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Photovoltaic research progresses rapidly from the
lab to the market.
  • PV was recognized as an important source of space
    power in the 1950s,
  • Terrestrial PV development began in response to
    the 1970s oil crises.
  • Concern for the environment, as well as global
    efforts to seek indigenous sources of energy,
    drives the investment in PV research and
  • Today, PV is a several-billion-dollar industry
    worldwide, with more than 520 MW of PV modules
    shipped in 2002.
  • These include large, multi-megawatt installations
    feeding into the utility grid, kilowatt rooftop
    systems supplying power to a home or business,
    and single 50- or 100-W PV modules on homes in
    developing countries.

. By Lawrence Kazmerski and Thomas Surek,
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
How PV Cells Work
PV technology basics
Solar cells are semiconductor devices that
produce electricity from sunlight via the
photovoltaic effect. Sunlight strikes the cell,
photons with energy above the semiconductor
bandgap impart enough energy to create
electron-hole pairs. A junction between
dissimilarly doped semiconductor layers sets up a
potential barrier in the cell, which separates
the light-generated charge carriers. This
separation induces a fixed electric current and
voltage in the device. The electricity is
collected and transported by metallic contacts on
the top and bottom surfaces of the cell.
A typical silicon PV cell is composed of a thin
wafer consisting of an ultra-thin layer of
phosphorus-doped (N-type) silicon on top of a
thicker layer of boron-doped (P-type) silicon.
An electrical field is created near the top
surface of the cell where these two materials are
in contact, called the P-N junction. When
sunlight strikes the surface of a PV cell, this
electrical field provides momentum and direction
to light-stimulated electrons, resulting in a
flow of current when the solar cell is connected
to an electrical load
Diagram of photovoltaic cell.
Applicable semiconductor materialsgt Cell
PV technology basics
  • silicon (Si),
  • gallium arsenide (GaAs),
  • cadmium telluride (CdTe),
  • copper indium diselenide (CIS),
  • hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

There are significant differences between the
best performance and the theoretically predicted
value for each material closing these gaps is
the subject of ongoing research (see figure).
PV Cells, Modules, Arrays
PV technology basics
In the case of a single-junction device, the
efficiency of the solar cell, the ratio of the
power produced, and the incident light power are
limited. Photons with energies below the
bandgap of the material produce only heat. Excess
energy above that needed to generate
electron-hole pairs also produces heat. A
multijunction device, in which two or more solar
cells are stacked on top of each other, can
exploit different portions of the solar
spectrum. For example, a four-junction device
with bandgaps of 1.8, 1.4, 1.0, and 0.7 electron
volts (eV) results in a theoretical efficiency of
more than 52. The multijunction approach,
however, presents significant challenges in both
materials preparation and device design.
Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically
in series and/or parallel circuits to produce
higher voltages, currents and power levels.
Photovoltaic modules consist of PV cell
circuits sealed in an environmentally protective
laminate, and are the fundamental building block
of PV systems. Photovoltaic panels include one
or more PV modules assembled as a pre-wired,
field-installable unit. A photovoltaic array is
the complete power-generating unit, consisting of
any number of PV modules and panels.
How a PV System Works
PV technology basics
PV systems are like any other electrical power
generating systems, just the equipment used is
different than that used for conventional
electromechanical generating systems.
Depending on the functional and operational
requirements of the system, the specific
components required, and may include major
components DC-AC power inverter, battery
bank, system and battery controller,
auxiliary energy sources and sometimes
the specified electrical load (appliances). In
addition, an assortment of balance of system
(BOS) hardware, Including wiring, overcurrent,
surge protection and disconnect devices, and
other power processing equipment.
Why Are Batteries Used in Some PV Systems?
PV technology basics
Batteries are often used in PV systems for the
purpose of storing energy produced by the PV
array during the day, and to supply it to
electrical loads as needed (during the night and
periods of cloudy weather). Other reasons
batteries are used in PV systems are to operate
the PV array near its maximum power point, to
power electrical loads at stable voltages, and to
supply surge currents to electrical loads and
inverters. In most cases, a battery charge
controller is used in these systems to protect
the battery from overcharge and overdischarge.
In many stand-alone PV systems, batteries are
used for energy storage. Figure shows a diagram
of a typical stand-alone PV system powering DC
and AC loads
Diagram of stand-alone PV system with battery
storage powering DC and AC loads.
Types of PV Systems
PV technology basics
How Are Photovoltaic Systems Classified?
  • Photovoltaic power systems are generally
    classified according to
  • functional and operational requirements,
  • component configurations,
  • how the equipment is connected to other power
    sources and electrical loads.
  • The two principle classifications are
  • grid-connected or utility- interactive systems
  • stand-alone systems.
  • Photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide
    DC and/or AC power service, can operate
    interconnected with or independent of the utility
    grid, and can be connected with other energy
    sources and energy storage systems.1.7.1
    Grid-Connected (Utility-Interactive) PV Systems.

Diagram of grid-connected photovoltaic system
photovoltaic hybrid system.
PV technology basics
Stand-alone PV systems are designed to operate
independent of the electric utility grid, and are
generally designed and sized to supply certain DC
and/or AC electrical loads. These types of
systems may be powered by a PV array only, or may
use wind, an engine-generator or utility power as
an auxiliary power source in what is called a
PV-hybrid system.
Direct-coupled PV system.
