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Title: Educational institutions worldwide are undergoing fundamental shifts in how they operate and interact with their

Quality concepts Topic 1
  • Educational institutions worldwide are undergoing
    fundamental shifts in how they operate and
    interact with their customers students,
    alumni, donors, faculty members, and staff
  • Kotler Fox (1995) state that the best
    organization in the world will be ineffective if
    the focus on customers is lost. First and
    foremost is the treatment of individual students,
    alumni, parents, friends, and each other
    (internal customers). Every contact counts!

Students expectation
Quality concepts Topic 1
  • Todays students expect of colleges and
    universities what they demand elsewhere better
    service, lower costs, higher quality, and a mix
    of products that satisfy their own sense of what
    a good education ought to provide. They want the
    enterprises that serve them to be efficient not
    for efficiencys sake, but because efficiency
    promotes the flexibility and adaptability they
    seek in the marketplace.
  • (quoted in Lewis Smith, 1994, p. 4)

Grading System
Quality concepts Topic 1
  • Grade Mark Quality Point
  • A 80-100 4.00
  • A- 75 79 3.75
  • B 70 74 3.50
  • B 65 69 3.00
  • B- 60 64 2.75
  • C 55 59 2.50
  • C 50 54 2.00
  • C- 47 49 1.75
  • D 44 46 1.50
  • D 40 43 1.00
  • F 0 39 0.00

Konsep Kualiti
  • Selepas mengikuti tajuk ini pelajar patut dapat
  • Memahami definisi kualiti
  • Mempelajari dimensi kualiti
  • Memahami faktor yang mempengaruhi kesan ke atas
    pengurusan kualiti
  • Memahami kepentingan kualiti
  • Bacaan
  • Bab 1 B. Janakiraman R.K. Gopal, 2007
  • Maureen Brookes Nina Becket, Quality Management
    in Higher Education

Quality Concepts
  • After completing this topic, you should be able
  • Understand various definitions of quality
  • Learn about dimensions of quality
  • Understand the forces affecting quality
  • Understand the importance of quality
  • Bacaan / Readings
  • Chapter 1 B. Janakiraman R.K. Gopal, 2007
  • Maureen Brookes Nina Becket, Quality Management
    in Higher Education

Higher Education Institution
  • HEI means and educational institution whether or
    not established under any written law and
    including private educational institution
    providing higher education leading to the award
    of a certificate, diploma, degree or the
    equivalent thereof. (Akta Majlis Pendidikan
    Tinggi Negara 1996 - Akta 546)
  • Institusi pendidikan tinggi ialah institusi
    pendidikan yang menyediakan pendidikan tinggi
    yang membawa kepada penganugerahan diploma,
    ijazah atau yang setaraf dengannya (Akta
    Pendidikan 1996)

University or University College
  • University or University College means
  • (a) University or University College established
    under the Universities and University Colleges
    Act 1971 or
  • (b) a private higher educational institution
    with the status of a University or University
    College, a branch campus of a foreign University
    or University College, established under the
    Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996
    (Act 546)

Management as defined
  • Management is defined as the effective use and
    coordination of resources such as capital, plant,
    materials, and labour to achieve defined
    objectives with maximum efficiency (International
    Dictionary of Management).
  • Covers the relevant aspects of efficiency,
    effectiveness in the usage of resources,
    financial management and implementation of stated

Accountability/ Kebertanggungjawaban
  • The obligation to give answers and explanations
    concerning ones action and performance, to those
    with a right to require such answers and
    explanations (Ahmad Sarji Abdul Hamid, 1991
    Perkhidmatan Awam Yang Berkualiti).
  • Bertanggungjawab kepada atau terhadap sesuatu
    tindakan dan perbuatan (Kamus Dewan).
  • Seorang pegawai bertanggungjawab kepada pihak
    atasan mengenai cara sesuatu tindakan atau
    keputusan yang diambil olehnya mengikut
    garispanduan dan peraturan yang ditetapkan.

