical status

  • Maximum amount of oxygen consumed by cells in the
    final seconds of exercise prior to total
  • Age and gender both affect VO2max
  • Active muscle mass, understanding test
    instructions, and poor motivation affect results

  • Metabolic equivalents
  • Alternative way of indicating aerobic capacity
  • Ranges from 1 to 16
  • Those who function in the 1 to 6 range have
    severe fitness problems that interfere with daily
    living activities

Exercise Prescription Five Components
  • Frequency - 3 to 5 times a week
  • Intensity - 60 to 90 of maximum heart rate
  • Time - 20 to 60 minutes
  • Modality - rhythmic, large muscle activity
  • Rate of progression - gradual increase in
    frequency, intensity, and time

Exercise Prescription Five Components
  • Assessment
  • Goal setting
  • Decision making about training
  • Establishment of dates and program duration
  • Evaluation to determine if goals are being

Personalizing Goals for Various Conditions
  • Severe developmental disabilities
  • Spinal paralysis and injury rehabilitation
  • Other health impairments
  • Limited mental function
  • Limited sensory function

Severe Developmental Disabilities
  • Postural reflex mechanism and muscle tone
  • Population includes those with limited mental
    and/or physical capacities
  • Major goals include ROM, functional ability to
    perform movement patterns used in fitness, and
    exercise capacity tolerance
  • For those with good intelligence, ROM is the
    primary fitness goal

Spinal Paralysis and Injury Rehabilitation
  • Strength is a major goal - often with ROM
  • Residual strength grading system
  • Also used in disability sport classification
  • Postural fitness is associated with imbalances in
    strength and flexibility

Other Health Impairments
  • Weight loss and aerobic endurance are generally
    the major goals
  • Sedentary lifestyles
  • Concurrent conditions
  • Distorted perceptions about feeling good
  • Realization of fitness level

Limited Mental Function
  • Same fitness needs as general population
  • Weight loss and cardiorespiratory endurance are
    generally most important goals
  • Understanding of speed and distance
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Autonomic nervous system regulation
  • Severe retardation - importance of fitness
    training over other goals

Limited Sensory Function
  • Same fitness needs as general population
  • Senior citizens - assistance with
    cardiorespiratory fitness

Aerobic Capacity or Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Most important component of health-related
  • Improvement - performance of vigorous activities
    that elevate heart rate for a minimum of three
  • Begin with interval conditioning
  • Bouts of 1 min of exercise interspersed with 1 or
    2 min of rest

Assessment of Aerobic Capacity
  • Field tests - step tests, distance runs, and
    walking tests
  • Field tests provide estimates of ability
  • Laboratory tests are done on treadmills, bicycle
    and wheelchair ergometers, and arm-cranking
  • Awareness of cardiac resting and exercise
    recovery rates

Assessment of Aerobic Capacity
  • Resting heart rate is a good indicator of fitness
  • Recovery time helps determine whether exercise
    demands are appropriate or excessive
  • Recovery of breathing rate to normal should
    require less than 10 min

Prescribing Aerobic Exercise
  • Continuous (more than 3 min) low-impact exercise
  • Four principles for low-fit people
  • Use low-impact activities
  • Match frequency, intensity, and time to ability
  • Pay attention to self-concept and motivation
  • Teach acceptance that rate of progression will be
    slower than for average people

Matching Frequency Intensity and Time to Ability
  • Frequency - daily when working with low-fit
  • Time - as many minutes as can be tolerated and/or
    woven into a persons schedule
  • Intensity can be prescribed by several methods -
    VO2 max, METS, or calories, maximal heart rate,
    rating of perceived effort, pain, and

Intensity Prescribed by VO2max, METS, or Calories
  • 40 to 70 VO2max
  • Moderate intensity is defined as 3 to 6 METS
  • 300 calories per exercise session
  • Maintain heart rate in the target zone during

