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CHAPTER 3 SYNCHRONIZATION Heat Synchronization Controls When Groups of Normally Cycling Females Come Into Heat and Ovulate Benefits to Producers Beef: A.I. Becomes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Heat Synchronization
  • Controls When Groups of Normally Cycling Females
    Come Into Heat and Ovulate
  • Benefits to Producers
  • Beef A.I. Becomes Easier and More Timely
  • Dairy Planned Breeding is Possible for Heifers
  • Requires Top Management of Cattle and Conditions
    Affecting Cycling
  • Choose the System That Best Fits Your Situation
  • Consider Your Goals, Labor Requirements, Time and
    Program Cost

Benefits of Synchronization
  • Opportunity to Control Group Timing of Heat
  • Facilitates A.I. for Faster Genetic Improvement
  • Days Needed for A.I. Can be Significantly
  • Time Spent on Heat Detection Can be Considerably
    Reduced or Eliminated
  • Scheduling Labor is Simplified Because of the
    Concentrated Period of Heat Detection and A.I.

Additional Advantages for Beef
  • More Profitable Beef Calves Are Produced
  • Cattle Can be Group Inseminated at Start of
    Breeding Season
  • More Calves Born Early in Calving Season
  • Calves are Older and Heavier at Weaning and
  • Females will be Older and Heavier at 1st Breeding
  • Calves Will be More Uniform Due to Similar
    Inheritance and Age

Additional Advantages for Beef
  • Greater Opportunity to Get More Females Pregnant
    During the Breeding Season
  • Estrus Cycles are Advanced
  • High Percentage of Cycling Cow Come Into Heat at
    Beginning of Breeding Season
  • Have Two Chances to Get Female Pregnant During a
    21-25 Day Insemination Period
  • Continued Use Over Several Years Helps Shorten
    Calving Season
  • Strict Culling of Late Calving Cows Must be

Additional Advantages for Dairy
  • Convenient Way to Include Heifers in an A.I.
  • Improve Management by Inseminating at a
    Predetermined Date
  • Know Calving Due Dates, and Incorporate them in
  • Allows for Closer Control of Calving Time
  • Milk Base Can be Increased at Specific Time
  • More Show Calves of Optimum Age Can be Produced,
    or Cattle Can Fit Show Dates Better

Understanding the Estrus Cycle
  • Estrus and Ovulation Can be Controlled
  • Administer Prostaglandin, Progesterone, or
    Gonadotropins to Cycling Females
  • Cycling Females Coming Into Heat Regularly
    Prior to Treatment
  • Corpus Luteum Develops in Ovary at Ovulation Site
  • Corpus Luteum Produces Progesterone
  • Prepares Uterus for Pregnancy
  • If NOT Pregnant CL Starts regressing 18 days Into
    the Cycle and a New Egg-Containing Follicle Begins

Normal Estrus Cycle
Follicular Wave Dynamics
  • Estrus Cycle
  • Follicular Growth Occurs in Waves and Throughout
    the Length of the Cycle
  • Individual Waves are Characterized by Rapid
    Growth of Many Small Follicles
  • Bovine Females are Born With All the Eggs They
    Will Ever Have
  • Approximately 75,000 for Normal Females
  • Eggs are Contained in Follicles Residing Deep in
    the Ovarian Tissue

Follicular Wave Dynamics
  • At Puberty Eggs Start Growing Into Mature
  • Have Potential to Ovulate and Release an Egg
  • Most Females Have 2 or 3 Waves of Growth
  • At Start of Each Wave 200-600 Eggs are Recruited
    for Growth
  • One Follicle is Selected
  • Becomes the Dominant Follicle
  • Has the Ability to Restrict Growth of Other

Follicular Wave Dynamics
  • Follicular Waves occurring During Early to
    Mid-Estrus Cycle
  • Dominant Follicle and Subordinate Follicles
    Become Atretic, or Die
  • Waves Occurring Toward End of Estrus Cycle
  • Dominant Follicle Fully Develops and Ovulates

Follicular Wave Dynamics
  • Cows That Experience Two Follicular Waves
  • Initiate First Wave at Day 0 and Last Until Day
  • Dominant and Subordinate Follicles Die or
  • Second Wave is Immediately Initiated
  • Produces New Dominant Follicle
  • Follicle Survives to the End and Ovulates
  • Cows That Experience Three Follicular Waves
  • Waves Last an Average of 8 Days Each
  • Third Wave Develops the Dominant Follicle to