PV technology basics
The simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a
direct-coupled system, where the DC output of a
PV module or array is directly connected to a DC
load Since there is no electrical energy
storage (batteries) in direct-coupled systems,
the load only operates during sunlight hours,
making these designs suitable for common
applications such as ventilation fans, water
pumps, and small circulation pumps for solar
thermal water heating systems. Matching the
impedance of the electrical load to the maximum
power output of the PV array is a critical part
of designing well-performing direct-coupled
system. For certain loads such as
positive-displacement water pumps, a type of
electronic DC-DC converter, called a maximum
power point tracker (MPPT) is used between the
array and load to help better utilize the
available array maximum power output.
How PV Cells Are Made
The process of fabricating conventional single-
and polycrystalline silicon PV cells begins very
pure semiconductor-grade polysilicon - a material
processed from quartz and used extensively
throughout the electronics industry. The
polysilicon is then heated to melting
temperature, and trace amounts of boron are added
to the melt to create a P-type semiconductor
material. Next, an ingot, or block of silicon
is formed, commonly using one of two methods
1) by growing a pure crystalline silicon ingot
from a seed crystal drawn from the molten
polysilicon or 2) by casting the molten
polysilicon in a block, creating a
polycrystalline silicon material. Individual
wafers are then sliced from the ingots using wire
saws and then subjected to a surface etching
process. After the wafers are cleaned, they are
placed in a phosphorus diffusion furnace,
creating a thin N-type semiconductor layer around
the entire outer surface of the cell. Next, an
anti-reflective coating is applied to the top
surface of the cell, and electrical contacts are
imprinted on the top (negative) surface of the
cell. An aluminized conductive material is
deposited on the back (positive) surface of
each cell, restoring the P-type properties of
the back surface by displacing the diffused
phosphorus layer. Each cell is then
electrically tested, sorted based on current
output, and electrically connected to other
cells to form cell circuits for assembly in PV
PV technology basics
crystalline silicon The conventional technology
that supports more than 85 of today's PV market
is based on wafers of crystalline Si.
Production capacities are expected to more than
double in the next three to five years, and the
products are proven and accepted in the
markets. Single-crystal ingots are pulled from
the melt, or polycrystalline ingots are cast in a
crucible that is consumed in the process.
Technical advances include the growth of ingots
as big as 300 kg, the growth of multiple ingots
with melt replenishment, and the reduction of
consumable materials and energy costs.
Significant RD effort has been focused on
reducing defects, improving doping, and
automating the growth process. Still, for
single-crystal Si, the best commercial module
efficiencies are only about 15.
Image A solar cell, made from a poly-crystalline
silicon wafer
Thin-Film Photovoltaics
PV technology basics
Thin-film photovoltaic modules are manufactured
by depositing ultra-thin layers of semiconductor
material on a glass or thin stainless-steel
substrate in a vacuum chamber. A laser
scribing process is used to separate and weld the
electrical connections between individual cells
in a module. Thin-film photovoltaic materials
offer great promise for reducing the materials
requirements and manufacturing costs for PV
modules and systems.
Si ribbon and sheet technologies, which avoid the
cost and material losses associated with slicing
ingots, are the first of the new PV technologies
to be commercialized. About 6 of today's PV
modules are made using these methods. Most
notable are the edge-defined, film-fed growth
process, the string ribbon process, and the
Si-film process (growth of a high-speed,
continuous Si sheet of a variety of substrates).
Cell and module efficiencies are similar to those
for polycrystalline Si wafers from ingotsabout
12 at bestwith somewhat lower efficiencies for
the small-grained sheet materials. Ongoing
incremental improvements will probably reduce
manufacturing costs and increase module
performance, keeping these technologies as the
mainstay of PV markets for years to come.
Pros and Cons of PV
PV technology basics
Photovoltaic systems have a number of merits
and unique advantages over conventional
power-generating technologies. PV systems can
be designed for a variety of applications and
operational requirements, and can be used for
either centralized or distributed power
generation. PV systems have no moving parts,
are modular, easily expandable and even
transportable in some cases. Energy independence
and environmental compatibility are two
attractive features of PV systems. The fuel
(sunlight) is free, and no noise or pollution is
created from operating PV systems. In general, PV
systems that are well designed and properly
installed require minimal maintenance and have
long service lifetimes. At present, the high
cost of PV modules and equipment (as compared to
conventional energy sources) is the primary
limiting factor for the technology. Consequently,
the economic value of PV systems is realized over
many years. In some cases, the surface area
requirements for PV arrays may be a limiting
factor. Due to the diffuse nature of sunlight and
the existing sunlight to electrical energy
conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic devices,
surface area requirements for PV array
installations are on the order of 8 to 12 m2 (86
to 129 ft2) per kilowatt of installed peak array
PV manufacturersgt Spire BIPV
BIPV is Building Integrated Photovoltaics. Its
more than just mounting solar panels on a roof.
Its integrating solar electricity into the
design of a building or structure so that the
solar components also serve as structural or
design elements.
Spire Corporation - Headquarters One Patriots
Park Bedford, MA 01730-2396 (USA) Toll
Free 800-510-4815 Phone 781-275-6000 Fax 781
-275-7470 Email email_at_spirecorp.com
Spire offers SPI-LINE turnkey production lines
for module manufacturing at production capacities
ranging from a few hundred kilowatt up to 50
megawatts per year and beyond.