Intensity Prescribed by Maximal Heart Rate
  • Fastest speed a heart can attain during
    exhaustive exercise without compromising or
    endangering life
  • Age-adjusted MHR formula
  • Exercise within a range of 60 to 90 of MHR
  • When active mass is limited MHR is not applicable
  • Some OHI conditions, environmental factors,
    stress, and medications can affect MHR

Perceived Exertion, Pain, and Dyspnea
  • Children from age 7 onward give RPEs that
    correlate highly with heart rate
  • Overweight persons tend to overestimate
  • Use for people whose hearts do not respond
    properly to exercise
  • Goal of exercise tolerance for individuals unable
    to maintain target heart rate

Perceived Exertion, Pain, and Dyspnea
  • Real pain versus discomfort
  • Increase intensity gradually
  • Coping with or ignoring discomfort may need to be
  • Use numerical scales to objectify ratings of pain
    and dyspnea (breathing discomfort)

Body Composition
  • Individual components that constitute the total
    body mass
  • Females have more fat, and males have more muscle
  • Children have less body fat than adults
  • Largely genetically determined
  • Some disabilities affect body composition
  • Body fat percentage is a major fitness concern

Assessment of Body Fat
  • Measured using laboratory protocols and formulae
  • Estimated using skinfold caliper measures
  • Triceps is recommended if using one site
  • Best combination of skinfold measures is

Body Mass Index Substitute Measure
  • Substitute for body fat measures when skinfold
    calipers are not available
  • Ratio of body weight to the square of body

Body Mass Index Substitute Measure
  • Interpret physical and motor fitness scores in
    relation to height, weight, and skinfolds
  • Height-weight tables heighten motivation for
    lifestyle changes but weight and percent body fat
    are not highly correlated

Prescribing Exercise for Fat Loss
  • Large muscle activity needs to use more calories
    then are consumed daily
  • ACSM recommends no more than 2.2 lb should be
    lost per week
  • Obesity is a medical problem
  • Long-duration activity at low intensity is as
    effective as short duration/high-intensity
  • Counseling and support groups are essential

Muscle Strength/Endurance
  • Strength developed when muscle exertion is near
  • Endurance developed when a muscular activity
    continues for several seconds
  • Age and gender differences in strength parallel
    changes in muscle mass

Assessment of Muscle Strength/Endurance
  • Principle of specificity - benefits of exercises
    done in one position will not transfer when the
    muscle is used in other positions
  • Four general muscle groups tested
  • Focus is on the number of times an exercise is
    done in the prescribed posture or position

Prescribing Exercise for Muscle Strength/Endurance
  • Sedentary persons should take all muscle groups
    through strength and endurance exercises at least
    2 days a week
  • Variety of different activities
  • Principle of overload - progressively increasing
    the demands made on a muscle group - increase
    reps then resistance

Prescribing Exercise for Muscle Strength/Endurance
  • Isotonic exercises - dynamic or moving
  • Endurance exercises - use lighter weights and
    more repetitions
  • Strength exercises - use heavier weights and
    fewer repetitions
  • Progressive resistance exercise
  • Strength should be coordinated with a good
    flexibility routine

Prescribing Exercise for Muscle Strength/Endurance
  • Isometric exercises - static
  • Maximum or near-maximum muscle contraction that
    is held for 6 sec and repeated several times
  • Highly specific, strengthening muscles only for
    work at the same angle as the training
  • Not based on the overload principle
  • Not recommended for individuals with heart
    disease and high blood pressure

Prescribing Exercise for Muscle Strength/Endurance
  • Isokinetic exercises - machine-generated
  • Constant resistance machines
  • Keep velocity of movement constant and match the
    resistance to the effort of the exerciser
  • Maximal tension exerted throughout the range of

Valsalva Effect and Contraindications
  • Increase in intraabdominal and intrathoracic
    pressure that results when breath is held
  • Causes
  • Heart rate to slow down
  • Return of blood to the heart to decrease
  • Blood pressure to elevate
  • Contraindicated for persons with high blood
    pressure conditions or glaucoma