Accountability/ Kebertanggungjawaban
  • Therefore, an organization / university has the
    obligation to give answers and explanations
    concerning its own action and performance, to
    those with a right to require such answers and
    explanations (government, stakeholders).
  • Bertanggungjawab kepada atau terhadap sesuatu
    tindakan dan perbuatan (Kamus Dewan).
  • Seorang pegawai bertanggungjawab kepada pihak
    atasan mengenai cara sesuatu tindakan atau
    keputusan yang diambil olehnya mengikut
    garispanduan dan peraturan yang ditetapkan.

  • It implies an agreement
  • An exchange between two parties in which one
    says essentially, You give me the means and I
    will do what we agreed upon. The other says,
    Fine, as long as you demonstrate you are doing
    it well.
  • Based on the above definition, an accountability
    relationship has the following elements
  • (a) Resources and/or authority conferred
  • (b) Agreement to use what ism given to carry out
    particular responsibilities
  • (c) Obligation to demonstrate that what is given
    is used conscientiously for the agreed purposes

Government commitment
  • The Malaysian Public Service Commitments 2008
  • Launched by Tan Sri Mohd Sidek Hassan Chief
    Secretary to the Government of Malaysia January
  • Towards a Customer Centric Malaysian Public

Government commitment
  • Mewujudkan budaya perkhidmatan yang berfokuskan
    pelanggan berdasarkan ciri-ciri berikut
  • Kebolehpercayaan dan kebolehjangkaan (reliability
    and predictability)
  • Responsif (high level of responsiveness)
  • Menepati masa (timeliness of responsiveness)
  • Berbudi bahasa dan cekap (courtesy and
  • Persekitaran mesra pelanggan (customer friendly

Factors for the Increase inPublic Demand for
  • Fiscal pressures
  • Competition in funds
  • Faced with tighter budgets
  • Rise in perceived importance of the function of
    postsecondary institutions
  • The benefits of postsecondary education
  • Increase in students employability value
    added the value that is added to students
    capabilities and knowledge as a consequence of
    their education at a particular college or

Factors for the Increase inPublic Demand for
  • Human resource development and knowledge-based
  • Non-financial value to individuals, society and
    the nation
  • Postsecondary education can contribute to
    enhanced cultural integrity, tolerance, and
    respect, which are all highly valued in the
    global society

The Big Questions of Quality
  • Some of the questions
  • How do higher education institutions satisfying
    stakeholders demands on their education?
  • What is the role of quality management?
  • What factors exert influence on higher education
  • Through what kind of mechanisms do higher
    education institutions react?
  • What are the effects of the reactions taken by
    higher education institutions?
  • Is/Are there any model(s) suitable for higher
    education institutions?

The Pressures
  • Some of the pressures
  • State of uncertainty faced by educational
  • Expectations for greater performance in a climate
    of increase financial accountability.
  • The existence of alternatives to public education
  • The expectation on universities as change agent.
  • 1990s has been the decade of quality in higher
    education (changes in approaches to achieve
    quality in higher education).
  • External quality monitoring and procedures.

Quality Concepts
  • What is quality?
  • In simple form quality answers two questions
    What is wanted? and How do we do it?
  • Quality means staying in business.
  • Quality means optimizing the whole system of
    value exchange.
  • Two dominant meanings of quality
  • Quality consists of those products features,
    which meet the needs of customers, hence provides
    product satisfaction.
  • Quality consists of freedom from deficiencies.
  • (Janakiraman Gopal, 2007, p.2)

Quality Management System (QMS)
  • Quality
  • An expectation of other products and services we
    all use.
  • A product or service delivered to a very high
    specification at a very high price, only
    accessible to customers or clients who have high
    incomes and wealth
  • The totality of features and characteristics of
    a product or service that bear on its ability to
    satisfy stated or implied needs
  • Ability of a set of inherent characteristics of
    a product, process/system to fulfill requirements
    of customers and other interested parties
  • Quality Management System
  • Well documented system that ensures consistency
    and improvement of working practices, including
    products and services produced.

