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A Lifetime of Challenges in Nuclear Education


A Lifetime of Challenges in Nuclear Education & Training Robert L. Long, PhD Nuclear Stewardship, LLC Albuquerque, NM May 31, 2006 Outline In the Beginning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Lifetime of Challenges in Nuclear Education

A Lifetime of ChallengesinNuclear Education
Robert L. Long, PhD Nuclear Stewardship,
LLC Albuquerque, NM May 31, 2006
  • In the Beginning
  • Performance Based Training
  • The Workforce Environment
  • Growing Generational Conflict
  • NPP Skills Needed
  • NPP Workforce Size
  • Getting Started
  • IAEA and DOE Resources
  • Conclusion

In the Beginning
  • Decided on college teaching as UG student
  • PhD advisor was role model
  • Searched every semester for ways to improve
  • UNM Faculty 1965-78
  • Chair, ChE N E Dept 1974-78
  • Committed to behavioral objective based education
    training in late 1960s
  • GPU Nuclear Director of Training 1980-83

Performance Based Training
  • A behavioral learning objective states a
    performance, describing what the learner will be
    doing when demonstrating mastery of the objective
  • Performance based training is terminology
    commonly used by NPP trainers
  • Learning objectives are developed through a
    Systematic Approach to Training (SAT)

Steps in SAT
  • Analyze
  • Design
  • Develop
  • Implement
  • Evaluate

Some References
  • Robert F. Mager, Preparing Instructional
    Objectives, 2nd Ed., Fearon Publishers, Belmont,
    CA (1975)
  • W. James Popham and Eva L. Baker, Establishing
    Instructional Goals, Prentice-Hall, Inc,
    Englewood, NJ (1970)
  • Carter McNamara, Systematic Approaches to
    Training and Development www.managementhelp.org/tr

The Workforce Environment
  • Talented people are our most important resource
  • Poland situation similar to USA?
  • 40 to 50 of utility employees will be retiring
    in next 3-4 years
  • In US NRC nearly half of staffers are at least
    age 50 36 eligible to retire in next 5 years

Supply Shortage
  • During 2004-2012, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
    projects 21 million new jobs with only 17million
    new entrants to workforce
  • In U.S. 30 of science and engineering faculty
    members are over age 50.
  • Universities dropped power and nuclear
    engineering programs, e.g. in 1975 there were 77
    NE programs in U.S., now only 18

Growing Generational Conflict
  • Younger generations are defining success
    differently from the people they work for. And
    they -
  • Feel entitled to their success.
  • Dont respect or value the hard work the
    generations before them have done to get to
    where they are.
  • Dont believe they need to pay their dues.
  • Think their boss should be more of a friend than
    a boss.
  • Reference for generational conflict material is
    a May 2006 presentation by Cam Marston, Marston
    Communication, Inc.
  • www.marstoncomm.com

Ages of the Generations
  • Matures gt 61 yrs.
  • Boomers 42 to 60 yrs.
  • Gen X 27 to 41 yrs.
  • Millennials 26 younger
  • Generations have common experiences
  • and shared values

The Matures
  • Duty, honor, country
  • Dedication, sacrifice
  • Conformity, blending, unity We First
  • Patience
  • Hard, hard times then prosperity
  • National pride
  • Doing a good job was most important
  • Age Seniority

The Baby Boomers (42 60 yrs)
  • Work ethic workaholic
  • Competitive
  • Visible signs of success trophies, plaques,
    lifestyle elements
  • Optimistic
  • Consumers
  • Defined by their job
  • Personal development
  • Forever rebellious, nostalgia
  • We are the world We are the children

Generation X (27 to 41 yrs.)
  • Taught to question authorities at a young age.
  • Saw end of lifelong employment.
  • No shared heroes. Heroes are personal.
  • Question the sacrifices the Boomers have made to
    achieve their success.
  • Latch-key kids Raised as their parents
  • Independent. Loners. Nomads. Poor team
  • Prove it to me.