Spire provides state of the art production lines
for the manufacture of silicon wafers and solar
Spire installation examples
PV manufacturersgt Spire gt considered leading in
Roof Systems
Ground Mounted Systems
Pole Structure Mounted Systems
Spire BIPV system case studies
PV manufacturers gt Spire gt considered leading in
Awning Systems
Spire manufactured and retrofitted two BIPV
systems for a commercial building that serves as
a vital community center. The systems include a
25-kilowatt roof tile system and a 7-kilowatt
awning system.
Curtain Wall Systems BIPV panels can be
mounted vertically on an exterior wall. An opaque
panel can take the place of traditional siding. A
transparent or semi-transparent panel can be
mounted on an exterior wall, or on the roof,
acting as a power-generating skylight. This
allows the panel to be visible from indoors,
providing partial shade and casting attractive
dapple patterns.
InSpire Solar Data Monitoring
PV manufacturers gtSpire gt considered leading in
Custom BIPV Spire manufactures its own BIPV
modules, so it has the flexibility to produce
custom and one-of-a-kind designs. These can be
integrated into unique application solutions.
InSpire Solar Data Monitoring
InSpire systems are among the most user friendly
monitoring systems on the market, available only
from Spire Solar. InSpire systems range in
capability from simplistic energy performance
data monitoring, to complex platforms that can be
expanded upon for whole building commissioning.
With real time data monitoring, the value of your
PV system becomes a tangible asset available for
instant use for educational or marketing
purposes. State of the art, user friendly
technology Touch screen monitors for
desktop displays Kiosks with integrated
touch screen monitors for lobby or museum
displays Online data monitoring that is
available from anywhere with Internet
access This InSpire graph shows the energy
produced by several Spire solar systems during a
one week period in January 2006. These systems
are located in the northeast United States.
InSpire lets you easily monitor your own solar
BIPV systems enable architects and designers to
develop customized photovoltaic applications,
going beyond the typical installations afforded
by standard module design. To learn how Spire has
developed and implemented innovative solar
solutions for its customers, read the Case Studies
Spire general facts
PV manufacturersgt Spire
How much roof space do I need for a PV system? A
typical PV system requires about 100 square feet
for every kilowatt installed on a pitched roof,
and up to 200 square feet per kilowatt on a flat
roof. PV systems should be installed facing south
for maximum electricity production.
The capacity of a PV system is stated in terms of
the number of watts, kilowatts, or megawatts it
can produce in standard sunlight conditions. For
example, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, U.S.,
Spire has installed solar modules for which each
kilowatt (kW) of PV capacity produces about 1,200
- 1,400 kilowatt-hours per year, depending on the
angle at which the panels are mounted. The
electricity you purchase from the utility is
measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most
single-family homes in the U.S. use 20 kWh or
more per day. A refrigerator uses 1.2 kWh per day
and a computer uses 2.4 kWh per 8-hour workday.
Spire's in-house manufacturing provides
exceptional flexibility to produce unique BIPV
modules to meet almost any specifications and
design requirements. Spire has extensive
experience working through the US Green Building
Council and working with architects, designers
and builders to produce BIPV systems for
integration into LEED-certified buildings. Let
Spire produce your next custom BIPV modules.
Contact Spire at pvsales_at_spirecorp.com to discuss
your manufacturing needs.
PV manufacturersgt Evergreen

138 Bartlett Street Marlboro, MA 01752-3016 USA
TL 1.508.357.2221 FX 1.508.229.0747 www.e
Cedar Series Photovoltaic Modules
Each module is individually tested to ensure
field performance meets or exceeds
specifications. Solar cells are matched to
reduce internal losses and the possibility of hot
spots. Rugged, durable anodized aluminum
frame makes for strong, stable mechanical
mounting. Industry standard EVA (Ethyl
Vinyl Acetate) and Tedlar construction protects
solar cells from mechanical and environmental
stress. Advanced technology with promise for the
future String Ribbon polycrystalline
solar cells outperform thin films and achieve
comparable performance to bulk crystalline
technologies while using half as much silicon.
The proprietary cell fabrication process is
among the most environmentally friendly in the
business. The power of PV Photovoltaics
(PV) provide clean, quiet, reliable electricity
from sunlight. No moving parts to wear
out. No emmisions - power that's good for
the environment. The Sun - a limitless,
readily-available power source.
Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells Announce Partnership
with REC
Leading Solar Silicon Supplier Joins EverQ
Venture MARLBORO, Massachusetts, THALHEIM,
Saxony-Anhalt, Germany--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov. 28,
2005--Evergreen Solar, Inc. (Nasdaq ESLR), a
manufacturer of solar power products with its
proprietary, low-cost String Ribbon(TM) wafer
technology, and Q-Cells AG, the world's largest
independent manufacturer of crystalline silicon
solar cells, today announced a partnership with
Renewable Energy Corporation ASA (REC), based in
Hovik, Norway. The world's largest manufacturer
of solar-grade silicon and multicrystalline
wafers, REC is joining EverQ, a strategic
partnership between Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells
that is currently building a 30-megawatt solar
wafer, cell and module manufacturing plant in
Thalheim, Germany.
The Company maintains strong ties to the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including
the active involvement of String Ribbon's
inventor, Prof. Emanuel Sachs.
PV manufacturersgt Evergreen
The figure above illustrates the patented String
Ribbon manufacturing process ongoing within the
furnace shown to the right.
PV manufacturersgt Sunpower
Our Company headquarters and research and
development facilities are located in Sunnyvale,
California, the heart of Silicon Valley.