Two Follicular Wave Dynamics
Three Follicular Wave Dynamics
Drugs that alter the estrus cycle
  • Prostaglandin
  • Naturally Occurring Compound
  • Essential in Normal Regulation of Reproductive
  • Intramuscular Injection, Prescribed Only be Vets
  • New Needles Prevent Possible Disease Transfer
  • Correct Amount is Necessary for Proper Results
  • Can be Used on All Non-Pregnant Cycling Females
  • Can Cause Abortion if Used on Pregnant Cows or

Drugs that alter the estrus cycle
  • Prostaglandin
  • Affects Developed Corpus Luteum
  • Causes Premature Regression When Administered
    During Days 6-17 in Estrus Cycle
  • Early in Cycle (Days 1-5) and Late in the Cycle
    (Days 18-21) Has No Effect
  • Animals Should Come Into Heat at Same Time as

Using Prostaglandin on Beef
  • Percent Cycling Females is Most Important Factor
    in Success of Synchronization Programs
  • Only Effective on Regularly Cycling Females
  • Heifers Must Have Ovulated Once Before Treatment
  • Cows Must be Ovulating Following Calving
  • Will Not Cause a Female to Begin Cycling
  • Minimize Drug Costs by Recognizing Cycling
  • Can Determine Through Ovarian Palpation
  • May Save Drug Cost, but Adds Labor Cost for

One-Injection System
Logic of One-Injection System
MGA and Prostaglandin
Two-Injection System
Logic of Two-Injection System
Using Prostaglandin on Dairy
  • The Systems Described for Beef Can be Used for
  • Planned Breeding Programs
  • Use of Prostaglandin in Dairy Synchronization
  • Not all Prostaglandin Products Have Been Cleared
    for Use on Milking Females
  • Check Label Before Use

Targeted Breeding
  • Prepares Cows for Rebreeding
  • Improves Pregnancy Rates in First 21 Days After
    Breeding Commences
  • Ideal Time for Getting Cows Pregnant

Targeted Breeding
  • How it Works
  • 17 Days Before VWP Ends
  • Cows Receive First Injection of Prostaglandin
  • Known as a Set-up Shot
  • Dont Breed Cows on Next Detected Heat
  • 2 Weeks Later
  • Cows Receive Second Injection of Prostaglandin
  • Known as Breeding Shot
  • Should Bring Almost All Cows Into estrus
  • Inseminate Cows on Standing Heat
  • Non Inseminated Cows are Injected 14 Days Later
    Along With New Cows Ready for Set-up Shot

Planned Breeding
  • Using Ovarian Palpation
  • Vet Can Determine if Corpus Luteum is Present
  • Age of CL Affects Time Required Before Female
    Returns to Heat
  • Risky to Use on Timed Breeding Program
  • Heat Detection is Best Method
  • Used by Many Vets When Cows Palpated Open During
    Pregnancy Examinations

Planned Breeding
  • Without Using Ovarian Palpation
  • Allows Producers to Eliminate Short Calving
  • Aids Heat Detection Problems
  • Identifies Problem Cows for Early Veterinary

ABS Protocol
GnRH Based Protocols
  • Use GnRH and Prostaglandin to Synchronize Estrus
    and Control Ovulation
  • Effective in Mature Cows
  • Less Effective in Heifers
  • All Products are Prescriptions
  • Must be Purchased Through Local Veterinarian
  • Common GnRH Products are
  • Cystorelin
  • Factri
  • Fertagyl

MGA-GnRH-PG (cows)
MGA-GnRH-PG (heifers)
7-11 Synch
  • Controlled Internal Drug Release
  • Intravaginal Insert Containing Progesterone
  • Similar to Synchromate-B
  • Non-Prescription Product
  • Used in Combination with GnRH and PG
  • Approved by FDA for
  • Beef Cows
  • Beef Heifers
  • Dairy Heifers
  • NOT Approved for Dairy Cows

CIDR Insertion
  • Place Device in Insert Application Gun
  • CIDR Has Wings on One End
  • Wings Fold Flat for Insertion Into Vagina
  • Expand Against Vaginal Walls Upon Insertion
  • Hold CIDR in Place During Synchronization Period
  • Blue Nylons Sting is Attached to Other End
  • Allows Producer to See Insert is Being Retained
  • Allows for Easy Removal of Device
  • At Time of Insertion GnRH is Given Intramuscularly