Millennials (26 under)
  • Optimistic
  • Individualistic yet group oriented
  • They have a hard time focusing on anything.
  • Busy, active, full schedules since grade school.
  • Like X, raised as their parents friends.
  • Their work does NOT define who they are.
  • Staying closer to their parents longer.
  • Big, ambitious goals. Clueless on the execution

Views on Time
  • Matures Work ethic defined by the punch clock.
  • Boomers - Visibility was/is the key.
  • Gen X - What does it matter when I work, as
    long as I get the job done.
  • Millennial It is five oclock I have another
    life to get to. Job gig.

Views on Work/Life Balance
  • Matures Very interested in flexible hours.
  • Boomers Was/Is this workaholic lifestyle worth
    it? Are the rewards worth the cost?
  • Gen X Balance is very important. Willing to
    sacrifice it occasionally. Success.
  • Millennial Lifestyle vs. promotion.

Views on Authorities
  • Matures Based largely on seniority and tenure.
  • Boomers Similar values to the Matures. Theyve
    earned it.
  • Gen X Authority figures deserve skepticism
  • Millennial Test but search.

Views on What Makes a Good Team
  • Matures Produces quality. Not in it for
    individual recognition. Work is done in
    proximity to one another.
  • Boomers Everyone works until all the work is
    finished. Long and hard hours. Committed to the
    job and each other.
  • Gen X Teams are not defined by proximity. Each
    team member serves a unique role.
  • Millennial What will I get out of this team?

How to Coach
  • Matures This is what we need
  • Boomers Here are some things that will help
    you get ahead
  • Gen X Here are some things that will help you
    get to your next position, wherever that may be
  • Millennials Do this and people will notice

Retaining Xers and Millennials
  • Whether the job is good or not and whether or
    not they are happy is largely determined (85)
    by their relationship with their boss.
  • Xers and Millennials are loyal to people, not to
    companies or organizations.
  • They rarely quit their job or their company, they
    quit their boss.
  • To them, the boss the company.
  • Must ask the question, Who are they working for?
    Is this the person to whom they can develop

Applicability to Nuclear Education Training
  • Commitment to NPP construction and startup will
    require commitment of workforce with great
    variety of talents, many of them new
  • Recruiting, training and retaining these new
    workers will demand new management and leadership
  • Some, if not many, of the old management lessons
    learned will not be applicable

NPP Engineering Technical Skills Needed-1
  • Computer Engineering
  • Plant process computers simulators
  • Design/Modifications Engineering
  • Civil/Structural, including seismic
  • Mechanical
  • Electrical
  • Instrumentation and Controls

NPP Engineering Technical Skills Needed-2
  • Engineering Programs
  • In-Service Inspections and Testing
  • Corrosion Phenomena
  • Probabilistic Risk/Safety Analysis
  • Equipment Qualification
  • Motor/Air Operated Valves
  • Fire Protection

NPP Engineering Technical Skills Needed-3
  • Procurement Engineering
  • Reactor Engineering
  • Nuclear Fuels Analysis
  • Systems Engineering

NPP Skilled Craftsmen Needed
  • Reactor operators
  • Plant equipment operators
  • Radiation protection technicians
  • Chemistry technicians
  • Mechanics
  • Electricians
  • Instrument and control (IC) technicians

Nuclear Safety Culture
  • Entire workforce trained in and committed to
    strong nuclear safety culture
  • Nils Diaz, US NRC Chairman We cannot take
    safety for granted.
  • Tom Beckett, Dep. Dir., US Naval Reactors
    Never lose sight of the need to successfully
    control this unforgiving technology.

