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Aim: How did American foreign policy affect Latin America?


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Title: Aim: How did American foreign policy affect Latin America?

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  • To understand how and why the United States grew
    during the 19th and early 20th Centuries.

  • After the Spanish-American War, the United States
    had acquired an empire.
  • As the 20th Century began, the United States
    cared about their interests in the Pacific and
    Asia, as well as their interests in Latin
  • The handling of the affairs between the United
    States and Latin America ran the line between
    very good and poor, it was all dependent upon the
    American president.

  • After the war, the United States acquired Puerto
    Rico from the Spanish.
  • In 1900, the United States Congress passed the
    Foraker Act.
  • The act established the government in Puerto
    Rico. It was very similar to the government
    established in the Philippines.

  • The United States would select the governor and
    choose the eleven members of an executive
  • Five of the council members must be native-born
    Puerto Ricans.
  • The council would serve as the upper house of the
  • The lower house would have their members elected
    by the people of Puerto Rico.

  • The reaction to the Foraker Act was mixed.
  • Leaders such as Ramon Betances were completely
    against the Foraker Act.
  • Puerto Rican businessmen were in favor of the
    Foraker Act, it created investment in the island
    and helped to strengthen the economy.
  • Puerto Rican farmers were against the Foraker
    Act, many American investors would take the best
  • Many Puerto Ricans, however, were dead set
    against American rule. They were certainly not

  • What was the Foraker Act?
  • This act established the first American-style
    government in Puerto Rico. The government would
    have a two house legislature. The upper house
    would be chosen by the US and the lower house
    would be chosen by the people themselves.

  • 1900 - Foraker Act.
  • PR became an unincorporated territory.
  • Citizens of PR, not of the US.
  • Import duties on PR goods
  • 1901-1903 ? the Insular Cases.
  • Constitutional rights were not automatically
    extended to territorial possessions.
  • Congress had the power to decide these rights.
  • Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were

  • After the Spanish-American War, the United States
    kept an active interest in Cuba.
  • The United States had invested a lot of money in
    the Cuban economy, so they were interested in the
    islands affairs.
  • The United States also cared about keeping the
    Cubans under tight control so that no other
    nation would influence their decision making

  • The military government of Cuba was led by
    General Leonard Wood, who made dramatic
    improvements for the Cuban way of life.
  • Walter Reed, an American doctor, made huge
    strides in improving the medical and health
    standards of the island.
  • However, the average Cuban, did not like the
    United States interfering in their daily affairs.

  • In 1900, the Cubans drafted their own
  • The following year, the United States Congress
    passed the Platt Amendment.
  • The Platt Amendment stated
  • 1-The Cubans would sell/rent land to the United
    States. (Guantanamo Bay)?
  • 2-The United States would maintain law and order
    in Cuba.
  • 3-Cuba could not borrow more money than they
    could repay in a loan from a foreign nation.
  • The Cubans accepted the terms of the Platt
    Amendment and then the American troops left the
  • In 1959, Cuba overthrew the American-supported

  • What was the Platt Amendment?
  • This amendment allowed the US to receive land in
    Cuba, provide a constant presence in Cuba to
    maintain law and order and Cuba could not borrow
    from any other nations besides the US.

  • Teller Amendment (1898)
  • The US Senator, Orville Platt,
  • the man who sponsored the
  • Amendment.
  • Platt Amendment (1903)?
  • Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with
    foreign powers that would endanger its
  • The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if
    necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
  • Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for
    naval and coaling station.
  • Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.

  • The idea of building a canal across Panama began
    in the 1800s.
  • During the Spanish-American War, the United
    States realized how important a canal would have
    been in their military strategy.
  • During the growth of big business, American
    businesses, supported the idea of building a
    canal for quicker travel.
  • With the victory in the war, the United States
    believed they could build the canal.

  • Getting the canal built was a difficult task.
  • The first difficulty was in getting the
    permission to build the canal.
  • The French were the first to build the canal.
    They started in 1881, but they soon ran out of
  • The French company, then, sold the rights to
    build the canal. The US Congress paid 40 million
    to get the rights. President Roosevelt gave the
    green light.

  • The second difficulty was the government of
  • The United States and the Colombian governments
    tried to negotiate a deal to sell the land.
    However, the United States offer of 10 million
    was too low in the eyes of the Colombian
  • The Colombians feared that their decision would
    anger the US. It did.

  • In November 1903, people who wanted a canal to be
    built in Panama, staged a revolt.
  • American warships were sent by President
    Roosevelt to stop the Colombian soldiers from
    ending the Panamanian revolt.
  • Soon after, the Republic of Panama was
    established and the US immediately recognized
    their sovereignty, geethe Canal.

  • Panama and the United States signed the
    Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty.
  • In this treaty, the United States would pay 10
    million dollars and then pay 250,000 annually to
    control the land needed to build the canal.
  • The United States also agreed that Panama would
    be independent.

  • Building the canal was a serious undertaking.
  • The US had to build a canal through jungles and
  • The builders had to contend with diseases from
    mosquitoes such as malaria. Colonel William
    Gorgas fought to end yellow fever and malaria in
    the region.
  • The canal was finally opened in 1914. The United
    States controlled the canal from 1914 until 1999
    when the canal was put under the control of the

  • 1850 ? Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
  • 1901 ? Hay-Paunceforte Treaty.
  • Philippe Bunau-Varilla,agent provocateur.
  • Dr. Walter Reed.
  • Colonel W. Goethals.
  • 1903 ? Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.

Theodore Roosevelt at Panama Canal
  • Who attempted to build a canal across Panama?
  • The French, but they ran out of .