Quality Management (QM)
  • Quality management (QM) refers to structures
    within a higher education institution that assist
    in the management of quality issues (Luxton,
  • Quality improvement (refers to process) is
    concerned with an ongoing cycle of agreeing on a
    set of standards and/or goals, gathering relevant
    information, evaluating feedback and ensuring the
    implementation of change.

Various Definitions of Quality
  • Fitness for purpose or use - Juran
  • Conformance to requirements Crosby
  • Total composite of product and services
    characteristics of marketing, engineering,
    manufacturing and maintenance through which the
    product and service in use will meet the
    expectation by the customer Feigenbaum
  • Should be aimed at the needs of the customers,
    present and future Deming
  • The degree of excellence at an acceptance price
    and control of variability at an acceptable cost
    - Broh

Various Definitions of Quality
  • The totality of features and characteristics of a
    product or service that bear on its ability to
    satisfy stated or implied needs ISO 840
    Quality vocabulary
  • Meets the requirements of customers, both
    internal and external, the organization for
    defect-free product, services and business
    processes IBM
  • Quality as exceptional (Lee Diana, 1993)
    something special, distinctive, excellent
    (exceeding very high standards), passing a set of
    required standards.

Quality as something special
  • Quality as special refers the traditional view of
  • Implies the exclusiveness or the elitist view.
  • It is judged based on distinctiveness
    (unattainable for most people).
  • Education provided by Cambridge, Oxford, Yale,
    Harvard is always viewed as something special.

Quality as excellence
  • Only possible in limited circumstances.
  • The best is required if excellent is what you
  • A lecture by a Nobel Prize Winner is an example
    of quality excellence.
  • Ivory towers universities are status given only
    to those widely reputable universities in the USA
    and UK.
  • Institutions that take only the best students is
    an example of quality in terms of input and

Quality as fitness for purpose
  • Ensures products or services meet the
    specifications of the customers.
  • Quality products meet the customers requirements.
  • For HEI, is the system providing the right number
    of required workforce?
  • Is the course providing the right balance of
    knowledge, skills and understanding?
  • How about the degree offered by universities?
  • Who actually are the customers in HEI?

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Defining quality is a challenging task (Becket
    Brookes, 2006)
  • What is meant by quality?
  • Basic concepts
  • Continuous improvement an ongoing effort to
    improve products, services or processes.
    Incremental improvement
  • Four step quality model plan-do-check-act
    (PDCA) cycle
  • Cost of quality (COQ) the cost of not creating
    a quality product or service. Isnt the price of
    creating a quality product.
  • Quality costs are the total cost incurred by
    investing in the prevention of non-conformance to
    requirements, failing to meet requirements.

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Harvey Knight (1996)
  • Quality can be broken into five dimensions
  • Quality as exceptional (high standards)
  • Quality as consistency (zero defects)
  • Quality as fitness for purpose (fitting customer
  • Quality as value for money (efficiency and
  • Quality as transformative (an ongoing process
    that includes empowerment and enhancement of
    customer satisfaction)

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Campell Rozsnayi (2002)
  • Quality can be defined as
  • Quality as excellence (goal to be the best)
  • Quality as zero errors
  • Quality as fitness for purpose (fitting customer
  • Quality as transformation (an ongoing process
    that includes empowering students with skills,
    knowledge and attitudes which enable them to live
    and work in the k-society)
  • Quality as threshold (setting certain norms and
  • Quality as value for money (accountability)
  • Quality as enhancement or improvement (pursuit of
    continuous improvement)

