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Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Students with ASD


Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Students with ASD Presented by the MNPS Autism Team Thoughts from an adult with Aspergers (Look me in the eye by John Elder ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Students with ASD

Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Students
with ASD
Presented by the MNPS Autism Team
Thoughts from an adult with Aspergers (Look me in
the eye by John Elder Robison)
  • My conversational difficulties highlight a
    problems Aspergians face every day. A person with
    an obvious disability-for example, someone in a
    wheelchair-is treated compassionately because his
    handicap is obvious. No one turns to a guy in a
    wheelchair and says Quick! Lets run across the
    street! And when he cant run across the street,
    no one says, Whats his problem? They offer to
    help him across the street.

Thoughts continued
  • With me, though, there is no external sign that I
    am conversationally handicapped. So folks hear
    some conversational misstep and say What an
    arrogant jerk! I look forward to the day when
    my handicap will afford me the same respect
    accorded to a guy in a wheelchair. And if the
    respect comes with a preferred parking space, I
    wont turn it down.

Why be Concerned?!?!
  • 70 of people with Autism are unemployed
  • The higher the functioning, the higher the
  • (Belini, 2007)

  • to understand the common social difficulties
    associated with autism
  • to understand an appropriate means of evaluating
    social skills
  • gain ideas for using these interventions in
    classroom activities/groups

Social Interaction Skills
  • By definition (Gresham Elliot, 1995)
  • Socially acceptable learned behaviors that enable
    a person to interact with others in ways that
    elicit positive responses and assist in avoiding
    negative responses.

  • Autism Documentary

Social Interaction Skills
Early Social Skills
  • Turn taking
  • Eye contact
  • Sharing
  • Parallel play
  • Cooperative play
  • Imitation
  • Joint attention gestural and communicative
  • Sharing affect
  • Proximity
  • Following simple commands
  • Responding
  • Rejecting appropriately
  • Requesting help

Joint Attention
  • ability to share attention with another person
    while both are paying attention to the same
  • Can be gestural or conversational

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Later Social Skills
  • Empathy
  • Compliments
  • Sharing interests
  • Interpreting and using facial expressions
  • Initiate, terminate, and maintain interactions
  • Conversation topics and amount of info
  • Lacks tact appears rude or naïve
  • Interpreting figurative language,
  • Comments
  • Feelings
  • Community rules
  • Self monitoring
  • Critical thinking
  • Dating/sexual etiquette
  • Grooming
  • Respecting authority
  • Problem solving
  • Difficulty understanding jokes
  • Social anxiety and withdraw

Understanding why this happens
  • Repetitiveness and restricted interests
  • Interpret literally
  • Theory of Mind difficulty understanding another
    persons perspective or that they have thoughts
    and feelings different from their own
  • Difficulty imitating
  • Difficulty problem solving
  • Pragmatics form (syntax, morphology, phonology)
    and content (semantic) encodes differently in ASD
    from early interactions

Consequences of Poor Social Skills 70 of those
on the spectrum are unemployed
  • Poor Academic Performance
  • Peer Failure
  • Rejection
  • Isolation
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Substance Abuse
  • Suicidal Thoughts
  • Violence Towards Self
  • or others.

Activity 1
  • Stand Up!!
  • What were the communication difficulties you

Social Interaction Skills
  • Evaluation and Planning

Pragmatic AssessmentsFormal Assessments
  • Test of Pragmatic Language
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals
    Pragmatic Profile
  • Social Emotional Evaluation
  • Pragmatics Language Skills Inventory
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language
  • Social Skills Rating system

Pragmatic AssessmentInformal Assessment
  • Language Sample
  • Observations
  • Parent/Teacher Report
  • Social Language Checklist

Informal Assessment ObservationsWhat are you
looking for?
  • Proximity appropriate space
  • Object/body use
  • Requests
  • Initiations
  • Responses
  • Behaviors do they interfere
  • Transitions
  • Participation in routine or novel situations

Informal AssessmentWhat is keeping the student
from establishing and maintaining social
  • Rate social competence interviews and rating
  • Take date during recess observe of social
    initiations, of social responses, and amount of
    social engagement time
  • Conversations skills Initiations, responses,
    maintenance, closure of social interactions
    (various settings)
  • Cooperative play skills joining in, taking
    turns, sharing, losing, games
  • Friendship skills proximity, appropriate topics,
    helping, rules, bullies, grooming
  • Emotions understanding emotions, problem solving
  • Empathy
  • Conflicts anger, respect, NO,