SunPower Solar SunPower Corporation designs,
manufactures and sells high efficiency solar
cells and solar panels that generate electricity
from sunlight for residential, commercial and
remote power applications. Our proprietary all
back contact silicon solar cell technology
produces up to 50 more power per square foot
compared to conventional solar cells. Our
SPR-200 solar panels feature a unique, uniformly
black design that many home and business owners
SunPowers A-300 Solar Cell A-300 SunPower solar
cells are unique because the metal contacts
needed to collect and conduct electricity are on
the back surface of the solar cells away from
the sunlight. This design eliminates reflective
metal contacts on the front of the solar cell. In
addition to improving cell performance, this
design leaves the front surface with a uniformly
black appearance.
SunPowers Technology Path
Dr. Swanson (n 1988 Dr. Swanson founded
SunPower to commercialize high-efficiency
photovoltaic cell technology for use in solar
concentrators) and his team at SunPower
discovered that their solar cell technology
designed for concentrators offered great
advantages in other applications as well. In
2001, SunPower solar cells were used to power
NASAs Helios solar powered airplane to a world
record powered-flight altitude of 96,863 feet.
The 22-efficient lightweight solar cells were
incorporated directly into the curved wing
Superior Performance, Superior Aesthetics
SunPower's high performance solar cells and
solar panels offer both maximum power from your
roof as well as a uniquely attractive system
design. To review a slide presentation about our
proprietary back contact solar cell technology,
(see attached pdf)
Solar cells are semiconductor devices that
directly convert sunlight into electricity. Our
A-300 solar cell has a rated power value of 3.1
watts and a conversion efficiency of between 20
to 21.5. Our A-300 solar cell is designed
without highly reflective metal contact grids or
current collection ribbons on the front of the
solar cells. This feature enables our solar cells
to be assembled into solar panels that exhibit a
more uniform appearance than conventional solar
Overview Available Solar Panels
PV manufacturers gt
BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications
Unavailable in 2005 BP Solar BP 4170S 170 Watt
24V Monocrystalline Solar Panel The BP 4170
solar panel is designed to provide superior
performance for residential, commercial, and
industrial grid-connect systems. By increasing
the diameter of the cell, performance is
maximized while improving aesthetics. With
time-tested monocrystalline silicon solar cells
and installation-speeding polarized connectors,
it provides cost-effective power for systems that
demand premium module efficiency. Electrical
Specifications Maximum Power 170 Watts Nominal
Voltage 34.7 volts Voltage at Pmax 34.7
Volts Current at Pmax 4.9 Amps Warranted minimum
Pmax 161.5 Watts Short-circuit current 5.4
Amps Open-circuit voltage 44.0 Volts Mechanical
Specifications Dimensions (LxWxD) 62.8 x 31.1 x
1.97 inches (1595x790x50) mm Weight 34 lbs
(15.4kg) Solar Cells 72 cells in a 6x12 matrix
connected in series Output Cables MC Connectors
RHW AWG 12 cable with polarized weatherproof DC
rated connectors Diodes Three 9A, 45V Schottky
by-pass diodes included Construction Front
High-transmission 3mm (1/8th inch) tempered
glass Back Tedlar Encapsulant EVA Frame
Rugged clear anodized aluminum alloy type
universal frame Limited Warranty 25
years Quality and Safety Listings ESTI, CE, TUV,
UL Listed Note These panels must ship via truck
freight due to size. Please call or email for a
shipping quote and to order.
Unavailable in 2005 BP Solar BP-4170S, 170
Watt Solar Panel 1561 Your price 999.00 pad BP
Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications
170 watt-783.00 160 watt 799. 160 watt 725.
150 watt 699.
Most expensive 170 watt- 999.00
125 watt 629.00 125 watt 599. 80 watt 520.