  • What did the US offer Colombia for the rights to
    build the canal?
  • Ten million dollars which the Colombians
    rejected. The US would then sponsor the
    Panamanian Revolution.

  • Why were the Colombians against the canal treaty?
  • They thought the offer was too low.

  • Who was William Gorgas?
  • The doctor who rid the canal area of yellow fever.

  • Getting the Panama Canal built was part of
    Theodore Roosevelts Big Stick Diplomacy-this was
    his foreign policy. (Remember, his domestic
    policy dealt with progressive issues.)?
  • Roosevelt stated, Speak softly and carry a big
    stick and you will go far. Roosevelt believed
    that the United States should use force (the big
    stick) when necessary to protect Americans

  • As president, Theodore Roosevelt was concerned
    that many Latin American nations were not able to
    repay their debts to Europe.
  • Roosevelt, also believed that the nations of
    Europe would use force to collect what was
    rightfully theirs.
  • This did happen when the nations of Europe
    blockaded Venezuela so they would repay its
  • Roosevelt believed that this could happenagain
    and again.

  • In 1904, Roosevelt added a corollary (addition)
    to the Monroe Doctrine.
  • The Roosevelt Corollary stated that the United
    States would intervene in Latin America if the
    nation would be unable to pay their debts.
  • The Roosevelt Corollary, also stated that the
    United States would use its international police
    power to protect the nations of Latin America and
    prevent Western Europe from interfering in Latin
  • This corollary was put to use in 1905.

  • Chronic wrongdoing may in America, as elsewhere,
    ultimately require intervention by some civilized
    nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the
    adherence of the United States to the Monroe
    Doctrine may force the United States, however
    reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing
    or impotence, to the exercise of an international
    police power .

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  • Where and how did President Roosevelt use big
    stick diplomacy?
  • Theodore Roosevelt used his big stick policy in
    Latin America. He used the big stick policy
    because he was concerned that many Latin American
    nations would not be able to pay their debts to

  • What was the Roosevelt Corollary?
  • This corollary written by Theodore Roosevelt
    stated that the US would have to interfere in
    Latin America if those nations were unable to pay
    their debts.

  • Dollar Diplomacy was the foreign policy of
    President William Howard Taft.
  • Taft, followed Roosevelt, in that both men
    believed that the United States should interfere
    in the affairs of the nations in order to protect
    our interests.
  • Taft, also believed that the United States should
    invest money in the nations of Latin America.

  • This idea worked and strengthened our economy
    while bolstering our political strength.
  • The United States could use the raw materials of
    Latin America to make our goods while the nations
    would provide markets for our goods.
  • We would be stronger politically because with our
    investments, we would have a say in the events of
    Latin America without using force.

  • Taft also protected our interests by guaranteeing
    Latin American debts.
  • By doing this, the United States would prevent
    the nations of Europe from investing in Latin

  • Improve financialopportunities for American
  • Use private capital tofurther U. S.
  • Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and
    order abroad that would best promote Americas
    commercial interests.

  • Who was the President that used dollar diplomacy
    in Latin America?
  • Dollar Diplomacy was the foreign policy of
    William Taft in Latin America. His policy
    encouraged American businesses to invest money in
    the region.

  • When Wilson became President in 1913, he used the
    ideas of New Freedom to handle the events in
    Latin America.
  • Wilson, went against the ideas of Taft and
    Roosevelt in Latin America by encouraging fair
    play and friendship instead of using economic and
    political pressure.
  • He, too, was not perfect.

  • Wilson used force several times in the Caribbean.
  • Wilson, sent in the military, when he thought our
    interests were threatened. He sent the military
    to help back democratic governments.
  • Wilsons use of force and American interference
    was not welcomed by the people of Latin America.
  • One good thing Wilson did was he bought the
    Virgin Islands from Denmark for 25,000,000.

  • Mexico, also, proved to be a tough place for
    Wilsons foreign policy.
  • Mexico, in the early years of the 20th century,
    underwent a violent revolution.
  • 1912 The President of Mexico, Francisco Madero ,
    was assassinated by followers of General
    Victoriano Huerta.
  • The US did not recognize Huertas government as
    legitimate. Taft left this problem for Wilson.

  • Wilson, also, did not recognize the government of
  • The United States refused to send aid to Mexico.
  • 1914 The United States military was sent to
    Mexico to stop an arms shipment to Huerta. The
    United States and Mexico nearly go to war.

  • General Huerta was forced to leave office.
  • The new government of Mexico was led by
    American-supported Venustiano Carranza.
  • With the support of the United States, this
    government was opposed by many Mexicans,
    including Pancho Villa.
  • Villa began killing American troops in northern
    Mexico as well as being the only man to invade
    the US. Villa attacked southern New Mexico.

  • How did President Wilson want to change the US
    foreign policy towards Latin America?
  • Wilson wanted to stop using military force and
    pressure and encourage the US to abide (follow)
    by the rules of fair play, friendship and

  • Where did Wilson use force?
  • He used force in the nations of Haiti and the
    Dominican Republic.

  • What was the problem between the US and Mexico?
  • In the time of Wilsons presidency, the US had a
    problem recognizing the government of Mexico that
    was led by General Victoriano Huerta.

  • Why did General Pershing lead American forces
    into Mexico?
  • The reason is because the US was being attacked
    by Mexican rebels led by Pancho Villa.

  • Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and
    puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.
  • Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano
    Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against
  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz
    and Huerta fled the country.
  • Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.

Pancho Villa
Francisco Madero
  • The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.
  • Spread democracy.
  • Promote peace.
  • Condemn colonialism.

General John J. Pershing captures Pancho Villa in
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