Defining Quality in Higher education
Harvey dan Green (1993) - Kualiti sebagai
kecemerlangan (excellence) kerana sesuatu itu
memiliki kecemerlangan dan dalam pengajian tinggi
ia sering dikaitkan dengan Harvard University dan
University of Cambridge.
Defining Quality in Higher education
Harvey dan Green (1993) - Kualiti sebagai
perfection kerana ia melibatkan kecacatan sifar
terutamanya kepada proses kerja yang dilaksanakan
dan memenuhi spesifikasi yang ditetapkan.
Defining Quality in Higher education
Harvey dan Green (1993) - Kualiti sebagai fit
for purpose kerana sesuatu itu dilihat sebagai
memenuhi keperluan pelanggan. Dalam konteks ini
kualiti dilihat dari segi kemampuan institusi
pengajian tinggi (IPT) memenuhi misinya atau
menghasilkan program pengajian yang mencapai
matlamat ia ditawarkan.
Defining Quality in Higher education
Harvey dan Green (1993) - Kualiti sebagai nilai
tambah kepada kewangan (value for money) kerana
ia dilihat dari aspek pulangan pelaburan
kewangan. Pendidikan tinggi dilihat berkualiti
apabila penghasilan yang sama dicapai pada kos
yang lebih rendah atau penghasilan yang lebih
baik dicapai pada kos yang sama.
Defining Quality in Higher education
Harvey dan Green (1993) - Kualiti sebagai
transformasi (transformation) kerana ia memberi
fokus kepada transformasi diri pelajar.
Pendidikan tinggi dilihat berkualiti apabila
berupaya mengubah pelajar secara berterusan dan
memberi nilai tambah kepada mereka dari segi
pengetahuan dan pembangunan diri yang boleh
diguna pakai dalam kehidupan di luar kampus
Defining Quality in Higher education
Campell Rozsnayi (2002) - Quality as excellence
(goal to be the best) Quality as excellence. This
definition is considered to be the traditional
academic view that holds as its goal to be the
Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Quality as zero errors
  • Related to industry in which product
  • specifications can be established in detail, and
  • standardized measurements of uniform products can
  • show conformity.
  • This view is not always considered to be
    applicable to
  • higher education.

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Quality as fitness for purpose
  • Requires that the product or service meet a
    customers needs, requirements, or desires.
  • Imply anything goes in higher education so
    long as a purpose can be formulated for it.

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Quality as transformation.
  • Focuses firmly on the learners the better the
    higher education institution, the more it
    achieves the goal of empowering students with
  • specific skills, knowledge, and attitudes which
    enable them to live and work in the knowledge

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Quality as threshold.
  • Defining a threshold for quality means setting
    certain norms and criteria. Any programme,
    department, or institution, which reaches these
    norms and criteria, is deemed to be of quality.

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Quality as value for money
  • Accountability is central
  • Based on the need for limit in public expenditure

Defining Quality in Higher education
  • Quality as enhancement or improvement.
  • Emphasizes the pursuit of continuous improvement
  • Achieving quality is central to the academic ethos

Quality Assurance
  • Merangkumi tiga aspek penting iaitu dasar, proses
    dan langkah untuk pengekalan dan peningkatan
    kualiti dalam pendidikan tinggi.
  • Quality assurance is an all-embracing term
    covering all the policies, processes, and actions
    through which the quality of higher education is
    maintained and developed (Campbell Rozsnyai,
    2002, m/s. 33).

Quality Assurance
  • Harvey (2009) - kualiti sebagai suatu usaha yang
    merangkumi penggubalan polisi, prosedur, sistem
    dan amalan dalaman dan luaran yang dirancang
    untuk mencapai, mengekal dan meningkatkan

Quality Assurance
  • Vlãsceanu, Grunberg dan Parlea (2004) memberikan
    pengertian jaminan kualiti kepada aktiviti
    penilaian dan kajian semula kualiti pendidikan
  • Quality Assurance An all-embracing term
    referring to an ongoing, continuous process of
    evaluating (assessing, monitoring, guaranteeing,
    maintaining, and improving) the quality of a
    higher education system, institutions, or
    programme. (Vlãsceanu et al., 2004, m/s. 48).

Quality Assurance
  • Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia
  • semua perancangan dan tindakan sistematik
    (polisi, strategi, sikap, prosedur dan aktiviti)
    bagi mewujudkan keyakinan bahawa kualiti sentiasa
    terpelihara dan dipertingkatkan, serta produk dan
    perkhidmatan memenuhi standard kualiti yang
    ditetapkan. Dalam pendidikan tinggi, jaminan
    kualiti adalah keseluruhan sistem, sumber dan
    maklumat yang diperuntukkan bagi mengekalkan dan
    memperbaiki kualiti dan standard pengajaran,
    kesarjanaan dan penyelidikan serta pengalaman
    pembelajaran pelajar (KPM 2005, m/s.7).

