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Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

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Title: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems


1
Chapter 37
  • Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

2
Wednesday, May 2, 2012
  • Todays Goal
  • To trace a blood cell throughout the heart, the
    body, and the lungs.
  • Book Section 37.1 Please Turn to Page 944
  • Homework
  • Diagram the Heart
  • Standard
  • 9A Students know how the complementary activity
    of major body systems provides cells with oxygen
    and nutrients and removes toxic waste products
    such as carbon dioxide.

3
Chapter 37-1
  • The Circulatory System

4
  • Functions of the Circulatory System
  • Circulatory System _______________ system of a
  • living organism.
  • A. Larger organisms need a ____________
  • ___________, because most of their cells
    are
  • not in __________________ with the
  • _______________.
  • B. __________ organisms can avoid this, because
    they rely on diffusion across the cell
    membrane
  • to get nutrients,____________, and get rid
    of
  • ____________.

Transportation
closed
system
contact
environment
Smaller
oxygen
waste products
5
  • C. Humans and other _____________
  • have __________ circulatory systems.
  • 1. _________ is contained in ________.
  • 2. The part of the circulatory system are
  • a. __________________
  • b. __________________
  • c. __________________

organisms
closed
vessels
Blood
heart
vessels
blood
6
  • II. The Heart
  • A. The heart is made up of ______________.
  • 1. It is enclosed by the _____________ which
  • protects it.
  • 2. The walls of the heart are made of a thick
    layer muscle called the ____________, which
  • is surrounded by layers of epithelial and
  • ____________ tissue.

muscle
pericardium
myocardium
connective
7
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8
  • B. The heart contracts about ____ times per
    minute.
  • 1. Each contractions pumps _______ of blood.
  • C. The _______ divides the _______ and _______
  • sides of the ________.
  • 1. This prevents the mixing of the side that
    carries
  • blood with ________ and the side without.

72
70 mL
septum
left
right
heart
oxygen
9
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10
  • D. Chambers of the Heart
  • 1. The Upper Chamber is the __________.
  • a. Atria ________ the _________.
  • 2. The Lower Chamber is called the ___________.
  • a. __________ pump blood ______.
  • 3. The human heart has ___ atria and ___
    ventricles.

atrium
receive
blood
ventricle
out
Ventricles
2
2
11
Chambers of the heart
12
  • E. Circulation Through the Body
  • 1. The heart functions as ___ separate pumps.
  • a. The _______ side pumps blood to the ______.
  • 1) This is __________________________.
  • b. The _______ side pumps blood to the ______.
  • 1) This is __________________________.

2
right
lungs
pulmonary circulation
left
body
systemic circulation
13
  • F. Circulation through the Heart
  • 1. Blood enters the heart through the ______ and
  • _______ atria.
  • a. As the _______ contract, blood is pushed
    into the ventricles.
  • 1) Flaps of connective tissue called
    ________ keep blood from flowing _______
    into the _______ where it came from.
  • 2) Blood flowing from the _______ holds
  • the ___________ and ___________
  • valves open.

right
left
atria
valves
back
chamber
atria
tricuspid
mitral
14
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15
  • b. As the __________ contract, blood is forced
  • into either the ________ or the ________.
  • 1) When the _____________ contract, the
  • valves close, which prevents blood from
  • flowing back into the _______ while
  • pushing the ____________ and
  • ___________ valves open.

ventricles
lungs
aorta
ventricles
atria
aortic
pulmonary
16
Valves of the Heart
17
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18
Aorta Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left
ventricle to the rest of the body
Figure 37-3 The Structures of the Heart
Superior Vena Cava Large vein that brings
oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body
to the right atrium
Pulmonary Veins Bring oxygen-rich blood from each
of the lungs to the left atrium
Pulmonary Arteries Bring oxygen-poor blood to the
lungs
Left Atrium
Pulmonary Valve Prevents blood from flowing back
into the right ventricle after it has entered the
pulmonary artery
Aortic Valve Prevents blood from flowing back
into the left ventricle after it has entered the
aorta
Right Atrium
Mitral Valve Prevents blood from flowing back
into the left atrium after it has entered the
left ventricle
Tricuspid Valve Prevents blood from flowing back
into the right atrium after it has entered the
right ventricle
Left Ventricle
Inferior Vena Cava Vein that brings oxygen-poor
blood from the lower part of the body to the
right atrium
Right Ventricle
Septum
19
7
Superiorvena cava
Capillaries of Head and arms
Pulmonaryartery
Pulmonaryartery
Capillariesof right lung
Capillariesof left lung
Aorta
9
6
2
3
3
4
11
Pulmonaryvein
Pulmonaryvein
5
LEFT ATRIUM
1
RIGHT ATRIUM
LEFT VENTRICLE
RIGHT VENTRICLE
10
Aorta
Inferiorvena cava
Capillaries ofabdominal organsand legs
8
Figure 23.4B
20
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21
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22
  • G. Heartbeat
  • 1. There are ____ networks of muscle fibers in
  • heart 1 in the _______, 1 in the
    __________.
  • 2. Each __________ begins with the _________
  • _______.
  • a) The SA node is located in the _______
  • ________.
  • b) These cells are called the ____________

2
atria
ventricles
contraction
sinoatrial
node
right
atrium
pacemaker
23
  • 3. The electrical impulse moves from the
    ___________ to the fibers of the ________.
  • 4. A new group of fibers called the
    __________________
  • _______ caries the impulse to the fibers of the
    ventricles.
  • 5. The atria _________ together and the
    ventricles also contract at the ___________.