65 watt 457. 60 watt 462.00
Cheapest 10 watt Solar panel- 149.00
50Watt354.00 40watt353.00 30Watt
259.00 20watt 234.00
Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD
PV solar panel specifications
Electrical Specifications Maximum Power 115
Watts Voltage _at_ Power Maximum 17.3 Volts Current
_at_ Power Maximum 6.65 Amps Open-circuit Voltage
21.5 Volts Short-Circuit Current 7.26 Amps No.
of Cells 72 Max. Series Fuse 15 Amps UL System
Voltage Rating 600V TUV System Voltage Rating
800V Mechanical Specifications Length
62.5"/1588 mm Width 25.69"/653 mm Depth
1.39"/35 mm Weight 28 lbs/12.7 kg Safety and
Quality Tests IEC 1215 (IEC 503, ISPRA)
Certified UL Listed, Class C Fire Rating TUV
Safety Class II Certified CE 25 year limited
power warranty Temporarily Out of
Stock Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD, 115 Watt Solar
Evergreen Solar EC-102-GD, 102 Watt Solar
Panel 499.00
Evergreen Solar EC-110-GD, 110 Watt Solar Panel
- Limited Supply Your price 524.00
GE Energy Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel 599.00
GE Energy 165, 165 Watt Solar Panel 719.00
GE Energy GEPV-065, 65 Watt Solar Panel Your
price 449.00
GE Energy GEPV-072, 72 Watt Solar Panel Your
price 459.00
GE Energy GEPV-050-M 50 Watt Solar Panel 365.00
GE Energy GEPV-030-M 30 Watt Solar Panel 239.00
GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications
Electrical Performance Typical Performance
Characteristics Peak Power (Wp) Watts 110
Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp) Volts 16.7
Maximum Power Current (Imp) Amps 6.6 Open
Circuit Voltage (Voc) Volts 21.2 Short
Circuit Current (Isc) Amps 7.4 Short
Circuit Temperature Coefficient mA/?C 3
Open Circuit Voltage Coefficient V/?C -0.08
Maximum Power Temperature Coefficient /?C
-0.5 Maximum Series Fuse Amps 15 Overall
Physical Properties Length 58.1 inches
(1,477 mm) Width 26.0 inches (661 mm)
Depth of Frame 1.4 inches (35 mm) Depth
Including J-box 2.2 inches (55 mm)
Connector Length (when applicable) 15.0 inches
(381 mm) Weight 26.1 pounds (11.9 kg)
Mounting Hole Locations Center Spacing
25.3 inches (643 mm) Edge Distance 16.4
inches (417 mm) Width Spacing 24.3 inches
(616 mm) Mounting Hole Diameter 0.26
inches (6.7 mm) Physical Design Properties
Weight (Wind) Bearing Potential 50 lb/ft (125
mph equivalent) Hailstone Impact
Resistance 1 inch at 50 mph (25 mm at 80 kph)
GE Energy's technologically advanced solar
electric power products offer high quality and
customer value. They are all based on crystalline
silicon, the material of choice for efficiency
and reliability for more than 25 years. Our
single-crystal solar cells are among the most
efficient commercially available today. We offer
a full line of photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar
modules which utilize a series of cells wired
together and complete packages for residential,
commercial and industrial systems. Designed for
optimum use in residential, commercial and
battery charging applications, the GEPV-110-M
solar module contains 36 single-crystal cells
connected in series, and generates a peak power
of 110 watts at 16.7 volts.
Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 24 Volt Desert
Camo Your price 789.00
GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 12 Volt Desert
Camo Your price 789.00
GSE SUNLINQ 12 Watt Portable Solar Panel 167.00
GSE Portable Power Pack 55 Watt 12 Volt Desert
Camo Your price 869.00
PV solar panel specifications
Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels
GSE P3 55 Watt 12 Volt Flexible Solar Panel
Desert Camo In Stock and Ready to Ship Global
Solar's thin-film photovoltaic technology is
enabling solar power products to be portable,
flexible, foldable, durable and lightweight. As a
result we are able to create solutions for a wide
range of military power requirements. The overall
benefits of our military solar power products are
to, enable extended missions, improve logistics
by enabling field charging thereby reducing the
number of batteries in the field and provide a
significant cost reduction when compared to
primary batteries. Global Solar Energy works
closely with CECOM and the US Army's Rechargeable
Battery Program. Portable Power Pack (P3) The P3
is a solar-energized power generator for mobile
power needs. Incorporating solid state,
thin-film, PowerFLEX solar technology, the P3
provides an excellent choice for situations that
require lightweight, durable, silent power.
Re-charge batteries, power communication
equipment and mobile electronics, plus reduce the
battery logistic challenge with the P3. It
provides silent energy independence to the
user. The P3 Portable Power Pack is used
worldwide to provide users an alternate power
generator for charging lead-acid, Nickel Cadmium
(NiCd), Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium
Ion rechargeable batteries. The P3 will enable
extended missions, provide energy security,
restore power silently and can provide power for
remote, portable surveillance equipment. A
primary battery can only be used once. Secondary
batteries can be recharged several hundred times.
Recent studies show that a P3 solar charger pays
for itself in fewer than fifteen recharges. That
is equivalent to several hundred FREE
BATTERIES! Twice the power to weight ratio of
alternative solar generators, the P3 is ideal for
situations requiring power renewal to batteries
and mobile electronics. The P3 Portable Power
Pack folds for easy transport and storage
Isofoton Solar Panels
Applications Water pumping Communications Outdoo
r lighting Rural electrification Recreational
vehicles Stand-alone or grid-connected AC
applications Electrical Characteristics Nominal
Voltage 24 volt Maximum Power 150
W Short-Circuit Current 4.45 Amps Open Circuit
Voltage 43.2 Volts Maximum Power Current 4.35
Amps Maximum Power Voltage 34.6 Volts Physical
Characteristics Cell type 125 mm Mono
Crystal Number of cells 72 Length
1224mm/48.19" Width 1047mm/41.22" Depth
39.5mm/1.56" Weight 17.0kg/37.5 lb Type of
Output Terminal J-box with MC cables Certificati
ons IEC 61215 Certified UL Listing, Class C Fire
Rating TÜ Safety Class II Certified CEC Rating
134.3 Warranty 25 years Note Minimum order of
4 panels. These panels must ship via truck due to
size. Please call for a shipping quote and to
order. There is a quantity price break if you are
ordering 20 panels.
PV solar panel specifications
Isofoton is the leading solar panel manufacturer
in Europe and their panels are now available in
the USA. Since its founding in 1981, Isofoton has
grown to become the leading supplier of PV in
Europe and is the 8th largest PV manufacturer in
the world. Their steadfast commitment to research
and development has lead to the development of a
reliable, proven mono-crystalline cell that is
then chemically textured with an anti-reflective
layer and finally trimmed almost square for
maximum power density. The finished cells are
covered with tempered, anti-relective glass that
maximizes light transfer, providing a high
quality finished module that meets the highest
level of compliance with ISO, TUV, CE, and UL
standards for photovotaic products. Approved by
the California Energy Commission.