Quality Assurance / Jaminan Kualiti
  • Jaminan kualiti adalah berkait dengan dasar,
    strategi, proses dan aktiviti yang dilaksanakan
    yang melaluinya hasilan kualiti pendidikan tinggi
    dikekalkan dan dipertingkatkan selaras dengan
    keperluan pihak berkepentingan. Antara pihak
    berkepentingan utama dalam pendidikan tinggi
    adalah pelajar, majikan, kerajaan dan masyarakat.

Eight Dimensions of Quality
  • Performance
  • The primary operating characteristics of a
    product. An example is about television, should
    have clear sound, picture, colour and able to
    receive distant stations.
  • Features
  • Secondary characteristics of products that
    supplement the basic functioning of the products.
    An example would be automatic tuners on a colour
    tv and power steering in a car.

Eight Dimensions of Quality
  • Reliability
  • It reflects the probability of a product failing
    within a specified period of time.
  • Conformance
  • The degree to which product design and operating
    characteristics match pre-established standards.
  • Durability
  • A measure of product life the period of use one
    gets from a product before it physically

Eight Dimensions of Quality
  • Serviceability
  • The speed, competency and efficiency of repair
    the elapsed time before service is restored.
  • Aesthetics
  • How a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes or
  • Perceived quality
  • Indirect measures when comparing brands on
    products attributes.

Determinants of Service Quality
  • Reliability
  • Involves consistency of performance and
    dependability. The performance of service should
    be right the first time and provider honours
    promises. It must ensure accuracy in billing,
    keeping records correctly and performing the
    service at the designated time.
  • Responsiveness
  • Concerns the willingness or readiness of
    employees to provide service (timeliness of
    service, giving prompt service).

Determinants of Service Quality
  • Competence
  • Possessing the required skills and knowledge to
    perform the service.
  • Access
  • Involves approachability and ease of contact
    (accessible by phone, convenient hours of
    operation, convenient location of service
  • Courtesy
  • Involves politeness, respect, consideration, and
    friendliness of contact personnel.

Determinants of Service Quality
  • Communication
  • Keeping customers informed in the language they
    can understand (explain the service, how much is
    the cost, trade-off between service and cost,
    problem will be handled).
  • Credibility
  • Involves trustworthiness, believability and
  • Security
  • The freedom from danger, risk or doubt (physical
    safety, confidentiality).

Determinants of Service Quality
  • Understanding / knowing the customer
  • Making the efforts to understand the needs of the
    customer (learning customers specific
    requirements, providing individual attention,
    recognizing regular customer).
  • Tangibility
  • Includes the physical evidences of the service
    such as physical facilities, appearance of
    personnel, other customers in the service

Why is Quality Important to HEI?
  • Four assumptions reflect the environment of HEI
  • Conditions and conventions within the environment
    are changing
  • Changes are faster than in the past
  • Changes will continue to rapidly occur in the
    21st century
  • Changes are essential and their implications to
    HEIs must be anticipated (Lewis Smith, 1994)
  • If in companies quality leads to efficiency and
    profitability, in HEIs it leads to better
    learning and experiences on the parts of students

Factors affecting the assumptions whether HEIs
are quality driven
  • The perception of quality in HE is becoming a
    problem for many outside the HEIs.
  • Economic conditions have generated increasing
    concern about career opportunities and economic
  • General public is increasingly concern about
    access to HE as a mean towards employment and
    economic security.
  • Students, parents, legislators and employers have
    increasing expectations on HEIs and willing to
    commit funds to evaluate the performance of HEIs.
  • Decreased in trust on institutions of higher
  • (Lewis Smith, 1994)

Characteristics of HEI that focus on quality
  • Open culture to constructive evaluation and
    to change.
  • High level of satisfaction from students,
    employees and external customers.
  • Institution-wide embracing of the concept of
    quality improvement,
  • including commitment to participate in
    institutional improvement and growth.
  • Measurable improvement in institutional
    performance in agreed areas of need.
  • Open communication within and between different
    areas of operation.
  • Self-confidence of the institution in its ability
    to manage its own
  • future, and evidence of its success in doing
    so, particularly in relation to any external
    accreditation bodies.