SA node
atria
contract
same time
24
  • The Heartbeat
  • Heart contraction spreads like a wave over the
    heart. Triggered by small bundle of cells
    embedded in the right atrium.
  • Heartbeat begins with contraction of right and
    left atria almost simultaneously. Then spreads to
    have contraction of right and left ventricles
    occurs almost simultaneously.

25
The Sinoatrial Node
Section 37-1
Contraction of Atria
Contraction of Ventricles
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Conducting fibers
Atrioventricular (AV) node
26
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27
  • III. Blood Vessels
  • A. Blood leaving the ______ side of the heart is
  • filled with ___________.
  • 1. When it leaves the _________________, the
  • blood passes into a large vessel called
    the
  • ___________.

left
oxygen
left ventricle
aorta
28
  • B. There are ____ types of blood vessels.
  • 1. ______________
  • 2. ______________
  • 3. ______________
  • C. Arteries
  • 1. __________ vessels that carry the blood from
    the
  • ________ to the _________.
  • a. Arteries have _______ walls to withstand the
  • __________ from the heart contraction.

3
Arteries
Capillaries
Veins
Large
heart
body
thick
pressure
29
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30
  • D. Capillaries
  • 1. ____________ are the __________ blood
    vessels.
  • a. The are only ___ cell thick.
  • b. The thin walls allow for the __________ to
  • pass to the tissues.
  • E. Veins
  • 1. ________ carry blood from the capillaries
    back
  • to the _______.
  • a. The veins must work ________________.
  • 1) Many large veins contain _________.
  • 2) __________ forces surrounding muscle
  • tissue to ________ around the veins,
    pushing the blood up.

small
Capillaries
1
nutrients
Veins
heart
against gravity
valves
Exercise
contract
31
Capillaries
32
How Veins Move Blood
33
Figure 37-5 The Three Types of Blood Vessels
Section 37-1
Capillary
Vein
Artery
Endothelium
Venule
Arteriole
Connective tissue
Connective tissue
Smooth muscle
Smooth muscle
Endothelium
Endothelium
Valve
34
Systolicpressure
  • Highest pressure is found in the arteries
  • The pressure drops down to zero when blood
    reaches the veins

Diastolicpressure
Relative sizes andnumbersof blood vessels
Figure 23.9A
35
  • IV. Blood Pressure
  • A. When the heart _________, it creates pressure
  • in the _________________.
  • B. When the heart ________, the pressure
    ________
  • but does not disappear.
  • C. Blood pressure is taken with a device called
    a
  • ____________________ and a stethoscope.
  • 1. The first measurement (________) is taken
    when the pressure from the ventricles is felt
    on
  • the arterial walls (first sound).
  • 2. The second measurement (___________) is
    the force when the ventricles relax (smooth
    sound).

contracts
arterial walls
relaxes
reduces
sphygmomanometer
systolic
diastolic
36
  • a. Normal blood pressure is _______.
  • D. Blood pressure can be regulated in 2 ways.
  • 1. When B.P. is too _______ the nervous system
  • releases a ______________ which _______ the
  • vessel walls.
  • 2. When B.P. is too low, neurotransmitters are
    released that make the vessels ___________.
  • 3. The __________ will also remove __________
  • from the blood which _________ the B.P.

120/80
high
neurotransmitter
relaxes
contract
kidneys
water
lowers
37
  • V. Diseases of the Circulatory System
  • Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading
    causes of death in the U.S.
  • A. The 2 major causes of cardiovascular disease
    are 1. _____________________
  • a. High B.P. makes the heart work
  • _____________.
  • b. ________________ can increase the
  • chance of ________________________.
  • 2. _____________________

High Blood Pressure
harder
High B.P.
heart attack and stroke
Atherosclerosis
38
  • a. Atherosclerosis is dangerous to the
  • ___________ arteries.
  • b. If the artery becomes ________ by
  • __________, oxygen and nutrients cant
  • get to the heart which can cause a heart
  • attack.
  • c. _______________ from atherosclerosis
  • can break free and get stuck in a vessel
  • leading to the brain. This is a ________.

coronary
blocked
plaque
Blood clots
stroke
39
A Normal Artery vs. Atherosclerosis
40
  • B. Circulatory System Health
  • 1. Cardiovascular disease is easier to
    _________
  • than to ________.
  • a. Ways to improve cardiovascular health
  • 1. _______________
  • 2. _______________
  • 3. _______________
  • 4. _______________
  • a. NO ____________

prevent
cure
Exercise
Balanced diet
Avoiding smoking
Low fat diet
saturated fats
41
Todays Goals and Objectives
  • Discuss key adjustments/changes to class
  • Discuss the remaining schedule
  • Review the Heart Key Structures (IQ 1)
  • Watch Video 1 The Beast Within
  • Discuss Homework

42
Key Changes to Note About the Class
  • Participation grade (25 pts.) will be given at
    the end of the semester and is based on your
    participation w/Ms. Herington and from today on.
    Note that these items that can affect your
    grade
  • -Tardies (1 min. grace period)/sign clipboard
  • -Hall Passes (2 w/out loss of pts.)/sign
    clipboard
  • -Being prepared (Text book everyday, paper,
    pencil)
  • -Food items in class not allowed (except water)
  • -Cell phones (off and out of sight)
  • Ill be checking every day when I take
    roll
  • Also You will be able to make up points lost
    during the last few weeks of school.