PATHWAYS INVENTORY (Rev. 6/23/07) Child's Name
___________________________ Date _______
___ Difficulty handling transitions, shifting from one mindset or task to another (shifting cognitive set)
___ Difficulty doing things in a logical sequence or prescribed order
___ Poor sense of time
___ Difficulty reflecting on multiple thoughts or ideas simultaneously
___ Difficulty maintaining focus for goal-directed problem-solving
___ Difficulty considering the likely outcomes or consequences of actions (impulsive)
___ Difficulty considering a range of solutions to a problem
___ Difficulty expressing concerns, needs, or thoughts in words
___ Difficulty understanding what is being said
___ Difficulty managing emotional response to frustration so as to think rationally (separation of affect)
___ Chronic irritability and/or anxiety significantly impede capacity for problem-solving
___ Difficulty seeing the grays/concrete, literal, black-and-white, thinking
___ Difficulty deviating from rules, routine, original plan
___ Difficulty handling unpredictability, ambiguity, uncertainty, novelty
___ Difficulty shifting from original idea or solution/difficulty adapting to changes in plan or new rules/possibly preservative or obsessive
___ Difficulty taking into account situational factors that would suggest the need to adjust a plan of action
Determine Skill Acquisition Deficit or
Performance Deficit
  • Skill Acquisition Deficit skill is absent (will
    need to teach)
  • Performance Deficit skill is in repertoire but
    the child does not use the skills (enhance
  • Can the student do the skill with different
    people in different settings?

What if you are thinking?I dont think I should
modify or make excuses for these kids. I know
they can do it!
  • Saying that they know how to do something is only
  • I can teach mostly anyone the facts necessary to
    learn how drive a stick shift car. But, being
    able to say how to do something does not mean you
    can do it.
  • What often keeps a child from being successful
    are skills we often do not teach
  • Its a continuum that requires PROCEDURAL

  • Being able to say how to do it doesnt mean you
    can do it!
  • We can bridge the gap with visual support,
    practice, and meaningful activities

How to start planning and begin instruction?
  • 5 Steps
  • Identify and assess areas of need
  • Discern between skill acquisition deficits and
    performance deficits
  • Select appropriate intervention strategies
  • Implement intervention strategies
  • Evaluate program and modify as needed
  • Source Bellini, 2007

Goal Selection
  • Goals should be functional and applicable to
    success in life
  • Ensure goals are appropriate for cognitive levels
  • Goals should be positive
  • Goals should be realistic and represent a
  • Set criteria based on baseline data

The Hidden Curriculum by Brenda Smith Myles,
Melissa L. Trautman, and Ronda L. Schelvan
  • Refers to the set of rules that everyone in the
    school knows, but that no one has been directly
  • How to dress
  • What type of backpack to carry
  • How to greet a peer
  • Where to hang out between classes
  • What games are acceptable to play
  • Who to ignore
  • Others?

Teachers Hidden Curriculum
  • Teacher Expectations
  • What students should do when the bell rings
  • How to travel from class to class in the most
    direct way.
  • The administrative structure.
  • Which teachers will tolerate lateness
  • Which teachers give homework.
  • Which teachers place value on final exams.

Social Interaction Skills
  • Understanding and Decreasing Anxiety

Some more thoughts from John
  • Many descriptions of autism and Aspergers
    describe people like as not wanting to contact
    with others or preferring to play alone. I
    played by myself because I was a failure at
    playing with others. I was alone as a result of
    my own limitations, and being alone was one of my
    bitterest disappointments of my young life. The
    sting of those early failures followed me long
    into adulthood, even after I learned about

Some more thoughts on Anxietyby Jerry Newport
Your Life Is Not a Label
  • As far back as I remember, I was like a little
    bird on a wire, ready to flee from the next
    embarrassment at a moments notice. No matter
    how hard I tried to obey all the rules, spoken by
    parents with frustration and siblings with
    sarcasm, I knew I would eventually screw up and
    tread water in another sea of laughter.
  • So, my stress and perhaps yours, came from many
    sources frustration, neurological overload, and
    social humiliation to name a few.
  • There is nothing more frustrating than the
    lifelong accumulation of scars that result from
    trying to be like normal people and failing
    daily. It is especially hard when your disability
    is invisible like mine.

