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Human Geography By James Rubenstein

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Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 7 Key Issue 3 Why Do Ethnicities Clash? Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality The Horn of Africa and central Africa ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography By James Rubenstein


1
Human Geography By James Rubenstein
  • Chapter 7
  • Key Issue 3
  • Why Do Ethnicities Clash?

2
Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality
  • The Horn of Africa and central Africa are the two
    areas where conflicts among ethnic groups have
    been particularly complex and brutal.

3
Ethnic Competition in the Horn of Africa
  • The Horn of Africa encompasses the countries of
    Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia.
    Especially severe problems have been found in
    Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as the
    neighboring country of Sudan.

4
The Horn of Africa
5
Ethiopia and Eritrea
  • Eritrea, located along the Red Sea, became an
    Italian colony in 1890.
  • Ethiopia, an independent country for more than
    2,000 years, was captured by Italy during the
    1930s.

6
Ethiopia and Eritrea
7
Ethiopia and Eritrea
  • After World War II, Ethiopia regained its
    independence.
  • The United Nations awarded Eritrea to Ethiopia.
  • The Eritreans rebelled, beginning a 30-year
    fight for independence (1961-1991).

8
Ethiopia and Eritrea
  • In 1991 Eritrean rebels defeated the Ethiopian
    army.
  • In 1993 Eritrea became an independent state.
  • Eritrea has nine major ethnic groups.

9
Sudan
  • A civil war has raged since the 1980s between two
    ethnicities,
  • - In the south the black Christian and
    animist.
  • - In the north the Arab Muslim-dominated
    government.

10
Sudan
11
Sudan
  • The black southerners have been resisting
    government attempts to convert the country from a
    multi-ethnic society to one nationality tied to
    Muslim traditions.

12
Somalia
  • On the surface, Somalia should face fewer ethnic
    divisions than its neighbors in the Horn of
    Africa.
  • Somalis are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslims and
    speak Somali.

13
Somalia
14
Somalia
  • With the collapse of a national government in
    Somalia, various clans and sub-clans claimed
    control over portions of the country.

15
Somalia
  • In 1992, after an estimated 300,000 people died
    from famine and from warfare between clans, the
    United States sent troops to Somalia to protect
    delivery of food and to reduce the number of
    weapons in the hands of the clan armies.

16
Blackhawk Down
  • 18 U.S. Army Rangers were killed when Somali
    militias shot down two military helicopters in
    October 1993.
  • The United States suspects the Somalis were
    trained by al Qaeda, and the event was dramatized
    in the movie 'Black Hawk Down.'

17
Somalia
  • After peace talks among the clans collapsed in
    1994, U.S. troops withdrew.

18
Ethnic Competition in Lebanon
  • Lebanon has been severely damaged by fighting
    among religious factions since the 1970s.
  • No census has been taken in Lebanon since 1932.

19
Ethnic Competition in Lebanon
  • Current estimate is about 60 Muslim, 30
    Christian, and 10 other.
  • About 7 of the population is Druze (a religion
    combines elements of Islam and Christianity).

20
Lebanon
  • When Lebanon became independent in 1943, the
    constitution required that each religion be
    represented in the Chamber of Deputies according
    to its in the 1932 census.

21
Lebanon
  • By unwritten convention, the president of Lebanon
    was a Maronite Christian, the premier a Sunni
    Muslim, the speaker of the Chamber of Deputies a
    Shiite Muslim, and the foreign minister a Greek
    Orthodox Christian.

22
Lebanon
  • When the governmental system was created,
    Christians constituted a majority and controlled
    the country's main businesses.
  • As the Muslims became the majority, they
    demanded political and economic equality.

23
Lebanons distribution of religion
24
Lebanon
  • A civil war broke out in 1975, and each
    religious group formed a private army or militia
    to guard its territory.
  • Syria, Israel, and the United States sent troops
    into Lebanon at various points to try to restore
    peace.

25
Lebanon
  • In 1983, 241 U.S. marines died when a truck bomb
    blew up their barracks resulting in U.S.
    withdrawal.
  • After several years of occupation, Syria finally
    withdrew its troops in April 2005 as a result of
    massive demonstrations.

26
Dividing Ethnicities among More Than One State
  • Newly independent countries were often created to
    separate two ethnicities.
  • However, two ethnicities can rarely be segregated
    completely.

27
South Asia
  • The British ended their colonial rule of the
    Indian subcontinent in 1947.

28
Dividing Ethnicities in South Asia
  • Antagonism between Hindus and Muslims was so
    great that the British decided to place the them
    in separate states.
  • Pakistan for the Muslims
  • India for the Hindus

29
Forced Migration
  • The partition of South Asia into two states
    resulted in massive migration, because the two
    boundaries did not correspond precisely to the
    territory inhabited by the two ethnicities.

30
Forced Migration in South Asia
31
Extremists Attacks
  • Hindus in Pakistan and Muslims in India were
    killed attempting to reach the other side of the
    new border by people from the rival religion.

32
Kashmir
  • Since 1972 the Pakistan and India have maintained
    a "line of control" through the region.
  • Muslims, who comprise a majority in both
    portions, have fought a guerrilla war to secure
    reunification of Kashmir, either as part of
    Pakistan or as an independent country.

33
Kashmir
34
Sikhs
  • India's religious unrest is further complicated
    by the majority presence of 19 million Sikhs in
    Punjab, who have long resented that they were not
    given their own independent country when India
    was partitioned.

35
Sikh Family
36
Dividing Sri Lanka Among Ethnicities
  • Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), an island country of
    20 million inhabitants off the Indian coast, has
    been torn by fighting between the Buddhist
    Sinhalese and the Hindu Tamils.

37
Sri Lanka
38
Sinhalese
  • Comprise 74 of Sri Lanka's population,
  • migrated from northern India in the 5th century
    B.C.,
  • occupying the southern portion of the island.

39
Tamils
  • 18 of Sri Lanka's population-
  • migrated across the narrow 50-mile-wide Palk
    Strait from India beginning in the 3rd century
    B.C.
  • and occupied the northern part of the island.

40
Ethnic Dispute in Sri Lanka
  • The dispute between Sri Lanka's two ethnicities
    extends back more than 2,000 years but was
    suppressed during 300 years of European control.
  • Since independence in 1948, Sinhalese have
    dominated.
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