43
Key Changes to Note About the Class
  • Grades/Assessements
  • -Weekly Quizzes will be given every Friday
  • -Test will be given approx. every other
    week.
  • Next Test between May 16-18 on Ch. 37
  • Final Unit Digestive Urinary systems (Ch. 38)
  • Mini project Week long Nutrition Plan
  • Final Exam Cumulative Test Covering all
    chapters of the 2nd Semester.

44
IQ 1
Pulmonaryartery
10. vessel
Aorta
Pulmonaryartery
9. vessel
Superiorvena cava
1. vessel
LEFTATRIUM
RIGHTATRIUM
2. chamber
Pulmonaryveins
lmonaryveins
8. vessels
Semilunarvalve
3. valve
Semilunarvalve
7. valve
Atrioventricularvalve
Atrioventricularvalve
6. valve
Inferiorvena cava
4. vessel
RIGHTVENTRICLE
5. chamber
Figure 23.4A
45
Homework (Mon. 5/7)
  • Read/Review Pgs. 942-950
  • Do Section Assignt. Quest. 37.1 (Quest. 1-5)

46
  • IQ 2 contd
  • Place these structures in the correct order of
    sequence as blood moves through the heart
    beginning with the inferior/superior vena cava
  • Aortic semilunar valve -Pulmonary vein
  • Left ventricle -Left Atrium
  • Right atrium -Aortic Semilunar valve
  • Tricuspid AV valve -Vena Cava (inf sup)
  • Pulmonary Semilunar valve -Lungs
  • Mitral valve (bicuspid AV) -Right ventricle
  • Pulmonary artery

47
7
Superiorvena cava
Capillaries of Head and arms
Pulmonaryartery
Pulmonaryartery
Capillariesof right lung
Capillariesof left lung
Aorta
9
6
3
2
3
4
11
Pulmonaryvein
Pulmonaryvein
5
LEFT ATRIUM
1
RIGHT ATRIUM
LEFT VENTRICLE
RIGHT VENTRICLE
10
Aorta
Inferiorvena cava
Capillaries ofabdominal organsand legs
8
Figure 23.4B
48
What is a heart attack?
  • A heart attack is damage that occurs when a
    coronary feeding the heart is blocked

Aorta
Rightcoronaryartery
Leftcoronaryartery
Blockage
Dead muscle tissue
Figure 23.8A
49
Video 1 The Beast WithinHeart Attack
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
  • Write 15 Key Statements (numbered) as you watch
    the video and Three questions you have.
  • Key terms to listen for
  • -Plaque -Pacemaker (SA node)
  • -Coronary vessels -VF (Ventricular Fib.)
  • -TPA -Adrenalin

50
Systolicpressure
  • Highest pressure is found in the arteries
  • The pressure drops down to zero when blood
    reaches the veins

Diastolicpressure
Relative sizes andnumbersof blood vessels
Figure 23.9A
51
Connection Measuring Blood Pressure can Reveal
Cardiovascular Problems
  • Blood pressure is measured as systolic and
    diastolic pressures

Blood pressure120 systolic80 diastolic(to be
measured)
Pressurein cuffbelow120
Pressurein cuffabove120
Pressurein cuffbelow 80
Rubber cuffinflated with air
Soundsaudible instethoscope
Soundsstop
Arteryclosed
Artery
2
3
4
1
Figure 23.10
52
Blood Flow Through Veins
53
Homework (Tues. 5/8)
  • Read/Review Pgs. 951-955
  • Do Sect. Assignt. Quest. 37.2 (Quest. 1-5) Pg.
    955

54
Chapter 37-2
  • Blood and the Lymphatic System

55
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56
  • Overview of Blood
  • A. Type of ____________________.
  • 1. Contains dissolved substances and
  • _____________ cells.
  • B. Blood is a ________________.
  • 1. Wastes from ________.
  • 2. ___________ from the lungs.
  • 3. Nutrients from ____________________.

connective tissue
specialized
collector
tissues
oxygen
the digestive tract
57
  • C. Blood help maintain ___________________.
  • 1. Alters internal _________________.
  • 2. Fights _____________.
  • 3. Can form ______ to repair vessels.
  • II. Blood Plasma
  • - The human body contains _________ Liters of
  • blood.
  • - ______ of blood is _________.

homeostasis
temperature
infection
clots
4-6
55
plasma
58
  • A. Plasma Composition
  • 1. _____ water/ 10 _____________________
  • ____________________________________.
  • a. Plasma Proteins
  • 1) ___________- transport substances
  • and regulate _________________.
  • 2) ___________- transport substances
  • and _________________.
  • 3) ___________- Used in _________
  • ____________.

90
Dissolved gases, salts
nutrients, waste products, and plasma proteins
Albumins
blood volume
Globulins
fight infection
Fibrinogen
blood
clotting
59
Red blood cells transport oxygen
  • -Hemoglobin transport of O2
  • -Red blood cells contain hemoglobin (250-300
    million)
  • -RBC count
  • 4.2 6.2 million cells per mm3. (adult males
    females)
  • -Average Lifespan 120 days
  • -33 of RBC volume is hemoglobin
  • -2.4 million are destroyed per second and are
    replaced in the bone marrow
  • -No nucleus or mitochondria
  • -Signaled by the hormone Erythropoietin (EPO)
    produced in the kidneys