Isofoton 150 Watt 24 Volt Solar Panel 665.00
Kyocera Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
d.Blue is ideal for installation on all types
of buildings, from residential to large scale
commercial systems. The stylish dark blue cells,
combined with black panel frames, allow the
panels to blend in with the buildings
architecture while producing energy at
exceptional efficiencies. The d.Blue panels are
available in 190-watt, 170-watt and 125-watts
panels. All of these feature Multi-Contact output
cables, a heavy-duty box-style anodized aluminum
frame, and an industry-high 25 year power output
warranty. Applications Residential roof
top system Large commercial grid tie
system Water Pumping Systems High
Voltage stand alone systems Specifications Max
Power 190 Watts Max Voltage 26.1 Volts Max
Current 7.28 Amps Dimensions (LxWxD)
56.2"x39"x1.4" Weight 40.7 pounds
Kyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar Panel Kyocera
KC190GT, 190 Watt Solar Panel Kyocera KC200GT,
200 Watt Solar Panel 879.00
KYOCERA has perfected its new surface treatment
technology and is introducing it on a new line of
panels named d.Blue, for its dark blue
color. The newly developed treatment method
processes multi-crystalline silicon cells in
order to produce a surface texture that minimizes
surface reflectance and maximizes output. The
result is a maximum conversion efficiency of 15,
one of the highest conversion efficiencies in the
polycrystalline panel industry.
RWE Schott Solar PanelsASE is possibly the
finest module currently available on the market.
PV solar panel specifications
  • Independently Certified
  • The ASE-270/DGF-50 is independently certified
    to meet IEEE 1262, IEC 61215 and UL 1703
  • It is also the only panel in the industry to
    receive a UL (Underwriters Laboratories) Class A
    fire rating
  • Flexible Versions
  • A variety of wiring and framing options
  • are available upon request.
  • Electrical Data
  • Power (max) 270 Watts
  • Voltage 49.5 Volts
  • Current 5.45 Amps
  • Open-circuit voltage 60.0 Volts
  • Short-circuit Current 6.1 Amps
  • Dimensions and Weights
  • Length 74.5"/1892.3 mm

315 watt, 300 watt and 285 watt modules. Prices
start are 4.03/watt for cases of (20) modules.
Call for availablity.
RWE Schott Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
More Reliability Bypass diode protection for
every 18 solar cells in series, thus minimizing
power loss, and mitigating overheating/safety
problems Advanced encapsulation system ensures
steady long-term panel performance by eliminating
degradation associated with traditional
EVA-encapsulated panels A weather barrier
system on both sides of the panel protects
against tears, perforations, fire, electrical
conductivity, delamination and moisture
Patented no-lead, high-reliability soldering
system guarantees long life and ensures against
environmental harm should the panel break or be
discarded Higher Quality Each of the panel's
216 individual semi-crystalline silicon cells is
inspected and power matched to ensure consistent
performance between panels Every panel is
tested utilizing a calibrated solar simulator to
ensure that the electrical ratings are within the
specified tolerance for power, voltage and
current Panel-to-panel wiring loss is factored
into the panel's labeled electrical ratings by
testing through the panel's cable/connector
ASE-300-DGF/50, 315 Watt Solar Panel 1,329.00
ASE-300-DGF/50, 300 Watt Solar Panel 1,404.00
ASE-300-DGF/50, 285 watt 1,334.00
Schott BIPV - Photovoltaics with ASI Glass
Today, building integrated photovoltaic systems
are able to provide Solar electricity Light
management Comfort Effective shading Glare
protection Thermal management Innovative
Opaque Cladding
Insulated Facade
The maximum size of ASI Glass modules is 1.2m x
2.4m (4 x 7 10)
SANYO Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
The HIT 190 panel has a cell conversion
efficiency of 18.5 and a panel conversion
efficiency of 16.1 that is significantly higher
than conventional SANYO solar cells. High
conversion efficiency and lightweight design
conserve space and weight. The outstanding
conversion efficiency and high power output of
the HIT 190 save approximately 20 of
installation space. HIT 190 panels can be
installed on narrow roof spaces which previously
presented difficulties. In addition, with fewer
solar panels, there is less weight on the
roof. SANYO HIT 190 Specifications Model
Number HIP-190BA3 Max. Power (Pmax) 190
Watts Max. Power Voltage (Vpm) 54.8 Volts Max.
Power Current (Ipm) 3.47 Amps Open Circuit
Voltage (Voc) 67.5 Volts Short Circuit Voltage
(Isc) 3.75 Amps Cell Conversion Efficiency
18.5 Panel Conversion Efficiency
16.1 Warranted Minimum (Pmin) 171.0 Watts PTC
Rating 178.7 Watts Max. System Voltage 600
Volts Series Fuse 15 Amps Temp. Coefficient of
Pmax (/C) -0.3 Dimensions 51.9" x 35.2" X 1.4"
(1319mm X 894mm x 35mm) Weight 30.9 lbs.
(14kg) Certificate UL 1703 Class C fire
rating HIT panels can withstand 1 inch diameter
hailstones at 50 mph. Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190
Watt Solar Panel 975.00
Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel
Sharp ND-N0ECU, 140 Watt Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications
Since 1959, Sharp has been harnessing the power
of the sun to improve the quality of life. Today,
we are the world's 1 manufacturer of solar
cells. In fact, Sharp's high quality,
Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems are used
for everything from satellites to lighthouses,
industrial applications to residential
use. Sharp's solar energy systems take advantage
of the natural, inexhaustible resource of
sunlight to generate electricity. No
environmentally harmful compounds, no fossil fuel
pollution, no global warming. Just clean, safe,
reliable solar energy for living.