CIDR Synchronization Protocol
  • Works Regardless of Cycle Stage
  • Regresses CL During Early Stages
  • Prevents Ovary From Beginning New Cycle Until
    Insert is Removed
  • Does Not Effect CL During Middle Stages
  • By Time Insert is Removed Cow Cycles Naturally
  • Offers Excellent Estrus Response in Cycling
  • Can be Used in Fixed Time Insemination Program or
    on Observation of Heat

Summary of Systems
Common Misconceptions
  • Synchronization Protocols Discussed are Not
    Miracle Drugs
  • Base Your Program on Realistic Expectations
  • Most Misconceptions Occur From Misinformation
    About What Drugs Can and Cannot Do

Misconception 1
  • You Can Breed Cows Earlier After Calving
  • Prostaglandin Does Not Cause Cows to Come Into
    Heat Sooner After Calving
  • Cows Must Go Through a Normal Recovery Period and
    Begin Cycling Before Drugs Will be Effective

Misconception 2
  • You Can Automatically Shorten the Calving Season
  • Unless Strict Culling Practices are Utilized,
    Late Calvers Will ALWAYS be Late Calvers
  • They Will Not Cycle in Time to be Included in
    Heat Synch Programs
  • Will Concentrate More Cows at Beginning of
    Breeding Season for Eligible Cows
  • More Closely Groups Calving Period

Misconception 3
  • You Wont Have to Heat Detect
  • Only Works When You Select a Fixed Time
    Insemination Program
  • Most Protocols Rely on Inseminating on Detection
    of Heat
  • Fixed Time Programs Should Only be Used When You
    are Confident Most Females are in Heat
  • Heat Detecting Helps Spot Animals Who
  • Come Into Heat Early
  • Come Into Heat Late
  • Are Not Cycling

Misconception 4
  • By Breeding Cows in a Short Interval, They Will
    Calve in an Equally Short Interval
  • This is Incorrect
  • Cattle Inseminated on the Same Day Have a Calving
    Range of 10 Days From the Calving Due Date

Which System for Your Operation?
  • Determine Potential Results and Costs
  • Use Feasibility Worksheets to Help
  • Available From ABS
  • Select Best System for Your Situation
  • Advantages and Tradeoffs Must Be Weighed in Terms
  • Program Cost
  • Time
  • Facilities
  • Labor Requirements

Management Considerations
  • Several Factors Influence the Outcome of Heat
  • Conditions Affecting Cycling
  • Heat Detection
  • Labor Needs During Insemination
  • Facilities
  • Identification
  • Calving

Conditions Affecting Cycling
  • Beef Cows
  • Affected by Two Factors
  • Rest After Calving
  • Body Condition at Calving
  • The Better the Body Condition Score and the
    Longer After Calving the More Likely to Enter
  • Proper Nutrition After Calving is Important as
    Nutrient Requirement Double While Nursing

Percent Estrus After Calving
Conditions Affecting Cycling
  • Beef First Calf Heifers
  • Take Longer to Begin Cycling Than Cows
  • Nutritional Intake Must Support Their Growth and
    Milk Production for Calf
  • Good Nutrition Can Shorten Recovery Time
  • Need Special Attention to Improve Cycling Rate
  • Separate Heifers From Cows Several Months Before
  • Feed So in Moderate to Good Condition
  • As Virgin Heifers, Inseminate 2 to 3 Weeks Before
    Older Cows

Conditions Affecting Cycling
  • Beef Virgin Heifers
  • Three Factors Affect When Cycling Begins
  • Age
  • Weight
  • Breed
  • Most Do Not Begin Cycling Before 13 Months
  • Inseminate 2 to 3 Weeks Ahead of Cows
  • Provides More Time for Recovery Before Rebreeding
  • Nutrition Must be Carefully Watched to Ensure
  • High Percentage are Cycling
  • Heifers Respond to Synchronization Drugs

Conditions Affecting Cycling
  • Dairy Heifers
  • Three Factors Affect When Cycling Begins
  • Age
  • Weight
  • Breed
  • With Proper Nutrition Most Reach Puberty by 13 to
    14 Months
  • Underfed Heifers Will Not Respond Well to
    Synchronization Drugs

Heat Detection
  • Amount Needed Depends on System Selected
  • Must be Done Carefully as Part of Synchronization
  • Many Females Exhibit Heat at Same Time
  • Basic Concepts of Good Heat Detection Apply to
    Heat Synchronization