Figure 23.14
60
Lab Activity 1 Examining Blood Vessels and
Blood
-Each Table will use Two Compound Microscopes
(pair up) -Pick up petri dish Draw circles
-Obtain (3) slides Front Back of the
class -Write the Title of the slide above the
circle (printed on edge of slide) -Write the
Mag_________ underneath the circles Observe
under low power 1st (get objects into view) Move
to higher objectve lens (10x 40x) Note the
total magnification is objective number x10
(ocular lens) so. 10x multipled by 10
100x or 40 x mult. by 10 400X Draw everything
in the visual field You need to see (lots of
RBCs Erythrocytes) and (at
least TWO white blood cells)
61
Introductory Quest. Set 3
  1. Name three Key Differences between a Erythrocyte
    (RBC) and a Leukocyte (WBC). How many different
    kinds of Leukocytes are there?
  2. What of plasma is composed of water? Name
    three different types of proteins found in blood.
    (see my powerpoint slide)
  3. What is the function of platelets?
  4. Name three organs that make up the lymphatic
    system. (see pg. 955, Fig. 37.11)

62
Todays Objectives
  • Stamp Homework and work on IQ4
  • Review the Lab Activity
  • Lect/Disc. Fill in Lect. Outline
  • Finish Sect. 37.2 Lymphatic System Clotting
  • Hand Back homework video notes (this week)
  • Review IQs 1-4
  • Discuss Homework Answers

63
Homework (Wed. 5/9)
  • Search for Images on the internet that are thsame
    as we viewed on the three slides
  • Artery vs. Vein
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Human Blood Smear
  • Print out the three images you found, be sure
    they are labeled just like your slide drawings
    you made in class.
  • Attach these three images to your Lab Drawings.

64
Introductory Quest. Set 4
  1. Are Lymph Vessels more like arteries or Veins?
    Explain your answer. (see pg. 955)
  2. What kinds of nutrients are absorbed by the
    lymphatic system?
  3. Which part of the lymphatic system do T-Cells
    develop?

65
Lab Activity 1 Slides to Examine
-Artery Vein ID which is the artery vein
(Low power 100x) -Endothelial cells (Valves only
in Veins) -Smooth muscle layers -Outer
Connective Tissue -Atherosclerosis (Low power
100x) -Plaque deposit -Human Blood Smear (view
under HIGH POWER 400x) -ID Red blood cells
(erythrocytes) -Show at least TWO white blood
cells (Leukocytes) -DO a simple count to
indicate a ration of RBC WBC
66
Blood Vessels
  • Capillaries
  • smallest vessels (one cell layer thick walls)
  • Arteries
  • largest vessels, endothelial tissue, smooth
    muscle, elastic fibers, almost all carry
    oxygen-rich blood
  • Veins
  • thin connective tissue, thin smooth muscle,
    endothelial tissue

67
A Normal Artery vs. Atherosclerosis
68
Withdrawblood
Centrifuge
Place in tube
PLASMA 55
CONSTITUENT
MAJOR FUNCTIONS
CELLULAR ELEMENTS 45
Solvent forcarrying othersubstances
CELL TYPE
NUMBER(per mm3 of blood)
FUNCTIONS
Water
Erythrocytes(red blood cells)
Salts
56 million
Transport ofoxygen (and carbon dioxide)
Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Chloride Bicarb
onate
Osmotic balance,pH buffering, andregulation
ofmembranepermeability
Leukocytes(white blood cells)
Defense andimmunity
5,00010,000
Plasma proteins
Albumin Fibrinogen Globulins(antibodies)
Osmotic balance,pH buffering Clotting Immunity
Lymphocyte
Basophil
Eosinophil
Substances transported by blood
Monocyte
Nutrients (e.g., glucose, fatty acids,
vitamins) Waste products of metabolism Respiratory
gases (O2 and CO2) Hormones
Neutrophil
Platelets
250,000400,000
Blood clotting
Figure 23.13
69
White blood cells help defend the body
  • White blood cells function both inside and
    outside the circulatory system
  • They fight infections and cancer

Basophil
Eosinophil
Monocyte
Lymphocyte
Neutrophil
Figure 23.15
70
  • III. Blood Cells
  • - _________________, _________________, and
  • ____________ make up the cellular portion of
  • blood.
  • - Red blood cells ___________________________
  • - White blood cells _________________________
  • -Platelets _______________________

white blood cells
Red blood cells
platelets
Transport oxygen
Perform a variety of functions
Help in the clotting process
71
  • A. Red blood cells (________________)
  • 1. Red blood cells are the most _____________.
  • 2. Transport ___________.
  • a. ___________ gives blood cells their
  • color.
  • - Hemoglobin __________ that contains
  • _______ which ________________ in
  • the lungs.

erythrocytes
numerous
oxygen
Hemoglobin
Protein
iron
binds oxygen
72
  • 3. Red blood cells are thin disks that are
  • ___________.
  • a. As ___________ fills the blood cell, the
  • ____________ are forced out, so they
  • have _______________!
  • 4. Red blood cells live for about ________
  • a. Red blood cells are destroyed in the ____
  • or the __________.

flexible
hemoglobin
organelles
no nuclei
120 days
liver
spleen
73
  • B. White Blood Cells (_____________)
  • 1. Do not contain ______________.
  • 2. Not as common as ___________________.
  • a. Both ___________ are made in the
  • ____________________.
  • b. White blood cells have ___________.

leukocytes
hemoglobin
red blood cells
blood cells
bone marrows stem cells
nuclei
Red blood cell
White blood cell
74
(No Transcript)
75
  • 3. White blood cells
  • a. _____________________
  • b. _____________________
  • c. _____________________
  • 1) Some are ________________
  • 2) Some release _____________
  • 3) Some are ___________ that make
  • _____________.
  • 4. Many white blood cells also travel in the
  • ________________________.