  • Fear and Anxiety are common feelings for people
    with ASD.

Stress in Persons with Aspergers
Aggression Verbal / physical
Withdrawal / Shut down
Increased Obsession
Increased Stress / Anxiety
Atwood, 1999
Set up your classroom to increase relaxation
  1. Be mindful of stress in your students
  2. Establish a relationship with your students so
    they can come to you for help and support
  3. Create means to cope within the classroom (break
    area, yoga, system for help, organize areas,
    visual supports)
  4. Incorporate social skills in lessons, centers, as
    a designated area in the classroom, bulletin
  5. Facilitate relationships in your classroom
    through character building activities
  6. Celebrate uniqueness often

5 Point ScaleKari Buron and Mitzi Curtis
  • tool which provides a visual representation of
    stressors, inappropriate behaviors, rules, etc..
  • Allows children the ability to connect internal
    issues to a visual support
  • Encourages problem solving, self monitoring and
    independence in resolving issues
  • www.5pointscale.com

Developing a Plan
  • Identify stressors
  • Recognize behaviors leading up to aggression or
    shut down
  • Create supports, area, or a plan with the student

Relaxation Plans
  • 1. Help students regulate stress- teach student
    to request a break, include breaks in schedule,
    create break area in classroom, coping strategies
    specific to situations
  • 2. Use self-monitoring- 5 point scale,
    checklists, power cards
  • 3.Tension release and breathing exercises yoga,
    deep breathing cards,

Social Interaction Skills
  • Intervention Strategies

In the public school setting, children with
autism are often integrated into the general
education classroom with the hope that social
skills will be absorbed through proximity to
normal socialization. Instead, direct
instruction of specific skills combined with an
awareness of appropriate models is required.
  • The Effectiveness of an Interview Template in
    Children with Autism Structured Peer Interview
    to Facilitate Peer-peer Interactions Crooke,
    Pamela J. (2005)

Why is this important?
  • Teaching social skills should become a priority
    in our classrooms
  • Decreases anxiety
  • Encourages relationships and support through
    peers and teachers
  • Allows for problem solving directly in the

Promote Skill Acquisition
  • Role-playing
  • Teach perspective taking, social rules, problem
    solving, and mind reading
  • Discrete trial
  • Reciprocal strategies
  • Social narratives
  • Social Skills Picture Stories
  • Incidental Teaching
  • Sabotage
  • Power Cards
  • Structured Teaching
  • Self-Monitoring
  • Prompting
  • Video modeling
  • Cartooning

  • The students act out the skills in the
    appropriate order.
  • The teacher acts as a hands on coach.
  • Use scripted and unscripted
  • Keep it fun
  • Let the students pick scenarios or practice use
    units from class readings or other subjects

Role-Playing acting out and practicing newly
learned skills
  • Teaching students to
  • Read nonverbal cues
  • Conversation skills
  • Social rules (interrupting, eye contact, gaining
    attention, amount of information, etc)
  • Sequence interactions

Conversation Skills
  • Conversation webs (www.do2learn.com)
  • break down skills into individual pieces as
    needed initiation, turn taking, appropriate
    topics, endings using visual supports
  • Comments Appropriate vs. inappropriate

Teaching Nonverbal Cues
  • Explain importance and use of gestures (cartoons
    with volume down, magazine pictures, charades
  • Teach understanding and interpretation of facial
    expressions (start with cartoons, then move to
    photos as line drawings are easier for children
    with ASD to identify, magazines, software,
    websites www.cccoe.net/social)
  • Teach tone, volume, proximity (5 point scale,
    videos, tapes, etc)
  • Later social skills will need to focus on conduct
    with the opposite sex, rules at work, etc.

Specific skills to Target during Role-Play
  • Gaining/Securing Attention indirectly requests
    attention or acknowledgment from peers (e.g.,
    Hey!, See this?, Look.), calls a peers
    name, taps peer on the shoulder, Greetings,
    Inviting others to play
  • Requests for Actions/Objects requests an action
    (e.g., Can I have a turn?), requests an object
    (e.g., Can I have a marker?), tells a peer what
    action to do or not to do (e.g., Stop it, Put
    it in there.)
  • Commenting express an opinion (e.g. I think we
    should start.), response to a peers action
    (e.g. Youre done.), express enjoyment or
    frustration (e.g. Oh no!)