Sharp 208 Watt Solar Panel SHARP NT-185U1, 185
Watt Solar Panel 882.00
SHARP NE-165U1, 165 Watt Solar Panel price
Sharp ND-167U1, 167 Watt Solar Panel 779.00
Sharp ND-070ERU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Right
Triangle 429.00
Sharp ND-070ELU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Left
Triangle 429.00
Left and right triangular modules
PV solar panel specifications
Features Left and right triangular modules offer
greater flexibility and greater integration for
roofline aesthetics High-power module (70W) using
21 square multi-crystal silicon solar cells with
13.44 cell conversion efficiency Bypass diode
minimizes the power drop caused by shade Black
anodized aluminum frame and "L" hook design
located along frame perimeter for easy
integration with residential sytem mounting
hardware Water white, tempered glass, EVA
laminate, and a weather-proof film yield
long-life modules while enhancing cell
performance Nominal 7 VDC output is ideal for
residential system applications Manufactured in
ISO 9001 certified facilities 25-year limited
warranty on power output Electrical
Characteristics Cell Multi-crystal silicon No.
of Cells and Connections 21 in series Open
Circuit Voltage (Voc) 12.43 Volts Max. Power
Voltage (Vpm) 9.98 Volts Short Circuit Current
(Isc) 7.81 Amps Maximum Power Current (Ipm)
7.02 Amps Maximum Power (Pm) 70 Watts Minimum
Power (Pm) 63 Watts Encapsulated Solar Cell
Efficiency 13.44 PTC Rating (W) 61.46
Watts Maximum System Voltage 600VDC Series Fuse
Rating 15 Amps Type of Output Terminal Lead
Wire with MC Connector Mechanical
Characteristics Dimensions 45.86" x 38.98" x
1.81" (1165mm x 990mm x 46mm) Weight
26.9lbs/12.2kg Packing Configuration 2 pcs per
Sharp ND-070ELU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Left Triangle
Sharp ND-070ERU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Right
Shell Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
Shell Solar SQ175-PC, 175 Watt Solar Panel 805.00
Shell Solar SQ165-PC, 165 Watt Solar Panel Your
price 779.00
Shell Solar 80-P, 80 Watt Solar Panel 499.00
Shell Solar 85-P, 85 Watt Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications
Shell ST40, 40 Watt CIS Thin Film Solar
Panel Shell ST40, 40 Watt 12 Volt Thin Film
Solar Panel The Shell ST40 solar panel is
composed of a monolithic structure of series
connected Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) based
solar cells. It can generate a peak power of 40
watt at 16.6 volts. The Shell ST40 solar panel
has been designed for rural and industrial
applications. The Shell Solar CIS/thin film
modules deliver high power and reliable
performance in all operational conditions backed
by a 10 year warranty. The range is particularly
suitable for low light level environments and
where uniform appearance and aesthetics is
important. Benefits Exceptional
performance under low light conditions, shade and
high temperature tolerance that offers reliable
power in adverse or changeable conditions.
Class leading efficiency and stable output power
delivering reliable high performance for many
years. Highly transparent tempered glass
delivering more power and ensuring high impact
resistance and protection against hail, snow,
ice, and storms. Uniform appearance ideal
for applications where aesthetics are an
important factor. 10 years research and
over 3 years commercial manufacturing experience
has been appllied to the development of our CIS
thin-film range to ensure that our products have
a long and reliable service life backed by a 10
year warranty. Qualifications and Certificates
UL-Listing 1703 All Shell Solar Panels
are produced in EN-ISO 9001 certified factories
Shell Solar Panels
Shell ST40, 40 Watt Thin Film Solar Panel 276.00
Junction Box The junction box provides a high
quality, dust protected and splash proof
IP44-rated housing. The housing contains a rigid
connection block with screw terminals and by-pass
diodes providing "hot spot" protection for the
solar cells. Electrical Characteristics Rated
Power 40 watts Peak Power 40 watts Peak Power
Voltage 16.6 volts Peak Power Current 2.41
amps Open Circuit Voltage 23.3 volts Short
Circuit Current 2.68 amps Series Fuse Rating 5
amps Minimum Peak Power 36 Watt Mechanical
Specifications A torsion and corrosion-resistant
anodized aluminum frame ensures dependable
performance, even under harsh weather conditions.
Pre-drilled mounting holes are provided for ease
of installation. Dimensions (LxWxD) 50.9" x
12.9" x 1.3" (1293x328x35mm) Weight 15.4lbs
SunWize Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
SunWize OEM40, 40 Watt Solar Panel 269.00
SunWize OEM20, 20 Watt Solar Panel 165.00
SunWize SW90, 90 Watt Solar Pane
SunWize OEM10, 10 Watt Solar Panel 115.00
SunWize SW85, 85 Watt Solar Panel
UniSolar FLEXIBLE Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications
How are Panels Connected to an Electrical
System? Each panel comes with 8 ft. of tinned
wire with a 2-pin SAE-connector and is packaged
with a 2 ft fused battery cable. An extension
cable of 10 feet is also available. Typically the
solar panel is connected directly to the battery.
It can also be connected to any point on the
electrical system where 12 volt is present. If a
charge controller is used, it is placed in the
line between the solar panel and the
battery. Bypass diodes are connected across each
cell, allowing the modules to produce power even
when partially shaded. Blocking diodes are
included within each potted junction box (edge
connector) to prevent battery discharge into the
module. The cell assembly is sealed in flexible
an durable weather resistant polymers that
provide longlife and high reliability.