Guard against infection
Fight parasites
Attack bacteria
phagocytes
histamine
lymphocytes
antibodies
lymphatic System
76
How Does Blood Clot?(See Pgs . 953-954)
77
  • C. Platelets and Blood Clotting
  • 1. The body has very specialized ways to
  • prevent _______________ from an injury and
  • to help it begin to ________.
  • 2. Blood can _________.
  • a. Blood clotting is made possible from
  • _________________, and cell fragments
  • called ___________.

slow bleeding
heal
form a clot
plasma proteins
platelets
78
  • b. Special cells in the____________, break
  • apart into very small pieces called
  • ___________.
  • 1) Each fragment is surrounded by a
  • _____________ and released into
  • the _______________.

bone marrow
platelets
membrane
bloodstream
79
Bone Marrow
80
Differentiation of Blood Cells in the Bone Marrow
Pg. 881
81
  • c. When platelets touch the edges of broken
  • vessels, their surfaces become _______,
  • and they will ___________________.
  • 3. The platelets release __________ called
  • _________________________.
  • a. The clotting factors start a series of
  • ______________________.

sticky
clump at the wound
proteins
clotting factors
chemical reactions
82
  • b. In one reaction, a clotting factor called
  • _____________ converts ____________
  • (which is in the plasma) into _________.
  • c. _________, in turn, helps to convert a
  • plasma protein _________ into a sticky
  • mesh of ________ filaments.
  • 1) These filaments produce a ______.

prothrombin
thromboplastin
thrombin
Thrombin
fibrinogen
fibrin
clot
83
Blood Clotting
84
Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are
injured
  • When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets respond
  • They help trigger the formation of an insoluble
    fibrin clot that plugs the leak

Fibrin clot (see pg. 882)
Figure 23.16B
85
(No Transcript)
86
  • 2) If a clotting factor is _________,
  • the process does not work.
  • Ex- Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which
  • one of the clotting factors is defective
    and
  • the bleeding cannot be stopped even if
    there
  • is a small cut.

missing
87
  • III. The Lymphatic System
  • A. As blood circulates through the body, about
    ____
  • of blood leaks into the bodys _________.
  • 1. A network of _________, __________, and
  • ________ called the ___________________
  • collects all of the ________ fluid lost
    from the
  • blood and returns it.
  • 2. The fluid that moves through these lymphatic
  • vessels is called ________.

3 L
tissues
vessels
nodes
organs
Lymphatic System
excess
lymph
88
(No Transcript)
89
See pgs. 954-955
90
  • 3. Like ________, lymphatic vessels have
  • __________ that stop lymph from flowing
    backwards.
  • 4. _______ collect the lymph and return it the
    ____________________through two openings
    in the _____________________.
  • 5. _________________ are small enlargements
  • that act as a _________
  • to trap bacteria and
  • other ______________.

veins
valves
Ducts
circulatory system
superior vena cava
lymph nodes
filters
microorganisms
91
LYMPHATICVESSEL
Adenoid
Tonsil
VALVE
Right lymphaticduct, enteringvein
Tissue cells
Lymph nodes
Interstitialfluid
Bloodcapillary
Thoracic duct,entering vein
Thoracicduct
Thymus
LYMPHATICCAPILLARY
Appendix
Spleen
Masses oflymphocytes and macrophages
Bonemarrow
Lymphaticvessels
Figure 23.3
92
  • Lymph nodes are key sites for fighting infection
  • They are packed with lymphocytes and macrophages

Masses oflymphocytes and macrophages
Outer capsule oflymph node
Macrophages
Lymphocytes
Figure 23.3C, D
93
  • B. Lymph vessels also plays a role in
    ___________
  • ______________.
  • 1. Some lymph vessels are next to the ________
  • where they absorb ________ and fat-soluble
  • ___________ and carry them to the ________.
  • C. Lymph moves from the __________________
  • pressure produced by the __________.
  • 1. ___________ from the _______________ also
  • help push lymph along.

nutrient
absorption
intestines
fats
vitamins
blood
osmotic
blood
Contraction
skeletal muscles
94
(No Transcript)
95
Fluid Exchange _at_ Capillary Level
96
  • 2. If the lymph does ______ flow well, it will
  • cause __________ (a.k.a. _______________)
  • if the lymph vessels are ____________.
  • C. Other Lymph Organs
  • 1. Thymus- _________ mature here before they
  • can be used in the ___________________.
  • 2. Spleen- ____________ damaged __________,
  • and contains _____________ that destroy
  • bacteria and other microorganisms.