Radiation Awareness Training
  • Radioactivity and its sources,
  • Radiation health (biological) effects,
  • Radiation protection methods and regulations,
  • Measuring of radiation,
  • Exposure and contamination control,
  • Handling of radioactive wastes,
  • Establishment of radiation protection programs,
  • Releases and emergency response

NPP Engineers Need Breadth
  • Many skills needed beyond neutronics and core
  • In addition to a strong safety culture some of
    these are-
  • NPP integration into the electric generating grid
  • Assuring reliable plant chemistry
  • Materials selection and aging issues
  • Instrumentation controls
  • Heat transfer and fluid flows
  • Synthesis and design

Lead Time to Prepare Personnel
  • 4-6 years for graduate engineers, plus 1-2 years
    of on-the-job training
  • 1-2 years for licensed reactor operators
  • 2-4 years for licensed senior reactor operators
  • Additional years of NPP work experience for plant
    shift managers and senior management

Factors Influencing Workforce Size
  • Number of units at a site
  • Site location with respect to population centers
    and contractor support services
  • Construction operations regulatory requirements
  • Environmental laws and monitoring requirements
  • Labor laws and workforce unions or not
  • Public education awareness requirements

Typical NPP Staffing
  • Process Group
  • Operations
  • Licensing Engineering
  • Corp Finance/Administration
  • Common Processes
  • Total
  • Variances may be or - 300
  • Number
  • 425
  • 170
  • 110
  • 95
  • 800

Categories of Personnel Needed
Workforce Category Approx. No. Required
Civil Engineers 5
Computer, Elec, IC Engrs 20
Mechanical Engineers 15
Nuclear Engineers 25
Project/Plant Engineers 30
Cntrl Rm Eqpmnt Oprtrs 75

Workforce Category Approx. No. Required
Chemistry Technicians 20
Maintenance Technicians 135
Rad PrtctnRad Wst Techs 35
Security Personnel 70
Trainers 35
All other personnel 335
Total 800 Includes electricians, IC and mechanical techs
Getting Started
  • Consider establishing a national committee
  • Representatives from universities, trade schools
    and power industry
  • Assess current resources, determine future
    workforce needs and identify those that will
    require introduction of new programs
  • IAEA document assesses minimum infrastructures
    needed for educational programs and human

Education Training Resources
  • Assessment of Polands Institutions
  • No universities offer nuclear engineering (NE)
  • Technical universities do have electric power
    degree options
  • A few have introductory NE courses
  • Likely candidates for NE programs
  • Warsaw, Krakow, Gdansk and Silesian Technical
  • Will be need to develop NE Faculty
  • Information provided by T. Wojcik and J.

Polands Trade Schools
  • Vocational schools (2-3 yrs) and technical
    colleges (4-5 yrs) train chemistry, I C,
    electrical and mechanical technicians
  • Unions/guilds have apprenticeship programs, but
    these may be decreasing
  • No programs for radiation protection technicians
  • All would need radiation awareness training

Minimum Infrastructure Items
  • Development of educational facilities for nuclear
    related subjects
  • Courses to be added for nuclear power reactor
    staff development
  • IAEA supported training programs
  • Training programs from countries with nuclear
    power program
  • See IAEA Tech. Doc., Minimum Infrastructure for
    a Nuclear Power Plant Project, Final draft, 12
    Jan 2006

Example of USA Startup (50-60s)
  • USAEC sponsored university faculty 6-wk workshops
    at Universities/National Labs
  • A Bucknell University professor attended a
    workshop, returned and taught the first
    Introduction to Nuclear Engineering course
  • As 3rd year student, I took the course.
  • During my 4th year I applied for and received a
    fellowship to study nuclear engineering at any of
    the 6-8 universities having USAEC approved

Developing Educational Facilities
  • Government funded workshops for college
    professors (some now available through IAEA and
    in other countries)
  • Government reviews and approves curricula
    eligible to have graduate students enrolled with
    government industry fellowships
  • Government, industry and national labs assist
    with equipment for teaching labs

Courses to be Added
  • Faculty from traditional disciplines (CE, ME, EE,
    ChE, Physics, etc) can teach new courses (See
    Table 3 in Long NPPP 2006 paper)
  • Distance learning, web-based courses available in
    English and probably other Euro languages
  • World University Summer Institute, Sweden, 8 Jul
    18 August 2006.