UniSolar FLX-32 Flexible 32 Watt Solar
Panel 275.00
Specifications Rated power 32 Watts Battery
Voltage 12 Volts Typical Amp Hours/Day
12 Bypass Diode Included Yes Blocking Diode
Included Yes Length 55.77" Width 16.7" Weight
4.7 lbs. Cable Length 8 ft Warranty on Power
Output 5 yr
PV solar panel specifications
Unique and Durable The unique design of the
UNI-PAC features a lightweight construction
without glass or fragile crystalline to break,
crack, or add on extra weight. The tough nylon
fabric covering allows the unit to be folded to a
convenient book size, for easy storage and
transport. The UNI-PAC 10 offers dual voltage
charging for 12V and 24V, the UNI-PAC 15 and the
UNI-PAC 30 are for 12V charging. The UNI-PAC
was designed to meet military requirements for
durability, performance and reliability. Tefzel
(by DuPont) serves as a strong, long-lasting
front cover. Individual solar laminates contain
by-pass diodes, making the UNI-PAC solar
chargers tolerant of severe shadow or partial
covering. Charging rate and voltage can even be
adjusted to meet specific needs. Dimensions
Specifications Rated Power 34.0 Watts Operating
Voltage 17.6 Volts Operating Current 1.9
Amps Open Circuit Voltage 26.0 Volts Short
Circuit Current 2.4 Amps Size, Folded (LxWxH)
17" x 7" x 2" Size, Deployed 55.9" x
33.9" Weight 4.7 lbs
UniSolar UNI-PAC 30 - 34 Watt Foldable Flexible
Panel 729.00
UniSolar UNI-PAC 15 - 15.5 Watt Foldable Flexible
Panel 595.00
Kaneka Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
Model GEA / GSA Nominal Power (W) 60 OC
Voltage (V) 92 SC Current (A) 1.19 Voltage in
mpp (V) 67 Current in mpp (A) 0.9 Weight (kg)
13.7 Dimensions (mm) 990x960x40
Certifications and Qualifications GEA GSA -
IEC61646 - Safety Class II equipment - CE mark -
UL Listed - CEC registered
Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Module
Highlights Thin-film amorphous silicon
panel Superior performance under high
temperature High shade tolerance MC
Connectors Black frame Dimensions 39"
x 37.8"
25 Year Power Output Warranty GEA/GSA PV module
will maintain more than 80 of minimum rated
power for 25 years (based on data from silicon PV
modules installed over a month under conditions
of 25ºC, A.M. 1.5 and 100mW / cm2). Kaneka 60
Watt Solar Modules 269.00
Yingli YL80 80 Watt Solar Module
PV solar panel specifications
Yingli makes high efficiency polycrystalline
solar modules. Power tolerance is a respectable
5 so you can be assured you will be receiving at
least 95 of the wattage specified. Modules are
made with tempered high transmission glass with
antireflective coating, EVA encapsulant, TPT
backsheet and aluminum frame with predrilled
holes for mounting. Water proof junction box
contains cord grip connectors, bypass diodes and
barrel sleeve connector for use with special
pinout connectors (available with 10 USE 10 ga.
below). Warranty is 25 years. Modules larger
than 65 watts are packaged 2 per shipping box.
Iowa Thin Film Technologies
PV solar panel specifications
R15-1200 Rollable Solar Charger Because
PowerFilm integrated solar panels (thin film on
plastic) are developed and manufactured with a
proprietary roll-to-roll process, by Iowa Thin
Film Technologies, they are truly rollable unlike
other thin film technologies that are only
somewhat flexible. PowerFilm solar panels are
monolithically integrated which eliminates the
need for damage-prone manual connections of
individual solar cells. PowerFilm is made of
silicon, a natural resource in abundant supply.
Also PowerFilm performs well in diverse
enviroments, including hot sun, and does not
suffer from wasted over-voltage. Cadmium
Free. Direct Power 12V systems can be directly
powered with PowerFilm Rollable Solar Panels. As
with any solar technology, the solar panel power
output must be greater than the power consumption
of the 12V system. Technical Specifications
Operating Voltage (V) 15.4 Operating Current
(Amps) 1.2 Weight (lbs) 1.9 Rolled Dimensions
(in )) 12x4.25x4.5 Unrolled Dimensions (in)
R15-1200 Rollable Solar Charger 274.00
UTRF 168 Zomeworks Universal Tracker
PV solar panel PERIPHIRALS specifications
Zomeworks Universal Trackers
Universal Track Rack Sizes UTR 020 - 20 Sq. Ft.
Module Space UTRK 040 - 40 Sq. Ft. Module
Space UTR F64 - 64 Sq. Ft. Module Space UTR F90 -
90 Sq. Ft. Module Space UTR F120 - 120 Sq. Ft.
Module Space UTR F168 - 168 Sq. Ft. Module Space
Six Sizes Fit All The Zomeworks Universal Rack
System allows for almost limitless adjustment in
both the east-west and north-south directions.
Available in six standard sizes for holding 2 to
32 modules, Universal Track Racks are designed to
fit all common photovoltaic modules, including
ASE, Astro Power/PV, BP/Solarex, Evergreen, First
Solar, Kyocera, Photowatt/Matrix, Sanyo, Sharp,
Shell/Siemens/Arco, SunWize, UniSolar, and most
other popular modules. This flexibility
translates to faster delivery, better quality and
overall economy.
Solar Decathlon 2005 PV panel Specifications
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