Some Questions on Quality
  • What are the determinants of quality?
  • Differentiate between service quality and product
  • How globalization affect quality?
  • What dimension of service quality is more
    critical in education service?

Quality Management in Higher education
  • Issue of quality management agenda of HEIs
  • Higher education is viewed as international
  • Forces for effective quality management
  • Growing concern on accountability
  • An expansion of student populations
  • Diverse student population
  • Diminishing resources
  • Increasing competitive nature of higher education
  • Greater expectations of students as paying
  • More flexible provision of higher education
  • Increase collaborative provision between

Drivers of change in Higher education
  • Political forces
  • Government initiatives to widen access
  • Government development of more HEIs
  • Government control over curriculum and management
  • No unified or centralized system for government
  • Economic forces
  • Reduced or limited funding per student
  • Reliance on private sector funding
  • Reliance on international student fees
  • Rising cost per student
  • Increase in number of private HEIs
  • Greater emphasis on internationalization

Drivers of change in Higher education
  • Socio-cultural forces
  • Greater demand for student places
  • Greater diversity of student population
  • Greater diversity of provision
  • Consumer pressure for greater accountability or
    value for money
  • Source Brookes Becket, 2006

Drivers of change in Higher education
Access and diversity The democratization of
higher education through financial assistance,
affirmative action, employer expectations for
educational credentials, and etc. Technology and
distance learning Technology has allowed for the
expansion of distance learning, E-learning
Drivers of change in Higher education
Assessment Accountability to the public,
governing boards, accrediting agencies, and
etc. Growing emphasis on teaching and learning
issues Student-Centered Learning (SCL) Teaching
vs. research What are the basic
missions? Privatization Privatization was an
emerging trend Student housing, management
information system and etc.
Drivers of change in Higher education
Emphasizing career preparations over liberal
education A trend to emphasize specific career
preparation over a quality liberal
education Rising costs and changing finances The
economic of higher education Commercialization Un
iversity becomes more entrepreneurial and enter
new markets The impact of corporate values
Corporate colleges/university alliances or
Key quality management dimensions
  • Comprehensive audit tool as suggested
  • Internal and external stakeholder perspectives
  • Education as a system of inputs, processes and
  • Different quality dimensions - conceptualization
  • Qualitative versus quantitative
  • Quality snapshot or longitudinal benchmarking
  • Quality assurance or quality enhancement
  • Source Brookes Becket, 2006

Higher education in South-East Asia
  • An overview of higher education in South East
  • Higher education is greatly influenced by the
    countries historical past, nation-building
    efforts, and current global trends.
  • Among the less-developed countries, higher
    education systems are chronically under-funded
    and face escalating demand, under qualified
    academic staff, poorly planned curricula.
  • Higher education systems face similar problems
    and challenges have budgets to balance,
    faculties to satisfy, social demands to meet.

Massification of Higher education in South-East
  • Massification reflects developments and trends in
    higher education reform to increase access.
  • Transforming higher education systems from being
    elitist to ensuring mass participation across
    different social, income and geographical groups.
  • Some countries have achieved significant
    increases in participation rates and tackled
    social exclusion.
  • Escalating demand was brought about by population
    growth, democratization of secondary education,
    growing affluence, social mobility.

Massification of Higher education in South-East
  • At the national level, it is a key instrument for
    human capital development to sustain economic
    growth, restructure society, promote national
  • Higher education to maintain the countries
    competitiveness in a globalized knowledge economy
    (Malaysia, Singapore).