Thiemann, K. Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of
Peer Training and Written Text Cueing on Social
Communication of School-Age Children With
Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Journal of
Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47,
Specific skills to Target during Role-Play
  • Complimenting child reinforces a peer for
    winning a game (e.g., You did it!), reinforces
    peer for personal performance (e.g. nice try.)
  • Responding commenting about events in an
    activity, greeting, when others invite child to
    play, when others request, when others ask
  • Nonverbal cues Understanding facial expressions
    (e.g. eyebrows raised mean surprised),
    Understanding body language (e.g. arms crossed
    when angry

Thiemann, K. Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of
Peer Training and Written Text Cueing on Social
Communication of School-Age Children With
Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Journal of
Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47,
Reciprocal Strategies (learning back and forth
  • Conversation game supply visuals as prompts,
    provide topic, provide scripts if necessary
  • Eden Conversation program

Reciprocal Questions
  • Newspaper Reporter (give child simple questions
    to ask peer in order to get your student asking
    questions and increasing interactions)
  • Eden Asking Questions program

Activities to teach perspective, problem solving,
social rules, and mind reading
  • Label and recognize emotions through cartoons,
    magazines, pictures, videos, break down into
    features of the face if needed
  • Understand emotions (Why is he feeling that way,
    what is he thinking)
  • Prediction of consequences (What will happen
    next? What happened before?)
  • Selection of alternative behaviors (sarcasm,
    understanding situation to interpret behaviors)
  • Thought bubble activities

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Thought Bubble Activity
Activities to teach perspective taking, social
rules, problem solving, mind reading
  • Interest inventories (list of possible peer
    interest that could be used for conversation
  • Mind reading activities (Howlin)
  • If-then statements to infer the thoughts and
    interests of others
  • Software programs (Simon Baron-Cohen, do 2 learn)
  • Social scenarios ( what has happened)

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Discrete Trial
  • Cue
  • Prompt (if necessary)
  • Response (behavior)
  • Consequence (reinforcement)

Example from Eden Curriculum
  • SD your turn
  • Procedure
  • Model activity
  • Model activity again and give SD
  • Same procedure as steps 1-2
  • Randomize activities
  • Continue procedure with other activities
  • Generalize responses to various teachers in
    various settings
  • Activities include
  • Passing ball
  • Banging drum
  • Jack-in-the-box
  • Stacking rings
  • Pegs
  • Hi fives
  • Turning pages
  • Sandbox with shovel and pail
  • Jumping
  • Making sandwhich

Social Narratives
  • Written in first person and describes how people
    feel and think in certain situations.
  • Uses directive statements to show students how to
    act in those situations
  • Read repeatedly until the child over learns it
    and rereads before problematic situation.
  • Should be written at childs instructional level
    for self awareness, self calming, self management

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Social Skill Picture Stories
  • The depiction of various social skills the
    correct way to act with accompanying text that
    explains what the children are doing.

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Incidental Teaching
  • Teaching as the situations occur rather than in
    structured settings.
  • Example a teacher points out (at recess) to the
    student with ASD that a peer looks physically
    hurt. She coaches the student with ASD to stop
    playing and ask the other student if he is OK.
    (The teacher is amplifying the cue (someone is
    hurt) so that the student with ASD reacts and
    does not remain oblivious.)

  • Setup the environment/activity so that the child
    will be unsuccessful. This will require the
    child to communicate

Power Cards
  • help change an unwanted or inappropriate
  • behavior by capitalizing on the special interests
  • that characterize children and youth with AS. A
  • brief, motivational text related to a special
  • interest or a highly admired person is combined
  • with an illustration and made into a bookmark-
  • or business card-sized POWER CARD that the
  • student can refer to whenever necessary. For
  • younger children the special interest or hero is
  • worked into a brief story.

Power card
  • Front of power card has the logo on it.Back of
    power cardThe contestants on Survivor think
    everyone should have fun playing games. They also
    want you to remember three things when playing
    games with other people
  • Games should be fun for everyone.
  • If you win a game, you can Smile, give high
    fives, or say, "Alright!"
  • If you lose a game, you can Take a deep breath
    and say, "Good job" to the opponent or say,
    "Maybe next time."