NOT
swelling
edema
blocked
T cells
immune system
Remove
blood cells
phagocytes
97
Lymphocytes Mount a Dual Defense
  • Two kinds of lymphocytes carry out the immune
    response
  • B cells secrete antibodies that attack antigens
  • T cells attack cells infected with pathogens

BONE MARROW
Stem cell
THYMUS
Viablood
Immaturelymphocytes
Antigenreceptors
T cell
B cell
CELL-MEDIATEDIMMUNITY
HUMORALIMMUNITY
Viablood
Lymph nodes,spleen, and otherlymphatic organs
Final maturation of B and T cellsin lymphatic
organ
OTHER PARTSOF THELYMPHATICSYSTEM
Figure 24.5
98
Today s Objectives Fri. 5/10
  • Review IQs 1-4 Homework (pick up)
  • Take Quiz for Sect. 37.1-37.2
  • Video 2 The Circulatory System

99
Homework (Thurs. 5/10)
  • Review for Quiz tomorrow
  • Go to www.SciLinks.org and us the Web codes on
    pgs. 944, 950, and 952 to explore/review the
    concepts from sect. 37.1 37.2 in your text.
  • Register and establish a Username/password for
    your textbook at www.Pearsonsuccessnet.com. Here
    you can review concepts and be quizzed on the
    information. The class access code you can use to
    register is D52CA31916623EACE252

100
A Review of this Weeks IQs 1-4
101
IQ 1
Pulmonaryartery
10. vessel
Aorta
Pulmonaryartery
9. vessel
Superiorvena cava
1. vessel
LEFTATRIUM
RIGHTATRIUM
2. chamber
Pulmonaryveins
lmonaryveins
8. vessels
Semilunarvalve
3. valve
Semilunarvalve
7. valve
Atrioventricularvalve
Atrioventricularvalve
6. valve
Inferiorvena cava
4. vessel
RIGHTVENTRICLE
5. chamber
Figure 23.4A
102
  • IQ 2 contd
  • Place these structures in the correct order of
    sequence as blood moves through the heart
    beginning with the inferior/superior vena cava
  • Aortic semilunar valve -Pulmonary vein
  • Left ventricle -Left Atrium
  • Right atrium -Aortic Semilunar valve
  • Tricuspid AV valve -Vena Cava (inf sup)
  • Pulmonary Semilunar valve -Lungs
  • Mitral valve (bicuspid AV) -Right ventricle
  • Pulmonary artery

103
Introductory Quest. Set 3
  1. Name three Key Differences between a Erythrocyte
    (RBC) and a Leukocyte (WBC). How many different
    kinds of Leukocytes are there?
  2. What of plasma is composed of water? Name
    three different types of proteins found in blood.
    (see my powerpoint slide)
  3. What is the function of platelets?
  4. Name three organs that make up the lymphatic
    system. (see pg. 955, Fig. 37.11)

104
Introductory Quest. Set 4
  1. Are Lymph Vessels more like arteries or Veins?
    Explain your answer. (see pg. 955)
  2. What kinds of nutrients are absorbed by the
    lymphatic system?
  3. Which part of the lymphatic system do T-Cells
    develop?

105
Chapter 37-3
  • The Respiratory System

106
  • The respiratory System
  • A. It is not the same as ____________________.
  • B. ____________ The release of ____________
  • and the __________ of oxygen between the
  • lungs and the _______________.

cellular respiration
carbon dioxide
Gas exchange
uptake
environment
107
  • II. The Human Respiratory System
  • A. Function of the respiratory system
    ___________
  • _______________________________________
  • _____________________.
  • B. Respiratory System Consists of
  • 1. ______________
  • 2. ______________
  • 3. ______________
  • 4. ______________
  • 5. ______________
  • 6. ______________

To bring
about the exchange of oxygen and CO2 between
the blood, air, and tissues
nose
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs
108
  • B. The __________ is a passageway for both _____
  • and _______.
  • C. Air goes from the _________ into the
    ________.
  • 1. A flap of _________ called the ___________
  • covers the entrance to the _________ when
  • you _____________.

air
pharynx
food
pharynx
trachea
epiglottis
tissue
trachea
swallow
109
Today s Objectives Tues. 5/15
  • Collect Homework (Pg. 963 1-5)
  • Do IQ 5
  • Finish Video 2 Segments Circulatory System
  • Lect/Disc. Respiratory system Pgs. 956-959

110
Video 2 The Circulatory System
  • Which system is the most life threatening if
    damaged? Why?
  • What is the primary function of the circulatory
    system?
  • How is an open circulatory system different a
    closed?
  • How is a vein different from an artery?
  • Name FOUR key structures within the heart.
  • Write the title for each segment and FIVE
    statements for each segment.

111
  • D. Much of the _______ tissue is very delicate
    and
  • must have special conditions.
  • 1. Must be _______, __________, and _______.
  • 2. The air is filtered before it reaches the
    lungs.
  • a. _______________ trap large ________
  • particles.
  • b. Some cells that line the respiratory tract
  • make ________ that traps particles.
  • c. Specialized cells have ______ that move
  • the _______ and particles up where they
  • can be ____________ or spit out.

lung
warm
moistened
filtered
Nose hairs
dust
mucus
cilia
mucus
swallowed
112
Cilia in the R.T.
113
  • E. The _________ is at the top of the trachea.
  • 1. The larynx contains the _____ folds of
  • __________ tissue called the ____________.
  • F. The __________ are two large _____________
    that
  • are at the end of the ___________. (Bronchus)
  • 1. Each __________ leads to one of the ______.
  • 2. Each bronchus splits off into _________
  • branches called ____________.
  • a. Both are surrounded by ________
  • _________ which allows the _________
  • system to control the size of the airway.

larynx
cell
elastic
voice box
bronchi
passageways
trachea
bronchus
lungs
smaller
bronchioles
smooth
nervous
muscle
114
  • G. The bronchioles divide even further into
    ______.
  • 1. Alveoli are tiny air sacs that are grouped
    into
  • tiny _________.
  • a. They are very ________.
  • b. ___________ surround each alveolus.
  • c. This is where ______________ happens.

alveoli
clusters
thin
Capillaries
gas exchange
115
  • III. Gas Exchange
  • A. There are about _______________ alveoli in
    the
  • lungs.
  • 1. This gives the lungs a lot of ______________
  • to __________ gases.
  • 2. Oxygen _________ in the moisture of the
  • surface of the __________ and diffuses
    across
  • into the ___________.
  • 3. _____ diffuses in the opposite direction.