Courses to Be Added
  • Nuclear physics and reactor design
  • Nuclear safety
  • Radiology, radiography and radiological
  • Thermal, hydraulics and thermo hydraulics
  • Advanced structural analysis and structural
  • Advanced computer hardware and software design
    and maintenance (control computers hardware and
    real time control software)
  • IAEA Tech Doc, op cit
  • Materials sciences for civil, mechanical and
    process related applications (steel, concrete,
    zirconium, ceramics, resins, cabling, etc.)
  • Application, calibration and maintenance of
    electrical, mechanical and digital
    instrumentation devices
  • Human factors engineering principles
  • QA/QM processes and methodology
  • Planning, scheduling, material management and
    cost control
  • Environmental analysis

Courses to be Added
  • Faculty from traditional disciplines (CE, ME, EE,
    ChE, Physics, etc) can teach new courses (See
    Table 3 in Long NPPP 2006 paper)
  • Distance learning, web-based courses available in
    English and probably other Euro languages
  • World University Summer Institute, Sweden, 8 Jul
    18 August 2006.

IAEA Other Training Programs
  • Many training opportunities exist today that were
    not available 30-40 years ago
  • IAEA is a great resource
  • USA Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO)
    publishes detailed guidelines for training of NPP
  • World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO)
    offers professional and technical development

U.S. DOE Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure
and Education (INIE)
  • Program established in 2002 to provide funds to
    universities and colleges to
  • Improve instrumentation and equipment
  • Maintain highly qualified research staff
  • Integrate the use of nuclear research facilities
    with NE education programs
  • Establish internal and external user cooperative

INIE Consortiums
  • Universities encouraged to actively seek and
    establish collaboration with
  • Other colleges and universities
  • DOE national laboratories
  • U.S. industry
  • Other private and/or public organizations

INIE Accomplishments
  • Six university consortiums funded
  • Four began in FY 2002
  • Two were added in FY 2003
  • Results have been phenomenal in terms of
    cooperation between schools, and with labs and
    industry, as well as building the infrastructure
    at participating schools.
  • In 2004 former Office of Nuclear Energy Director
    Bill Magwood said that INIE was best university
    program DOE had ever developed

INIE Consortiums
  • BIG-10 Penn State, Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio
    State, Purdue, Michigan, Cincinnati and National
  • MIT MIT, RPI, Rhode Island Nuclear Science
    Center, Massachusetts-Lowell
  • Southwestern Texas AM, Texas, New Mexico, and
    National Labs
  • Western Oregon State, UC-Berkeley, UC-Davis,
    UC-Irvine, Washington State, Reed College,
    Nevada-Las Vegas, Idaho State, Utah, and National
  • Southeastern (MUSIC) NC State, Tennessee, South
    Carolina, Maryland, Georgia Tech, Florida, SC
  • Midwest Missouri-Columbia, Missouri-Rolla,
    Missouri-KC, Kansas State, Linn State Technical
    College, Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico,
    Tuskegee and National Labs/Industry

INIE as a Resource
  • Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate
    student enrollments
  • Opportunities for Poland faculty training and
  • Developing on-line NE courses, both asynchronous
    and synchronous
  • Developing on-line radiation measurement and
    reactor laboratory courses
  • Many different programs for non-technical
    students and public education

INIE Contacts
  • Any of the consortium members
  • John Gutteridge, DOE Manager of University
    Programs JOHN.GUTTERIDGE_at_hq.doe.gov
  • Craig Williamson, Clemson University
  • wcraig_at_clemson.edu
  • Robert Fjeld, Clemson University

  • Performance based education training essential
    for effective use of resources
  • New management and leadership skills needed to
    recruit, train and retain workers from all
    generations, especially Xers and Millennials
  • Great variety and breadth of skills needed to
    construct and startup NPPs

  • Most important contributor to NPP success is a
    highly educated, trained and dedicated workforce
  • IAEA documents attest to critical importance of
    human resource planning and provide invaluable
  • Begin now to develop workforce for Nuclear Power
    Plants in Poland (NPPP 2020!)
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