Range of Motion and Flexibility
  • Ability to move body segments through the actions
    and planes designated normal for each joint
  • Range of motion (ROM) - when the movement
    capacity at a joint is measured in degrees
  • Flexibility - functional stretching ability
  • Gender, age, and musculoskeletal differences
    affect flexibility as well as some disabilities

Assessment of ROM/Flexibility
  • Flexibility is specific to each muscle group
  • Sit-and-reach measures hamstring, hip, and spine
  • Measurements begin from anatomical position and
    are either an average of two or three
    measurements or the maximum

Prescribing Stretching Exercises
  • Purposes are generally to maintain elasticity, to
    warm up and cool down, or to correct pathological
  • Stretches should be slow and static not ballistic
  • Modalities can be active, passive, and/or
  • Incorrectly done stretches can worsen disabilty
    or cause injury

Using Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
  • A system of stretching that requires the help of
    an assistant that stimulates the proprioceptors
    to enhance functional flexibility
  • Based on the principle of reciprocal innervation
  • Recommended for individuals with cerebral palsy
    and arthritis
  • Two types of PNF
  • Contract-relax
  • Hold-relax - recommended if pain is an issue

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices
  • Application of theories can be used to help
    persons develop fitness and make changes in
  • Belief, attitudes, and practices should be
    included when developing goals and objectives

Underlying Theories
  • Reasoned action attitude theory
  • Self-efficacy or social cognitive theory
  • Perceived competence theory

  • Assessment includes self-reports of motivation,
    food intake, physical activity, and attitudes
    about the body and exercise
  • Self-motivation information helps in counseling
    and individualized teaching
  • Diaries or logs of food intake and physical
    activity help structure goal setting

Weather and Temperature Concerns
  • Important in all aspects of fitness
  • Susceptibility to heat and cold extremes
  • ANS damage compromises temperature regulation -
    dehydration a major concern
  • Poikilothermy
  • Humidity and wind-chill factor
  • Body temperature responses - hypothermia,
    hyperthermia, and heat stroke

Space and Equipment
  • Variety of physical activity spaces
  • Select equipment based on weakest muscle groups
  • Equipment for aerobic endurance
  • Instruction and experience in use of community
    health and exercise centers
  • Adaptable equipment for variety of levels

Organization of the Lesson Five Parts
  • Warm-up
  • Aerobic conditioning
  • Flexibility exercises for each major muscle group
  • Muscle strength/endurance exercises
  • Cool-down

Teaching for Fitness A Review of Principles
  • Individual differences
  • Overload/intensity
  • Frequency
  • Specificity/transfer
  • Active/voluntary movement
  • Correct breathing
  • Recovery/cool-down
  • Warm-up

Teaching for Fitness A Review of Principles
  • Static stretch
  • Contraindication
  • Adaptation
  • Motivation
  • Maintenance
  • Nutrition
  • Environmental factors
  • Ecological or social validity

Exercise Conditioning Methods
  • Methods of teaching various exercise components
  • Interval or intermittent
  • Circuits
  • Continuous
  • Combinations
  • Built around one modality or incorporated in
    various games and movement activities

Interval or Intermittent Training
  • Especially beneficial for persons with asthma,
    MD, and MS
  • Exercise for short periods with rest intervals
  • Generally planned for individuals or small groups
  • Sessions become more demanding each week

Interval or Intermittent Training
  • Associated terms
  • Set
  • Work interval
  • Rest interval
  • Repetitions
  • Target time
  • Level of aspiration

Circuit Training
  • Moving from station to station
  • Each station focuses on different muscles
  • Fewer stations for younger students
  • Amount of time at each station varies and
    transition time is kept short
  • Intensity increases gradually over time
  • Leaders at stations can be used if needed

Continuous Conditioning
  • Exercises that impose consistent submaximal
    energy requirements throughout the training
  • Aerobics, including dance and hydroaerobics
  • Rope jumping, continuous

Combination Conditioning
  • Use both continuous and intermittent activity
  • Other examples include
  • Astronaut or football drills
  • Jogging, hiking, and cycling
  • Obstacle or challenge courses
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