150 million
surface area
exchange
dissolves
alveoli
capillaries
CO2
116
  • B. Gas exchange is very _____________.
  • 1. Inhaled air ____ oxygen and _____ CO2.
  • 2. Exhaled air ____ oxygen and _____ CO2.
  • C. ____________ makes our _______ much more
  • _________ at carrying oxygen so we do not need
  • as much blood to get enough ________.
  • 1. Hemoglobin increases the bloods _________
  • _________ by _____.

efficient
21
0.04
15
4
Hemoglobin
blood
efficient
oxygen
carrying
60 X
capacity
117
Homework (Tues. 5/15)
  • Finish IQ 5 go to my website and use the
    hyperlink to view the questions.

118
Introductory Quest. Set 5
  • Place these structures in the correct order as
    air moves into the lungs
  • -trachea -nose mouth -alveoli sacs
  • -bronchiole -pharynx -bronchus
  • 2. What role do the cilia and mucus serve in the
  • respiratory tract?
  • 3. How many alveoli sacs are there in a healthy
    lung?
  • 4. What of the air you breathe is oxygen?
  • Why is hemoglobin so important for respiration?
  • The lungs are surrounded by _____ membranes.
  • What muscles do you need to inhale and exhale?
  • Why is exhaling a Passive event?

119
Introductory Quest. Set 6
  1. When inhaling, does the diaphragm contract or
    relax? What happens to the overall volume of the
    thoracic cavity?
  2. Why are chest injuries so serious?
  3. What part of the brain controls your breathing?
    How does this structure control or know when
    its time to breath? What is being monitored?
    (See Pg. 961)
  4. Smoke from tobacco contains three dangerous
    substances that have negative effects on the
    body. Name these three substances and their
    effect on the body.
  5. Name the three respiratory diseases that come
    from smoking.

120
(No Transcript)
121
(No Transcript)
122
(No Transcript)
123
  • IV. Breathing
  • A. Breathing is the ___________ of ____ in and
    out
  • of the _________.
  • 1. There are no ______ connected to the ______.
  • 2. _______________ is what brings air into the
  • lungs.
  • 3. The lungs are enclosed in ___ sacs called
    the
  • ____________________.
  • 4. A large, flat muscle called the ___________
    is beneath this.

movement
air
lungs
muscles
lungs
Air pressure
2
pleural cavity
diaphragm
124
Breathing ventilates the lungs
  • Breathing is the alternation of inhalation and
    exhalation

Figure 22.8A
125
  • B. When you __________, the diaphragm _______
  • and the ________________________.
  • 1. When this happens, the ___________ of the
  • chest cavity ___________.
  • a. This creates a partial __________.
  • b. If the volume ___, pressure will ___ and
  • air rushes ______ the lungs naturally.

inhale
contracts
rib cage rises up
volume
increases
vacuum
into
126
  • C. Exhaling is a __________ event most of the
  • time.
  • 1. As the rib cage _______, the diaphragm
  • _________, and the _________ in the chest
    cavity is greater than the atmosphere.
  • a. Air rushes ___ of the lungs.
  • 2. If extra force is needed, other chest
    muscles
  • ________ as the diaphragm relaxes.
  • D. This works because the chest cavity is
    ________.
  • The air moves from high to low pressure (like
  • diffusion!!!)

passive
lowers
pressure
relaxes
out
contract
sealed
127
Volumes for Air Exchange
  • Vital Capacity 4500 cm3 Breath out all
    the air you can
  • Tidal volume 500 cm3 Normal
    breath
  • Inspirational reserve 3000 cm3 Excess air
    you can still breath in
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------
  • Residual air left over 1000 cm3 (cannot
    be forced out)
  • Lungs will collapse, alveoli require this amount
    of air at all times.

128
Homework (Wed. 5/16)
  • Begin the review for the Test
  • Do Review Content Questions 1-10 on Pg. 967
  • Do Understanding Concept Quest. 14, 18, 20, and
    22
  • GO to my Website, click ppt Ch. 37, fill in rest
    of blanks
  • Extra Credit (20 pts.)
  • Construct a Model of the Human Lung as shown on
    pgs. 964 965. The amount of points you earn
    depends on the functionality of your model.
    You will need Straws, Balloons, and a rigid
    Bottle. Be sure to have a left right lung
    inside the bottle not just a single balloon.
    Turn in by Mon. 21

129
Introductory Quest. Set 6
  1. When inhaling, does the diaphragm contract or
    relax? What happens to the overall volume of the
    thoracic cavity?
  2. Why are chest injuries so serious?
  3. What part of the brain controls your breathing?
    How does this structure control or know when
    its time to breath? What is being monitored?
    (See Pg. 961)
  4. Smoke from tobacco contains three dangerous
    substances that have negative effects on the
    body. Name these three substances and their
    effect on the body.
  5. Name the three respiratory diseases that come
    from smoking.

130
Introductory Quest. Set 7
  • Name the three respiratory diseases that come
    from smoking.
  • How many people in the United States is diagnosed
    with Lung Cancer each year? How long will they
    expect to live after being diagnosed?
  • What happens to blood vessels when a person
    smokes?