Expansion of Higher education by gross enrolment
ratios ()
Country 1965 1975 1985 1995 2000 Singapore 10 9
12 34 na Thailand 2 4 20 20 32 Philippines 19 1
8 38 30 30 Malaysia 2 3 6 11 23 Indonesia 3 2 7
11 na Brunei na na na 7 14 Vietnam na na na 4 1
0 Myanmar 1 2 na 6 8 Cambodia na na na 2 3 Lao
PDR na na na 2 3
Diversification of Higher education
  • Various types of higher education institutions
    have emerged with different missions or purposes.
  • Many countries witness rapid expansion of private
  • Levels of differentiation - traditional teaching
    and research universities, virtual universities,
    polytechnics, technical institutes, open learning
    institutes, community colleges.
  • Higher education runs by for-profit corporations,
    non-profit organizations and religious bodies.
  • Open and distance learning universities and
    regional universities widening participation and
    access to HE.
  • Trend towards transnational education has been
    noted , Malaysia one of the most developed and
    experienced in the region.

Internationalization of Higher Education
  • Mobility of students and academics around the
    world have become common.
  • The increasing development of foreign branch
    campuses reveals that HE can be exported to give
    access to students who otherwise may not be able
    to afford or obtain scholarship
  • Transnational education is defined as any
    teaching or learning activity in which students
    are in a different country to that in which the
    institution providing education is based.
  • Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam are importers of
    transnational education from Australia, UK.
  • Some countries have national objectives to become
    educational hubs in the region.

Marketization of Higher Education
  • The rapid expansion calls for restructuring of HE
    involving privatization of HE, corporatization of
    public universities, implementation of student
    fees and formation of strategic partnerships
    between public and private sectors.
  • Market forces led to more entrepreneurial
    universities whereby universities market their
    teaching, research and other knowledge-based
    services as well as setting up commercial
    enterprises or joint ventures with business
  • The development of private HE expands enrolments
    in many countries. In Philippines and Indonesia
    the private HE outnumbered public HE.

Implications on Institutions of Higher Education
  • HEs become more bureaucratic and regulated to
    ensure consistency in the management of HE
  • HEs become more complex, creating a variety of
    institutions with different missions and
    scattered in different places.
  • Many governments are reducing their public and
    social expenditure on universities. Universities
    need to seek alternative sources of funding.
  • Universities need to be more market oriented,
    flexible and able to respond quickly to market
    signals and pressures. Academic leaders have to
    find ways to make their universities more
    entrepreneurial and autonomous.
  • Limited resources have made stakeholders
    including the state to be more concerned with the
    quality of education.

Implications on Institutions of Higher Education
  • Universities are increasingly subject to external
    pressures to achieve greater accountability for
    their performances, and are encouraged to develop
    systems for self-evaluation and assessment.

Trading autonomy for accountability
  • States and universities are constantly redefining
    their interactions and relationships.
  • An increase in autonomy is coupled with more
  • Restructuring has led to changes in governance
    and management.

Changing academic profession
  • Academics are subjected to more rules and
    regulations, tighter control to increase
    productivity, more rules and regulations,
    rigorous assessment procedures.
  • The development of corporate culture has required
    academics to behave like entrepreneurs and to
    market their expertise, services and research
  • Academic freedom in some countries remains
    limited on what can be researched and what can be
    disseminated to public.

Future developments and challenges
  • Continuing expansion of universities.
  • Universities need to seek different sources of
  • Growing diversity of higher education
  • More calls for institutional autonomy, financial
    diversification and quality control will be made.
  • Greater pressure for relevance and flexibility
    curriculum development and adaptability to
    changes in the society.
  • The emergence of multiple competitors as
    knowledge disseminator from corporate
    universities, research institutes, industrial
    laboratories, think tanks and consultancies.
  • Universities have to promote multiculturalism and
    universal values.

  • Quality has driven HEIs to be responsive to the
    changes happening both inside and outside HEIs.
  • Several forces including political, economic and
    socio-cultural forces have been identified as the
  • Key impacts accountability requirements and
    necessity for enhancing efficiency and
  • Eight dimensions of quality plus several other
    definitions of quality have been crucially linked
    with quality management.
  • Reviews show that many HEIs are adopting or
    implementing the quality management models that
    were initially developed for the industrial
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