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Public Management Information Systems System Design and Planning Wednesday, December 04, 2013

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Public Management Information Systems System Design and Planning * Hun Myoung Park, Ph.D. Public Management & Policy Analysis Program Graduate School of International ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Public Management Information Systems System Design and Planning Wednesday, December 04, 2013


1
Public Management Information SystemsSystem
Design and Planning Wednesday, December 04, 2013
  • Hun Myoung Park, Ph.D.
  • Public Management Policy Analysis
    ProgramGraduate School of International Relations

2
IT Plan in Government
  • Few IT plan
  • Technology changes so quickly
  • Lack of IT managers
  • Less input from politics
  • Problem or nature?
  • Adopt best practice and keep robust e-government
    infrastructure
  • To support a variety of citizens
  • To follow dominant industry standards

3
Business Case?
  • Expected benefits and costs to have new systems.
    Benefits tend to be difficult to measures.
  • Contrasted with non-business case (keeping up
    with technology)
  • Technolphilia? Why and why not?
  • Anyway political in nature.
  • Need to catch up with industry standards

4
Planning Information Systems
  • Organizational goals, although ambiguous,
    any-any-any-any model (any authorized
    individual accessing any information from any
    location using any device)
  • Analysis of current IT systems and needs for new
    systems SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities,
    and threats)
  • Best practices and industry standards
  • Planning the project for new systems

5
Performance Objectives
  • Quality or usefulness of the outcome
  • Accuracy of the output
  • Speed of output generation
  • Flexibility of the system
  • Easiness to use the system
  • Scalability of the system
  • Risk of the system

6
Considerations
  • Business process reengineering (BPR) to find the
    best way to achieve goals and use IT as a tool to
    facilitate these processes.
  • Cost benefit analysis and return on investment
    (ROI) often misleading
  • Consider total cost of ownership rather than cost
    for acquiring H/W and S/W
  • Open and industry standards to support various
    citizens and improve interoperability

7
Software Development Life Cycle
  • Investigation
  • Systems analysis
  • Systems design
  • Systems development acquisition
  • Systems implementation
  • System maintenance
  • Programming is a part of system development
  • Phases (steps) may not always be distinct and
    thus may overlap Phases are interrelated and
    interdependence
  • Detecting errors in an early phase will save the
    cost

8
Why SDLC?
  • Systematic approach to give guidelines for
    improving efficiency and effectiveness
  • To avoid system failures lack of communication
    (acceptance) politics (sunk costs) and
    leaderships technical incompetence education
    training
  • Considered as conceptual model and depending on
    institutional settings.

9
Prototyping
  • Iterative approach to revise prototypes.
  • Rapid application development (RAD)
  • Agile development
  • Extreme programming (XP)
  • Adaptive software development, lean software
    development, rational unified process,
    feature-driven development
  • Customization, fast cycles, error-correction

10
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11
1. Investigation
  • Determine organizations objectives
  • Business process reengineering (BPR)
  • Feasibility analysis (economic, legal,
    operational, schedule feasibility)
  • Describing (tangible and intangible) costs and
    benefits of each solutions
  • Propose alternative solutions (keep or revise old
    system, or get a new system)

12
2. System Analysis (1)
  • Gather data for information needs, resources, and
    capabilities (documents, interviews,
    questionnaires, observation, and sampling).
  • Determine the nature and scope of the project.
  • Analyze data using computer-aided software
    engineering (CASE) tools, data flow diagram
    (DFD), system flowcharts (flow diagram),
    connectivity diagrams, grid charts, decision
    tables, object-oriented analysis

13
2. System Analysis (2)
  • Requirement (stakeholder) analysis Joint
    application development (JAD), a highly organized
    intensive workshop to bring together system
    owners (managers), users, and technicians (e.g.,
    analysts, programmers, engineers) to jointly
    define and design systems
  • In order to analyze users needs.
  • Very important step in SDLC

14
3. System Design (1)
  • Defines input/output requirements and user
    interfaces
  • Specifies H/W, S/W, database/storage (data
    dictionary), processing, and networking
    (telecommunication)
  • Specifies personnel, rules and procedures for
    system controls (security, privacy, data
    accuracy), and backups.

15
3. System Design (2)
  • Described in request for proposal (RFP)
    specifying required resources (H/W, S/W)

16
4. System Development (1)
  • Acquiring Software
  • In-house development
  • Off-the-shelf software or packaged software
    producers (e.g., Microsoft, Oracle, SAP)
  • Open source software
  • Outsourcing
  • IT service firms (e.g., IBM, CSC)
  • Enterprise solutions software
  • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (e.g.,
    SAP, Oracle)
  • Cloud computing (e.g., Google, iuj mail)
  • Interlock (overdependence), standardization, and
    C/B should be considered

17
4. System Development (2)
  • Database
  • Acquiring Hardware (equipment)
  • Buy
  • Lease (rent)
  • Upgrade
  • Need to consider the best combination of H/W and
    S/W given budget constraint.
  • Test system unit testing and system testing with
    actual data

18
5. System Implementation
  • Convert hardware, software, data
  • Direct (plunge implementation) approach
  • Parallel approach
  • Phase-in approach (piecemeal approach)
  • Pilot approach for those performing the same
    tasks
  • Compile documentation including manuals and
    various forms and reports.
  • Users training and education

19
6. System Maintenance
  • Adjusts and improves systems
  • Slipstream upgrade
  • Patch
  • Release
  • version
  • Monitor and audit
  • Review and evaluate performance
  • Maintenance cost, although often underestimated,
    is significant.

20
Project Management
  • Planning, scheduling, directing, and controlling
    a project
  • Critical path management
  • Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
  • Gantt chart
  • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools

21
Software Development
  • In the system development stage, when customized
    software is needed
  • Program development life cycle (PDLC)
  • Problem clarification
  • Program design
  • Program coding
  • Program testing
  • Program documentation and maintenance

22
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23
Computer Software (Program)
  • A collection of well organized instructions that
    a computer executes to achieve specific tasks.
  • Algorithm or logic is a set of ordered steps to
    solve a problem.
  • Programming and coding (writing statements) is
    only a part of system development

24
Problem Clarification
  • Objectives and users (programming needs)
  • Output to be produced by the systems
  • Input required to get the desired output
  • Processing to transform input to output
  • Feasibility (e.g., budget, man powers,
    modification of old program?)

25
Design the Program
  • Program logic in structured programming
    modularization (subprogram or subroutine)
  • Design details
  • Pseudo-code (narrative outline)
  • Flowcharts
  • Control structure (logic structure), sequence,
    IF, case, iteration or loop (DO, FOR, WHILE)
  • Structured work-through to review

26
Coding and Testing
  • Writing the program (coding) using programming
    languages
  • Compiling and linking
  • Debugging (alpha testing)
  • Syntax error
  • Logic error
  • Run-time error
  • Running programs with data (beta testing)

27
Documentation
  • Description of the program
  • Background of program development
  • Data dictionary
  • Documentation for users
  • Documentation for operators
  • Documentation for programmer
  • Documentation in the source program

28
Conclusion
  • Iteration, but not a one-shot game
  • Not a technicians job but all stakeholders jobs
    to improve their performances
  • User centered approach keep analyzing users
    needs all the time
  • Emphasis on reliability, security, privacy
    especially for contracting out projects
  • Importance of software test .
  • Importance of documentation in all stages.
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