Labor Needs
  • Insemination
  • Inseminator Fatigue is Common With Large Herds
  • One Inseminator Can Handle 20 to 50 Cows / Day
  • Semen Thawing, Preparation of Insemination
    Equipment and Record Keeping
  • Should Not be Handled by Inseminator
  • Working Cattle Through Facilities
  • More People Needed for Better Efficiency
  • Heat Detection
  • People and Hours Depend on Selected System

  • Existing Facilities Should be in Good Repair
  • Needs to Withstand Pressure of More Animals in
    Shorter Time Frame
  • Additional Pen Space May be Needed
  • Depends on Number of Cattle Included in Program
    and Type of System Used
  • When Using Fixed-Time Program Pen Must Hold All
    Animals in the Program
  • See Chapter 17 For More Information

  • Good Identification Helps any Program Using Heat
  • Essential to Get Maximum Value From A.I. Program
  • See Chapter 6 For More Information

Calving Period
  • Planned Breeding Programs Result in a Shorter
    Calving Period
  • Helps Herd Owners Closely Observe Calving and
    Assist With Difficult Births
  • Does Not Mean All Cows Will Calve in 2 to 3 Days
  • Calving Generally Spans 20 Around Calving Due Date

  • Heat Synchronization Controls When Groups of
    Normally Cycling Females Come Into Heat
  • Heat Cycle
  • Day 1 Estrus (Heat)
  • Days 2 to 4/5 Female Developing Corpus Luteum
  • Days 6 to 17 CL Fully Developed
  • Days 17 to 18-21 CL Regresses
  • Prostaglandin Injections Can Be Used on All

  • Choose a System That Fits Your Operations Needs
  • Calving Times
  • Financial Resources
  • Labor Resources
  • Operation Resources
  • Available Labor
  • Facilities
  • Pastures
  • Feeds

  • CIDRs are Newest Heat Synch Product
  • Use Progesterone in Intravaginal Insert
  • Recommended for Only Beef Cows and Heifer and
    Dairy Heifers
  • Most Important Factor in Successful Heat Synch
  • High Number of Cycling Females
  • Affected by Many Factors
  • Time After Calving Body Condition Score
  • Age Weight
  • Breed

Question 1
  • During which stage or stages of the estrous
    cycles will prostaglandin be effective?
  • How does it change the cycle?

Only when a fully developed Corpus Luteum is
It knocks out the CL and allows a follicle to
Question 2
  • As the percent of herd cycling increases, will
    probable drug costs per A.I. Calf decrease,
    increase or stay the same?

Decrease, because the cost is spread out over
more calves.
Question 3
  • Explain how the one-injection system safegaurds
    against treating a poor cycling herd.

By heat detecting and breeding for the 1st 6 days
I can determine the herds cycling rate by the
number detected. If 5 per day should be cycling
I should catch about 23 cows in a 100 cow herd
for it to be cycling at 80.
Question 4
  • With the two-injection system, all cycling
    animals will come into heat during the five days
    following the second injection.
  • Why is this true?

Because all will be reset to the start of the
follicular stage of heat, and it take 2 to 5 days
for the cow to develop an egg.
Question 5
  • Youre using the combination two-injection system
    on your herd that involves both heat detection
    and fixed-time insemination. After the first 76
    hours of heat detection and insemination youre
    extremely disappointed with the number of females
    that have shown heat. What should you do?

Remember those early cows are on the out side of
the distribution curve, most of the cows should
be in heat at 76 to 80 hours. Breed them.
Question 6
  • To include 100 of the females in a planned
    breeding program with ovarian palpation, there
    are two times when the females can be injected
    with protaglandin.
  • When are they?
  • Why does the drug work at these two times?

When a CL is palpated and the cow hasnt been
bred or palpated open during a pregnancy exam.
Because there is a CL present.
Question 7
  • What advantages can you think of for using
    ovarian palpation in a dairy heifer
    synchronization program?
  • For a program without ovarian palpation?

Reduce drug cost by using only on those with a
CL. Know that heifers are cycling.
Lack of skilled palpation. Less times to handle
the heifers.
Question 8
  • What is the purpose of the CIDR implant?

It stops follicle development until removed.
Question 9
  • Why can the CIDR insert be used to synchronize
    estrus without regard to previous stage of estrus

Because it suspends those with a CL present and
allows those with follicles developing to catch
up. Putting the entire group in the same stage
of the estrus cycle.
Question 10
  • Say, for example, your cows were in good
    condition at calving. You want to run a
    synchronization program, but you want to be sure
    at least 90 of them are cycling before
  • How many days after the last cow calved should
    you wait before inseminating?
  • What if your cows were in moderate condition
    after calving?

60 days
80 days
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