The A-Team thinks everyone should be respectful
to their teachers. They want you to remember 3
things when you are in class 1.Raise your hand
if you have a question 2.If you need a break tell
your teacher 3.Use kind words like please and
thank you.
Structured Learning
  • Didactic instruction (explanation of the skill
  • Modeling of skill steps
  • Role-playing skills with feedback
  • Practice in and outside the group

Didactic Instruction
  • The instructor explains the steps of a particular
    skill, using a visual of the skill steps
  • Why is it important to compliment others?
  • What can you compliment others about?
  • Why should you use a nice voice tone when
    complimenting others?

  • Using simple pictures and text as a whole or in
    strips to understand a situation
  • description of the event that caused the problem
  • feelings and thoughts of everyone involved
  • a solution to the problem and ideas on how to
    avoid it in the future
  • reinforcement
  • appropriate symbols (stick figures, smiley faces,
    thought bubbles)
  • colors used to express feelings (green-happy,
    blue-sad, black-angry

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Promote Social Performance
  • Peer sensitivity training
  • Reinforcement/motivation
  • Priming
  • Modifications
  • Game playing
  • Increase opportunities (practice)
  • Peer Mentoring
  • Self-Monitoring
  • Relaxation plans
  • Prompting
  • Video modeling
  • Social narratives

  • Teaching child to be aware of behavior
  • Identify behavior, emotion, or skill
  • Define behavior, emotion, or skill
  • Introduce/teach behavior, emotion, skill
  • Select self-monitoring procedure
  • Teach self-monitoring strategy
  • Implement
  • Provide feedback

Source Bellini, 2007
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  • Supports used to help students learn new skills
    and successfully perform behaviors
  • Have a plan for fading immediately
  • Determine a prompt hierarchy with the team

Level of Prompting will Vary
  • When requesting a physical response
  • Gesture gesture to indicate the correct
  • Partial Physical hand over hand assistance to
    initiate response, the student completes on his
    own. (tap the elbow to get him to pick something
    up, tap the shoulder to get him to sit down)
  • Full Physical hand over hand assistance to
    perform the entire response.

Prompts continued
  • Visual a written cue that elicits a response
  • Partial Verbal stating part of/or the initial
    sound of the verbal response you are expecting.
    (What time is it? It is _____.)
  • Full Verbal stating the entire verbal response.
    (What time is it? It is 200.)

Video Modeling
  • Includes videos that depict appropriate target
    behaviors and/or videos of themselves performing
    the desired behavior
  • One Key reason for the success of video modeling
    is that it increases the childs attention to the
    television, or computer screen. And if you do
    not have attention, you will not have learning.

Courtesy of Indiana University
Bellini, S., akullian, J., Hopf, A. (2007).
Increasing social engagement in young children
with autism spectrum disorders using video
self-modeling. School Psychology Review, 36,
80-90 Bellini, S. Akullian, J. (2007). A
meta-analysis of video modeling and video
self-modeling interventions for children and
adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.
Exceptional Children, 73, 261-284.
  • http//modelmekids.com/autism-video-samples.html

  • Promote Social Performance

  • Increases desired behaviors
  • Forces us to monitor students behavior
  • Provides feedback to student

  • should receive praise and social reinforcers,
    even when receiving a more tangible reinforcer.
  • The type of reinforcer must be appropriate and
    natural to the activity the student is doing and
    to the level of student understanding.
  • Reinforcement can include a variety of items or
    activities. Give the student CHOICES.
  • The teacher needs to make sure the reinforcing
    consequence immediately follows the behavior or
    skill being learned or increased so that the
    relationship between the two is clear to the
    student. However, be careful to not interrupt a
    social interaction.

  • Priming Preparing the student for the upcoming
  • Not Teaching. Preparing
  • Cognitive Priming use visual and/or verbal
  • Behavioral Priming practicing skill right
    before having to perform in natural setting

  • Are necessary modifications in place?
  • Consider students sensory deficits

Game Playing
  • Games require social interaction but are
    structured. Most children interact not just
    during conversation but during activities.
  • Use popular games
  • Teach child how to play

  • Increase social opportunities. The students
    should be given opportunities to practice skills
    with peers in other settings.
  • Feedback from the student, peers, adults as to
    how the opportunity was successful or not
  • Select activities that are appropriate for
    practicing (student preferred activities)
  • Use other strategies for practicing (e.g.