131
  • V. How is Breathing is Controlled
  • A. You can ___________ your breathing, but your
  • body will also _______ you to breathe.
  • B. The body controls breathing through the
  • _______________________.
  • 1. ____________ nerves from there innervate on
  • the __________ which contracts in cycles.
  • C. The frequency of this impulse is controlled
    by
  • cells in the __________________ which detect
  • the levels of ______.

control
force
medulla oblongata
Autonomic
diaphragm
breathing center
CO2
132
  • 1. As the _____levels rise, the nerves are
  • triggered to stimulate the diaphragm and
  • initiate ____________.
  • 2. The breathing center only responds to _____
  • levels of _____, but not _____ levels of
    ____.

CO2
contractions
high
CO2
low
O2
133
  • During exercise, the CO2 level in the blood
    rises, lowering the blood pH
  • This triggers a cascade of events

Brain
Cerebrospinal fluid
BREATHING CONTROLCENTERSstimulated by
Pons
CO2 increase / pH decreasein blood
Medulla
Nerve signalindicating lowO2 level
Nerve signalstriggercontractionof muscles
O2 sensorin artery
Diaphragm
Figure 22.9
Rib muscles
134
O2
Lung
CO2
1
Breathing
Circulatorysystem
2
Transportof gases bythe circulatorysystem
Mitochondria
3
Servicing ofcells withinthe bodytissues
O2
CO2
Capillary
Cell
Figure 22.1
135
Video 3 -Respiration Video
  • Name (2) factors that affect the rate of gas
    Exchange.
  • What does Dr. Karen Martin discuss and review?
  • Name the two organisms used in explaining how air
    can be stored for diving in water for long
    periods of time.
  • Dr. Christopher Cooper discusses the process of
    ________
  • How is gas exchange different in a unicellular
    organism vs. a multicellular?
  • Name (2) challenges faced by larger body sizes
  • Write the title for each segment and a minimum
    of (5) statements for each segment.

136
  • VI. Tobacco and the Respiratory System
  • A. Tobacco helps to ___________ the protective
  • functions of the respiratory system.
  • B. Substances in Tobacco
  • - The 3 most dangerous substances of tobacco
  • 1. ___________
  • - ____________ drug that _________ the
  • heart rate and __________________.

destroy
Nicotine
Stimulant
raises
blood pressure
137
  • 2. ______________
  • - Takes the place of ___________ on the
  • _______________ protein, so _______
  • oxygen makes it to the tissues.
  • 3. ______________
  • - Contains many things that can cause
  • _____________.
  • Both _________ and ____________ paralyze the
  • _______ of the upper respiratory tract.

Carbon monoxide
oxygen
hemoglobin
less
Tar
cancer
nicotine
CO
cilia
138
  • C. Diseases Caused by Smoking
  • 1. Smoking reduces __________________.
  • a. ______ of smokers live past 80, whereas
  • ______ of nonsmokers live that long.
  • 2. Even __________ smoking can cause
  • ____________________________________.
  • 3. About ____________ people a year are
  • diagnosed with _______________.
  • 4. Smoking can cause __________________ by
  • __________ the blood vessels.

life expectancy
30
55
moderate
bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer
160,000
lung cancer
heart disease
narrowing
139
DONT SMOKE!!!!
  • EVER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

140
Homework (Thurs. 5/17)
  • Do Quest. 1-10 on Pg. 969
  • Do the Interactive Self Test _at_ http//www.phschool
    .com/science/
  • (use the web codes in the book) printout your
    results
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ----
  • Extra Credit (20 pts.)
  • Construct a Model of the Human Lung as shown on
    pgs. 964 965. The amount of points you earn
    depends on the functionality of your model.
    You will need Straws, Balloons, and a rigid
    Bottle. Be sure to have a left right lung
    inside the bottle not just a single balloon.
    Turn in by Mon. 21

141
  • In most animals, specialized body parts carry out
    gas exchange
  • Gills in fish

Body surface
Respiratorysurface(gill)
Capillaries
CO2
O2
Figure 22.2B
142
Gas Exchange
143
Countercurrent flow in the gills Enhances O2
transfer
  • Blood flows through the lamellae in a direction
    opposite to water flow
  • This countercurrent maintains a diffusion
    gradient that maximizes the uptake of O2

Water flowover lamellae
Blood flowthroughlamellae
Figure 22.4
144
Surviving in Thin Air
  • The air at the height of the worlds highest
    peak, Mt. Everest, is very low in oxygen
  • Even expert mountain climbers do not always
    survive the journey
  • Thin air can weaken muscles, damage the
    digestive system, cloud the mind, and sometimes
    fill the lungs with blood

145
  • Other organisms, such as birds, have air sacs
  • These structures act as bellows that keep air
    flowing through the lungs
  • However, they do not function directly in gas
    exchange

Air
Air
Anteriorair sacs
Trachea
Posteriorair sacs
Lungs
Lungs
Airtubesin lung
1 mn
EXHALATIONAir sacs empty lungs fill
INHALATIONAir sacs fill
Figure 22.8B
146
Assignt. Packet Ch. 37
  • Cover Sheet Name, Period, Date (Ch. 37)
  • Lab Activity examining blood vessels Blood
  • Heart Drawing/labeled
  • Textbook Hmwk
  • Pg. 950
  • Pg. 955
  • Pg. 963
  • Pg. 967 1-10 14, 18, 20, 22
  • Pg. 969 1-10 Webpage printout
  • Video Notes (x2)
  • IQs x7
  • Readers Guide
  • Powerpoint slides (blanks filled in)
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