Peer Sensitivity Training
  • Child specific or general overview
  • Celebrate differences
  • Allow the children to be involved in the training

Peer Mentoring
  • Select age-appropriate sensitive peer
  • Peer must willing
  • Can pair during difficult times such as
  • Peer must be given specific instructions on how
    to increase communication success (e.g. if
    student w/ASD needs simple direct instructions)
  • Alternate peers

Considerations for Social Interaction
  • Match Social Interaction Programs to Students'
    Needs and Settings.
  • Establish Reasonable Social Interaction
  • Be Sensitive to Local Social Interaction Norms
    and Conditions
  • Program for Interaction Quality As Well As
  • Recognize That Not All General Education Students
    Will Be Suited to Social Interaction Programs

  • Reduce Aberrant Behaviors Prior to Initiating
    Social Interaction Programs
  • Provide Ongoing Instruction and Monitoring
  • Task Analyze Social Interaction Skills
  • Consider the Importance of Setting and Material
  • Consider Social Validity in Programming
  • Prioritize Social Interaction Skills
  • Tailor Reinforcement to Meet Individual Needs

  • Educate Tutors and Others About Autism
  • Facilitate Initial Interactions
  • Make Data-Based Program Decisions
  • Generalize Social Skills
  • Maintain Acquired Social Skills

Social Skills Groups
  • When first beginning make sure the level of
    understanding is commensurate with all students
  • Review the purpose of the group
  • Establish group rules and reinforcement/consequenc
  • Get to know each other through discussion and/or
    worksheet inventories
  • Game or snack time

Social Skills Groups Cont.
  • Set and display a schedule for the group
  • Talk Time
  • Skill Time
  • Game Time
  • Snack
  • All Done

Social Skills Groups Cont.
  • Prepare a visual of the agreed upon group rules
  • Listen to each other (wait for a pause to talk
    during a conversation, raise your hand and wait
    to be called on during skill time).
  • Talk nicely to each other (do not yell, tease, or
  • Keep hands and feet to yourself (do not push,
    hit, kick, pinch, or grab others).

Social Skills Groups Cont.
  • When getting to know each other --
  • Use various prompts and visuals to help the
    students focus on each other prompt them to
    respond or ask follow-up questions.

Social Skills Groups
  • Humor incorporate humor through jokes, charades,
    newspaper cartoons, silly stories, etc.

Include all communication systems
A Last Thought from John
  • I may look and act pretty strange at times, but
    deep down I just want to be loved and understood
    for who and what I am. I want to be accepted as
    part of society, not an outcast or outsider. I
    dont want to be a genius or freak or something
    on display. I wish for empathy and compassion
    from those around me, and I appreciate sincerity,
    clarity, and logicality in other people. I
    believe most people-autistic or not- share this
    wish. I hope youll keep those thoughts in mind
    the next time you meet someone who looks or acts
    a little strange.

  • Bellini, S., akullian, J., Hopf, A. (2007).
    Increasing social engagement in young children
    with autism spectrum disorders using video
    self-modeling. School Psychology Review, 36,
  • Bellini, S. Akullian, J. (2007). A
    meta-analysis of video modeling and video
    self-modeling interventions for children and
    adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.
    Exceptional Children, 73, 261-284.
  • The Effectiveness of an Interview Template in
    Children with Autism Structured Peer Interview
    to Facilitate Peer-peer Interactions Crooke,
    Pamela J. (2005)
  • Thiemann, K. Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of
    Peer Training and Written Text Cueing on Social
    Communication of School-Age Children With
    Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Journal of
    Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47,
  • Buschbacher, P. Fox, L. (2003). Understanding
    and Intervening With the Challenging Behavior of
    Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in
    Schools, 34, 217-227.
  • Teacher's Toolbox. "Teacher's Toolbox." . . . 11
    September 2007. lthttp//www.ttoolbox.com/help.htmgt
  • Susan Klein. "Model Me Kids." . 2004. Model Me
    Kids, LLC.. 11 September 2007.
  • Fovel, T. (2002). The ABA Program Companion.
  • Bashe, P. Kirby B. (2001). The Oasis Guide to
    Asperger Syndrome-Revised.

  • www.speakingofspeech.com
  • www.usevisualstrategies.com
  • www.do2learn.com
  • www.thegraycenter.org
  • www.tinsnips.com
  • www.teacch.com
  • www.mrsriley.com
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